Old Church Slavonic

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Etymology

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From Proto-Slavic *byti, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *bū́ˀtei, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰuh₂-. Baltic cognates include Lithuanian būti and Latvian būt. Other Indo-European cognates include Latin fuī (I was), Ancient Greek φύω (phúō), Sanskrit भवति (bhávati, to become), and Persian بودن (bûdan, to be), Old English bēon (English be).

Verb

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бꙑти (bytiimpf

  1. to be
    • from the Life of Constantine:
      филосѡѳе, вѣмь тѧ троудна соуща, но достоить тебѣ тамо ити.
      filosoθe, věmĭ tę trudna sušta, no dostoitĭ tebě tamo iti.
      Philosopher, I see that you are weary, but it does suit you to go there.

Usage notes

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Attested бѣ-forms[1][2][3][4][5][6]
бѣхъ ⰱⱑ[7] ⰱⱑ,[8] бѣше,[9] бѣѣше,[10] бѣаше[11]
? ? (бѣста[12]), (бѣаста[13]), ⰱⱑⱄⱅⰵ,[14] ⰱⱑⰰⱎⰵⱅⰵ[15]
ⰱⱑⱈⱁⰿⱏ[16] ? бѣшѧ,[17] бѣхѫ,[18] бѣѣхѫ,[19] бѣахѫ[20]
Attested би-forms[21][22][23][24][25]
бимь/бимъ би би
? ? ?
бимъ/бимь, бихомъ бисте бѫ, бишѧ

Conjugation

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present imperfective aorist future imperative perfective aorist
1st person sg есмь (esmĭ) бѣахъ (běaxŭ) бѣхъ (běxŭ) бѫдѫ (bǫdǫ) бѫдѣмь (bǫděmĭ) бꙑхъ (byxŭ)
2nd person sg еси (esi) бѣаше (běaše) бѣ () бѫдеши (bǫdeši) бѫди (bǫdi) бꙑстъ (bystŭ) / бꙑ (by)
3rd person sg естъ (estŭ) бѣаше (běaše) бѣ () бѫдетъ (bǫdetŭ) бѫди (bǫdi) бꙑстъ (bystŭ) / бꙑ (by)
1st person dual есвѣ (esvě) бѣаховѣ (běaxově) бѣховѣ (běxově) бѫдевѣ (bǫdevě) бѫдѣвѣ (bǫděvě) бꙑховѣ (byxově)
2nd person dual еста (esta) бѣашета (běašeta) бѣста (běsta) бѫдета (bǫdeta) бѫдѣта (bǫděta) бꙑста (bysta)
3rd person dual есте (este) бѣашете (běašete) бѣсте (běste) бѫдете (bǫdete) бѫдѣте (bǫděte) бꙑсте (byste)
1st person pl есмъ (esmŭ) бѣахомъ (běaxomŭ) бѣхомъ (běxomŭ) бѫдемъ (bǫdemŭ) бѫдѣмъ (bǫděmŭ) бꙑхомъ (byxomŭ)
2nd person pl есте (este) бѣашете (běašete) бѣсте (běste) бѫдете (bǫdete) бѫдѣте (bǫděte) бꙑсте (byste)
3rd person pl сѫтъ (sǫtŭ) бѣахѫ (běaxǫ) бѣшѧ (běšę) бѫдѫтъ (bǫdǫtŭ) бѫдѫ (bǫdǫ) бꙑшѧ (byšę)

participles

masculine sg neuter sg feminine sg
present active participle сꙑ (sy) сꙑ (sy) сѫщи (sǫšti)
resultative participle бꙑлъ (bylŭ) бꙑло (bylo) бꙑла (byla)
past active participle бꙑвъ (byvŭ) бꙑвъ (byvŭ) бꙑвъши (byvŭši)
substantive бꙑтьѥ, бꙑтиѥ (bytĭje, bytije)

