Alternative formsEdit


From Old Church Slavonic бꙑти (byti), from Proto-Slavic *byti (present stem *esmь). The initial e- has been dropped except for 3p. sg.



съм (sǎm), see also бъ́да (bǎ́da)

  1. to be
    Аз съм оптимист.
    Az sǎm optimist.
    I am an optimist.
    Аз съм на една лодка.
    Az sǎm na edna lodka.
    I'm on a boat.
    Аз съм щастлив.
    Az sǎm štastliv.
    I'm happy.
    Чашата е на масата.
    Čašata e na masata.
    The cup is on the table.
    Небето е синьо.
    Nebeto e sinjo.
    The sky is blue.
  2. (auxiliary) used with the past active aorist participle to form various perfect and renarrative tenses
    Виждал съм го.
    Viždal sǎm go.
    I have seen him.
    Вече бях ял.
    Veče bjah jal.
    I had already eaten.
    Ще сме свършили.
    Šte sme svǎršili.
    We will have finished.
    Щяхме да сме пристигнали.
    Štjahme da sme pristignali.
    We would have arrived.
    Бил писал.
    Bil pisal.
    He reportedly has/had written.
  3. (auxiliary) used with the past active impefect participle to form some renarrative tenses
    Пишел е.
    Pišel e.
    He reportedly was writing.
  4. (auxiliary) used with the past passive participle to form the passive voice
    Убит е.
    Ubit e.
    He has been killed.
    Беше убит.
    Beše ubit.
    He had been killed.


Derived termsEdit