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JapaneseEdit

EtymologyEdit

Contraction of にてあり.

VerbEdit

である (godan conjugation, rōmaji de aru)

  1. (formal) To be: the copula, with the same function as (da) and です (desu).
     (かみ) (あい)である」(Ⅰヨハネ 4:16)
    “Kami wa ai de aru” (Ⅰ Yohane 4:16)
    "God is love" (I John 4:16)
    姉妹 (しまい)であった二人 (ふたり)
    shimai de atta futari
    the two people who were sisters
    普通 (ふつう)でありたい (ひと)
    futsū de aritai hito
    person who wants to be ordinary

Usage notesEdit

  • Binding particles (係助詞 kakarijoshi, namely wa, mo, しか shika, さえ sae, etc.) can be inserted between (de) and ある (aru). The negative form is でない (de nai) or ではない (de wa nai) or じゃない (ja nai), just like the negative form of ある (aru) is ない (nai). The negative form also allows insertion of some adverbs emphasizing the negation, such as 決して (kesshite, certainly; definitely), 全く (mattaku, completely), and 全然 (zenzen, totally).
    学生 (がくせい)あるが、休学中 (きゅうがくちゅう)だ。
    Gakusei de wa aru ga, kyūgaku-chū da.
    He is a student, but currently on leave.
    社会人 (しゃかいじん)あり学生 (がくせい)ある
    Shakaijin de mo ari, gakusei de mo aru.
    He is a worker as well as a student.
    学生 (がくせい)しかない
    Gakusei de shika nai.
    He is nothing more than a student.
    学生 (がくせい)ない
    Gakusei de wa nai.
    He is not a student.
    学生 (がくせい)じゃない
    Gakusei ja nai.
    He is not a student.
    学生 (がくせい) (けっ)してない
    Gakusei de wa kesshite nai.
    He is certainly not a student.

SynonymsEdit