не бꙑти (negative conjugation)

singular dual plural
1st person нѣсмь (něsmĭ) нѣсвѣ (něsvě) нѣсмъ (něsmŭ)
2nd person нѣси (něsi) нѣста (něsta) нѣсте (něste)
3rd person нѣстъ (něstŭ) нѣсте (něste) не сѫтъ (ne sǫtŭ)

Derived terms

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Descendants

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  • Bulgarian: съм (sǎm), бъ́да (bǎ́da)

References

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  1. ^ Karl Meyer (1935) “бѣхъ, бѣ, бѣ, бѣаше, бѣхомъ, бѣшѧ, бѣахѫ, бѣста, бѣаста”, in Altkirchenslavisch-griechisches Wörterbuch des Codex Suprasliensis[1] (in German), Glückstadt, Hamburg: Verlag J. J. Augustin, page 21
  2. ^ Сергѣй Северьяновъ (1922) “бꙑти”, in Синайская псалтырь. Глаголическій памятникъ XI вѣка.[2] (in Russian), Saint Petersburg (Petrograd): Отдѣленіе русскаго языка и словесности Россійской Академіи Наукъ, page 193
  3. ^ Vatroslav Jagić (1883) “бꙑти”, in Памятникъ глаголической письменности. Маріинское четвероевангеліе съ примѣчаніями и приложеніями.[3] (in Russian), Saint Petersburg: Imperial Academy of Sciences, page 482
  4. ^ Вячеславъ Щепкинъ (1903) “бꙑти”, in Саввина Книга[4] (in Russian), Saint Petersburg: Отдѣленіе русскаго языка и словесности Императорской Академіи Наукъ, page 156
  5. ^ The template Template:R:cu:orv:ostr1057 does not use the parameter(s):
    a=1
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    Григории, editor (1057), “бѣ, бѣ, бѣаста, бѣахѫ, бѣаше, бѣста, бѣсте, бѣхъ бѣхѫ, бѣше, бѣшѧ (leaf 52)”, in Еуглие [Ostromir Gospels]‎[5] (in Old Church Slavonic), page 52
  6. ^ бꙑти”, in http://syntacticus.org
  7. ^ ⱅⱏⰹ ⰱⱑ (line -13, leaf 39)”, in Codex Marianus [Ф.87 №6]‎[6] (in Old Church Slavonic), National Library of Russia, 1016±16, page Mt:26:69
  8. ^ ⰱⱑ (leaf 260, line -7)”, in Codex Zographensis [Глаг. 1]‎[7] (in Old Church Slavonic), National Library of Russia, 1000±33, page Jn:11:1
  9. ^ Сава, editor (1050±50), “бѣше (line 7, leaf 87)”, in Sava's book[8] (in Old Church Slavonic), page Jn:12:2
  10. ^ Ретъко, editor (1025±50?), “бѣѣше”, in Codex Suprasliensis[9] (in Old Church Slavonic), page (leaf) 23.5, line 30
  11. ^ Ретъко, editor (1025±50?), “бѣаше”, in Codex Suprasliensis[10] (in Old Church Slavonic), page (leaf) 62, line 26
  12. ^ Ретъко, editor (1025±50?), “бѣста”, in Codex Suprasliensis[11] (in Old Church Slavonic), page (leaf) 214.5, line 30
  13. ^ Ретъко, editor (1025±50?), “бѣаста”, in Codex Suprasliensis[12] (in Old Church Slavonic), page (leaf) 102.5, line 5
  14. ^ ⰱⱑⱄⱅⰵ (line 14, leaf 35)”, in Codex Assemanius [Vat. Slav. 3]‎[13] (in Old Church Slavonic), Vatican Library, 10xx?, page Mt:4:18
  15. ^ ⰱⱑⰰⱎⰵⱅⰵ (leaf 78, line -5)”, in Codex Zographensis [Глаг. 1]‎[14] (in Old Church Slavonic), National Library of Russia, 1000±33, page Mk:1:16
  16. ^ ⰴⰾⱏⰶⱐⱀⰻ ⰱⱑⱈⱁⰿⱏ ⱄⱏⱅⰲⱁⱃⰻⱅⰻ (leaf 195.5, line -9)”, in Codex Zographensis [Глаг. 1]‎[15] (in Old Church Slavonic), National Library of Russia, 1000±33
  17. ^ Ретъко, editor (1025±50?), “бѣшѧ”, in Codex Suprasliensis[16] (in Old Church Slavonic), page (leaf) 10.5, line 17
  18. ^ Ретъко, editor (1025±50?), “прикладаѥма бѣхѫ”, in Codex Suprasliensis[17] (in Old Church Slavonic), page (leaf) 199, line 24
  19. ^ Ретъко, editor (1025±50?), “бѣѣхѫ”, in Codex Suprasliensis[18] (in Old Church Slavonic), page (leaf) 77.5, line 13
  20. ^ Ретъко, editor (1025±50?), “бѣахѫ”, in Codex Suprasliensis[19] (in Old Church Slavonic), page (leaf) 1.5, line 28
  21. ^ Сергѣй Северьяновъ (1922) “II. бꙑти”, in Синайская псалтырь. Глаголическій памятникъ XI вѣка.[20] (in Russian), Saint Petersburg (Petrograd): Отдѣленіе русскаго языка и словесности Россійской Академіи Наукъ, page 193
  22. ^ Vatroslav Jagić (1883) “бꙑти”, in Памятникъ глаголической письменности. Маріинское четвероевангеліе съ примѣчаніями и приложеніями.[21] (in Russian), Saint Petersburg: Imperial Academy of Sciences, page 482
  23. ^ Вячеславъ Щепкинъ (1903) “бꙑти”, in Саввина Книга[22] (in Russian), Saint Petersburg: Отдѣленіе русскаго языка и словесности Императорской Академіи Наукъ, page 156
  24. ^ Karl Meyer (1935) “быти”, in Altkirchenslavisch-griechisches Wörterbuch des Codex Suprasliensis[23] (in German), Glückstadt, Hamburg: Verlag J. J. Augustin, page 22
  25. ^ бꙑти”, in http://syntacticus.org
  • Андрей Бояджиев, Старобългарска читанка, София, 2016.

