See also: [U+5165 CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5165], 𠆢 [U+201A2 CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-201A2], [U+3145 HANGUL LETTER SIOS], and [U+4EBB CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EBB]

U+4EBA, 人
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EBA

[U+4EB9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EBB]
U+2F08, ⼈
KANGXI RADICAL MAN

[U+2F07]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F09]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative forms edit

  • (when used as a left radical)
  • 𠂉 (when used as an upper radical)

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 9, +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input (O), four-corner 80000, composition 丿)

  1. Kangxi radical #9, .

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 91, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 344
  • Dae Jaweon: page 190, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 101, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4EBA

Chinese edit

 
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Hanjian (compiled in Song) Guwen Sishengyun (compiled in Song) Jizhuan Guwen Yunhai (compiled in Song) Liushutong (compiled in Ming) Libian (compiled in Qing) Tang Stone Classics Kangxi Dictionary (compiled in Qing)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Odd character Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts Transcribed ancient scripts Transcribed ancient scripts Transcribed ancient scripts Clerical script Regular script Ming typeface
                                 





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – side view of a standing man, highlighting the arms and legs. Compare .

Etymology 1 edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
 
component
𠆢 component
component
component
𠂉 component
component
𠆢 component
component
component
𠂉 component

𠔽
𤯔
𦉫
Northern Wu

Sagart (1999) relates it to Tibetan ཉེན (nyen, relative), from ཉེ (nye, near) + nominalizing suffix -n; if so, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-naːj ~ s-nej (near).

Schuessler (2007) proposes two etymologies:

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • nyin4 - vernacular;
  • liin4 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • rêng5 - Jieyang;
    • ring5 - other places.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • (Shanghainese) 6gnin, (Suzhounese) 2gnin - colloquial;
    • (Shanghainese) 6zen, (Suzhounese) 2zen - literary.
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʐən³⁵/
    Harbin /ʐən²⁴/
    /in²⁴/
    Tianjin /in⁴⁵/
    /ʐən⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʐẽ⁴²/
    Qingdao /iə̃⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʐən⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʐẽ²⁴/
    Xining /ʐə̃²¹³/
    Yinchuan /ʐəŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ʐə̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʐɤŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nən²¹³/
    Chengdu /zən³¹/
    Guiyang /zen²¹/
    Kunming /ʐə̃³¹/
    Nanjing /ʐən²⁴/
    Hefei /ʐən⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /zəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /ʐəŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /ʐə̃ŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵiŋ²³/
    /zəŋ²³/
    Suzhou /zən¹³/
    /ȵin¹³/
    Hangzhou /zen²¹³/
    Wenzhou /zaŋ³¹/ 文讀
    /ȵaŋ³¹/ 白讀
    /naŋ³¹/ 訓讀
    Hui Shexian /iʌ̃⁴⁴/
    /niʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ian⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ʐən¹³/
    Xiangtan /in¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵin⁴⁵/
    /lɨn⁴⁵/ ~參
    Hakka Meixian /ŋin¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋin¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐn²¹/
    Nanning /jɐn²¹/
    Hong Kong /jɐn²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lin³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /neiŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ziŋ⁵⁵/
    /naŋ⁵⁵/ 訓讀
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zin³¹/
    /naŋ³¹/ 訓儂

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (38)
    Final () (43)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter nyin
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ȵiɪn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ȵin/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȵʑjen/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ȵin/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȵiĕn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȵʑĭĕn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȵʑi̯ĕn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    rén
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jan4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    rén
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nyin ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ni[ŋ]/
    English (other) person

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10800
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*njin/

