See also: تؤذن

Ottoman Turkish

edit

Etymology

edit

Borrowed from Hungarian Buda.

Proper noun

edit

بودن (Budin)

  1. Buda (a city in Hungary), now part of Budapest
  2. (historical) Buda (an eyalet in the Ottoman Empire)

Further reading

edit
  • Mallouf, Nassif (1856) “Bude”, in Dictionnaire français-turc, 2nd edition, Paris: Maisonneuve, page 77
  • Sezen, Tahir (2017) “Budapeşte”, in Osmanlı Yer Adları [Ottoman Place Names]‎[1], 2nd edition, Ankara: T.C. Başbakanlık Devlet Arşivleri Genel Müdürlüğü, page 135

Persian

edit

Etymology

edit

From Middle Persian [script needed] (būdan, baw-), from Old Persian 𐎲𐎺- (bav-), from Proto-Iranian *báwati, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *bʰáwHati, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰewH- (to be, become), *bʰew- (to grow).

Modern Iranian cognates include Ossetian уын (wyn), Pashto و (wo, he was), Baluchi بوگ (būag), Northern Kurdish bûn and Zazaki bîyaene, Northern Luri بیێن (byên).

Extended Indo-Iranian cognates include Avestan 𐬠𐬀𐬎𐬎𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (bauuaiti, is) and Sanskrit भवति (bhávati, becomes).

Indo-European cognates include Ancient Greek φύω (phúō, cause to grow, bring forth), Latin fui (I was), Old Church Slavonic бꙑти (byti) (Russian быть (bytʹ)) and Old English beon (English be).

For the suppletive present stem see the etymology of است (ast).

Pronunciation

edit
 

Readings
Classical reading? būḏan
Dari reading? būdan
Iranian reading? budan
Tajik reading? budan
  • Audio (Iran):(file)

Verb

edit
Dari بودن
Iranian Persian
Tajik будан

بودن (budan) (present stem باش (bâš))

  1. to be (See the Usage Notes)
  2. to exist

Usage notes

edit

The conjugation of بودن with the stem باش derived herefrom is used mainly in formal or literary contexts, or universally in non-present constructions. Elsewhere, and in some constructions universally, two additional sets of verb inflections are used. Both these sets are defective, lacking an infinitive, clearly-defined stem, and inflections other than those in the present indicative.

The first is a short form which may be used as a general copula, placed directly after its predicate, but except in participle constructions, is considered less formal. It is conjugated as follows (note: In the tables, hover mouse over Arabic script for transliterated pronunciation, desktop site only):

After a sounded consonant:

Present Indicative singular plural
1st person م یم
2nd person ی ید
3rd person *است ند
  • Note: است is not connected.

After the short vowel ە:

Present Indicative singular plural
1st person ام ایم
2nd person ای, *ء اید
3rd person است اند
  • Note: This hamzeh (ء) is put above the ە as follows: ۀ.

After a long vowel ا/و/ی:

Present Indicative singular plural
1st person ئم ئیم
2nd person ئی ئید
3rd person *ست ئند
  • Note: Preceding vowel sound is applied
  • Also, a normal ی is often used instead of the more traditional ئ-form.

The second alternative form of to be is a longer form based on a stem هست (hast), which, though seemingly inflected as a past verb (it takes no 'د' ending in the 3rd-person singular), bears a present-tense meaning just as the shorter form above does, but is more existential and formal in tone. Also, although the shorter form is either partially or wholly affixed to its predicate, this longer form is written separately; it is conjugated as follows:

Present Indicative singular plural
1st person من هستم ما هستیم
2nd person تو هستی شما هستید
3rd person او / وی / آن هست ایشان / آنان / آنها هستند

The negative forms of both alternative forms of to be are made by means of prefixing the forms of هست with the negative indicative prefix نَـ (na), which assimilates and blends with the beginning of the هست-forms to form a negative stem نیست (nist). Suffixed with the personal endings, this stem yields the following negative inflections of the alternative forms of to be:

Present Indicative singular plural
1st person من نیستم ما نیستیم
2nd person تو نيستی شما نیستید
3rd person او / وی / آن نيست ایشان / آنان / آنها نيستند

Conjugation

edit


Synonyms

edit

References

edit
  • Mace, John (2003) Persian Grammar, New York: RoutledgeCurzon, pages 95–99
  • Hayyim, Sulayman (1934) “boodan”, in New Persian–English dictionary, Teheran: Librairie-imprimerie Béroukhim
  • Steingass, Francis Joseph (1892) “budan”, in A Comprehensive Persian–English dictionary, London: Routledge & K. Paul
  • Cheung, Johnny (2007) Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 2), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 16-8