Further reading

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Old East Slavic

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Etymology

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From Proto-Slavic *byti. Cognates include Old Church Slavonic бꙑти (byti) and Old Polish być.

Pronunciation

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  • (ca. 9th CE) IPA(key): /ˈbɯti/
  • (ca. 11th CE) IPA(key): /ˈbɯtʲi/
  • (ca. 13th CE) IPA(key): /ˈbɯtʲi/
  • Hyphenation: бꙑ‧ти

Verb

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бꙑти (bytiimpf

  1. (copulative) to be
    • 1076, Sviatoslav's izbornik[29], page 1:
      Добро есть, братиѥ, почѥтаньѥ книжьноѥ։ паче вьсѧкомоу хрьстьꙗноу·
      Dobro estĭ, bratije, počjetanĭje knižĭnoje։ pače vĭsękomu xrĭstĭjanu·
      The reading of books is good, brothers: more so for any Christian.
  2. (auxiliary) With the l-participle, used to form the past tense.
    • 1377, Dmitry of Suzdal, Laurentian Codex[30], page 1:
      ѿкуду єсть пошла рускаꙗ ꙁемѧ.
      otŭkudu estĭ pošla ruskaja zemę.
      Whence has originated the Russian land.
  3. (auxiliary, verb in the 3rd person singular, subject in the dative) to have to

Conjugation

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Descendants

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References

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  • Sreznevsky, Izmail I. (1893) “бꙑти”, in Матеріалы для Словаря древне-русскаго языка по письменнымъ памятникамъ [Materials for the Dictionary of the Old East Slavic Language Based on Written Monuments]‎[31] (in Russian), volumes 1 (А – К), Saint Petersburg: Department of Russian Language and Literature of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, column 204