Entered in the early 15th c. from Middle English alcofol, from Middle French alcohol or Spanish alcohol, derived from the Medieval Latin rendering alcohol transmitted in medical or alchemical literature of Arabic اَلْكُحْل (al-kuḥl, “kohl”), which in Andalusian Arabic also bore the form كُحُول (kuḥūl), قُحُول (quḥūl); bearing thus the meaning of stibnite first, then generalized in meaning to a powder obtained by triturating a material, then also to liquids obtained by boiling down, and specialized to mean spirit of wine, ethanol, in the 18th century, then the narrow chemical sense after 1850.
- Bartholomew Traheron in his 1543 translation of John of Vigo introduces the word as a term used by "barbarous" (Moorish) authors for "fine powder": the barbarous auctours use alcohol, or (as I fynde it sometymes wryten) alcofoll, for moost fine poudre.
- William Johnson in his 1657 Lexicon Chymicum glosses the word as antimonium sive stibium. By extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including "alcohol of wine", the distilled essence of wine.
- Libavius in Alchymia (1594) has vini alcohol vel vinum alcalisatum.
- Johnson (1657) glosses alcohol vini as quando omnis superfluitas vini a vino separatur, ita ut accensum ardeat donec totum consumatur, nihilque fæcum aut phlegmatis in fundo remaneat.
- Some authorities, including Rachel Hajar, suggest that the ultimate etymon was the Arabic term اَلْغَوْل (al-ḡawl, “bad effect, evil result of headache”) (as used in Qur’an verse 37:47, but this word is rather poetical and could for topical reasons not have been picked up from Arabic by Medieval writers, and aside from that the relation to stibium is well documented.
- (UK) IPA(key): /ˈæl.kə.hɒl/
- (US) IPA(key): /ˈæl.kə.hɔl/, /ˈæl.kə.hɑl/
- (US, nonstandard) IPA(key): /ˈɑl.kə.hɔl/, /ˈɑl.kə.hɑl/
Audio (US) (file) Audio (UK) (file)
alcohol (countable and uncountable, plural alcohols)
- (organic chemistry, countable) Any of a class of organic compounds (such as ethanol) containing a hydroxyl functional group (-OH).
- (colloquial) Ethanol.
- (uncountable) Beverages containing ethanol, collectively.
- 2013 June 22, “Snakes and ladders”, in The Economist, volume 407, number 8841, page 76:
- Risk is everywhere. From tabloid headlines insisting that coffee causes cancer (yesterday, of course, it cured it) to stern government warnings about alcohol and driving, the world is teeming with goblins.
- (obsolete) Any very fine powder.
- See also Thesaurus:alcoholic beverage
- absolute alcohol
- acetic alcohol
- alcohol abuse
- alcohol addiction
- alcohol by volume
- alcohol flush reaction
- alcohol intoxication
- alcohol poisoning
- alcohol use disorder
- alcohol withdrawal syndrome
- alcohol-related dementia
- allyl alcohol
- amino alcohol
- amyl alcohol
- benzyl alcohol
- butyl alcohol
- cetyl alcohol
- coniferyl alcohol
- denatured alcohol
- deoxy sugar alcohol
- ethyl alcohol
- fatty alcohol
- fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
- fetal alcohol syndrome
- foetal alcohol syndrome
- fusel alcohol
- isoamyl alcohol
- isopropyl alcohol
- lauryl alcohol
- methyl alcohol
- neopentyl alcohol
- perillyl alcohol
- phenethyl alcohol
- polyhydric alcohol
- polyvinyl alcohol
- primary alcohol
- propyl alcohol
- rubbing alcohol
- secondary alcohol
- sugar alcohol
- sulfur alcohol
- sulphur alcohol
- tertiary alcohol
- unit of alcohol
- wood alcohol
- The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.
- ^ “Etymology of Alcohol”, in (please provide the title of the work), accessed 31 December 2008, archived from the original on 2011-06-10
- ^ Nicolae Sfetcu, Health & Drugs: Disease, Prescription & Medication (2014)
alcohol m (plural alcoholes)
- (Balearic) IPA(key): /əl.koˈɔl/
- (Central) IPA(key): /əl.kuˈɔl/
- (Valencian) IPA(key): /al.koˈɔl/
alcohol m (plural alcohols)
- “alcohol” in Diccionari de la llengua catalana, segona edició, Institut d’Estudis Catalans.
- alkohol (superseded)
Borrowed from Latin alcohol or Spanish alcohol, of Arabic origin.
alcohol m (plural alcoholen)
- (countable, organic chemistry) alcohol (class of compounds)
- (uncountable) alcohol (ethanol specifically)
- (beverage): sterke drank
alcohol m (plural alcohols)
alcohol m (plural alcohois)
- “alcohol” in Dicionario da Real Academia Galega, Royal Galician Academy.
- alcohol (ethanol)
From Andalusian Arabic اَلْكُحُول (al-kuḥūl), اَلْقُحُول (al-quḥūl), earlier اَلْكُحْل (al-kuḥl, “kohl”). Ultimately from Akkadian.
- (Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /ˈal.ko.ol/, [ˈälkoːl]
alcohol n (genitive alcoholis); third declension
- (Medieval Latin) kohl, collyrium, stibium
- (Medieval Latin) any other powder obtained from triturating a material
- alcohol ferrī ― rubbed file dust of iron
- (Medieval Latin) distilled essence, spirit
- (Medieval Latin) alcohol
Third-declension noun (neuter, imparisyllabic non-i-stem).
- → Albanian: alkool
- → Armenian: ալկոհոլ (alkohol)
- → Asturian: alcohol
- → Catalan: alcohol
- → Dutch: alcohol, alkohol
- → Esperanto: alkoholo
- → Ido: alkoholo
- → Old French: alcohol
- → Galician: alcohol
- → German: Alkohol (see there for further descendants)
- → Hebrew: אַלְכּוֹהוֹל
- → Interlingua: alcohol
- → Italian: alcool, alcol
- → Norwegian Bokmål: alkohol
- → Norwegian Nynorsk: alkohol
- → Portuguese: álcool
- → Romanian: alcool
- → Serbo-Croatian: àlkohol/а̀лкохол
- → Slovak: alkohol
- → Slovene: alkohọ̑l
- → Spanish: alcohol
- → Basque: alkohol
alcohol m (oblique plural alcohous or alcohox or alcohols, nominative singular alcohous or alcohox or alcohols, nominative plural alcohol)
alcohol m (plural alcoholi)
- Obsolete form of alcool.
|indefinite articulation||definite articulation||indefinite articulation||definite articulation|
|nominative/accusative||(un) alcohol||alcoholul||(niște) alcoholi||alcoholii|
|genitive/dative||(unui) alcohol||alcoholului||(unor) alcoholi||alcoholilor|
From Andalusian Arabic اَلْكُحُول (al-kuḥū́l), from Arabic اَلْكُحْل (al-kuḥl, “kohl”).
alcohol m (plural alcoholes)
- “alcohol”, in Diccionario de la lengua española, Vigésima tercera edición, Real Academia Española, 2014