    Definitions edit

    1. man; person; people (Classifier: m c;  h)
        ―  rénlèi  ―  humans
        ―  rén shì shéi?  ―  Who is that person?
      嗰個邊個 [Cantonese, trad.]
      嗰个边个 [Cantonese, simp.]
      go2 go3 jan4-2 hai6 bin1 go3 lai4 gaa3? [Jyutping]
      Who is that person?
      敲門敲门  ―  Yǒurén qiāomén le.  ―  Someone knocked on the door.
    2. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
      主持  ―  zhǔchírén  ―  host
      北京  ―  Běijīngrén  ―  Beijinger
      香港 [Cantonese]  ―  hoeng1 gong2 jan4 [Jyutping]  ―  Hongkonger
    3. body
        ―  rén zài xīn bù zài  ―  the body is here but the heart is not
      不大舒服 [MSC, trad.]
      不大舒服 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè liǎng tiān rén bùdà shūfú. [Pinyin]
      I [lit. the body] haven't been feeling that well these few days.
      今天上午 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Jīntiān shàngwǔ nǐ rén zài nǎ? [Pinyin]
      Where have you been this morning?
    4. everybody; everyone
      手一冊手一册  ―  rénshǒu yīcè  ―  It's a bestseller. (literally, “Everyone has a copy.”)
      所共知  ―  rénsuǒgòngzhī  ―  common knowledge
    5. other people; others
      云亦云  ―  rényún yìyún  ―  to follow the crowd (literally, “to say what others say”)
      害己  ―  hàirénhàijǐ  ―  to harm others and onself
    6. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition; character; personality (Classifier: c;  c)
      就我所知不錯 [MSC, trad.]
      就我所知不错 [MSC, simp.]
      Jiùwǒsuǒzhī, tā rén bùcuò. [Pinyin]
      As far as I know, he is kind.
      知道什麼 [MSC, trad.]
      知道什么 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ bù zhīdào tā shì shénme rén. [Pinyin]
      I don't know what kind of person he is.
      到底嚟㗎 [Cantonese, trad.]
      到底嚟㗎 [Cantonese, simp.]
      keoi5 dou3 dai2 hai6 me1 jan4 lai4 gaa3? [Jyutping]
      Exactly what kind of person is he?
    7. manpower; worker; employee
      我們公司我们公司  ―  Wǒmen gōngsī zhèng quē rén.  ―  Our company is short on manpower right now.
    8. talent; person of talent
    9. (obsolete) common people; commoner
    10. adult; grown-up
      長大长大  ―  zhǎngdà chéngrén  ―  to grow up to be an adult
    11. artificial; man-made
        ―  rénhuò  ―  human disaster
    12. (fantasy, mythology) were- (indicates a person who changes shape into an animal)
        ―  lángrén  ―  werewolf
        ―  rén  ―  weretiger
    13. (Cantonese) used as a dummy pronoun; someone; others
    14. (Zhao'an Hakka) pluralizes a personal pronoun
      𠊎 [Zhao'an Hakka]  ―  ngai` ngin`, hen` ngin`, gui` ngin` [Taiwanese Hakka Romanization System]  ―  we, you all, they
    15. (obsolete) sexual intercourse
        ―  réndào  ―  sexual intercourse
        ―  rénshì  ―  sexual intercourse
    16. (obsolete) company; companion; friend
    17. (obsolete) human affairs; ways of the world
    18. (obsolete) mortal world; earthly word
    19. (obsolete) Alternative form of (rén, kernel)
    20. (obsolete) Alternative form of (rén, charity)
    21. (obsolete) Alternative form of (rén, loving; kind)
    22. (Beijing) Lenition of 人家 (rénjia).
      磨蹭外頭我們 [dialectal Mandarin, trad.]
      磨蹭外头我们 [dialectal Mandarin, simp.]
      Bié móceng la, rén zǎi wàitou děng zhe wǒmen ne! [Pinyin]
      Stop dilly-dallying. He/She/They is/are waiting for us outside!
      哎呀孩子考上哈佛大學出息 [dialectal Mandarin, trad.]
      哎呀孩子考上哈佛大学出息 [dialectal Mandarin, simp.]
      Āiya, rén háizi kǎoshang Hāfó Dàxué la, duō chūxi ya! [Pinyin]
      Geez, his/her/their kid got into Harvard University. How promising!
      別人吱聲兒事兒出來 [dialectal Mandarin, trad.]
      别人吱声儿事儿出来 [dialectal Mandarin, simp.]
      Rén biéren dōu bù zīshengr, jiù tā bǎ zhèi shìr gěi shuō chulai le. [Pinyin]
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    23. (Taishanese) paternal grandmother
    24. a surname
    Synonyms edit

    Compounds edit