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009 - ren2 - man.svg
U+4EBA, 人
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EBA

[U+4EB9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EBB]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Alternative formsEdit

  • (when used as a left radical)

Han characterEdit

(radical 9 +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 人 (O), four-corner 80000)

  1. Kangxi radical #9, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 91, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 344
  • Dae Jaweon: page 190, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 101, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4EBA

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms
 
component
𠆢 component
component
component

𠔽
𤯔

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu bamboo and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn, *sn̥ʰiːns
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*njin
*njin
*njin
*neːŋs

Pictogram (象形) – side view of a standing man, highlighting the arms and legs. Compare .

Etymology 1Edit

  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • nyin4 - vernacular;
  • liin4 - literary.
Note:
  • 3nyin - colloquial;
  • 3zen - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐən³⁵/
Harbin /ʐən²⁴/
/in²⁴/
Tianjin /in⁴⁵/
/ʐən⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʐẽ⁴²/
Qingdao /iə̃⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐən⁴²/
Xi'an /ʐẽ²⁴/
Xining /ʐə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /ʐəŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʐə̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʐɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /nən²¹³/
Chengdu /zən³¹/
Guiyang /zen²¹/
Kunming /ʐə̃³¹/
Nanjing /ʐən²⁴/
Hefei /ʐən⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /zəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ʐəŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ʐə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ȵiŋ²³/
/zəŋ²³/
Suzhou /zən¹³/
/ȵin¹³/
Hangzhou /zen²¹³/
Wenzhou /zaŋ³¹/ 文讀
/ȵaŋ³¹/ 白讀
/naŋ³¹/ 訓讀
Hui Shexian /iʌ̃⁴⁴/
/niʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ian⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʐən¹³/
Xiangtan /in¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵin⁴⁵/
/lɨn⁴⁵/ ~參
Hakka Meixian /ŋin¹¹/
Taoyuan /ŋin¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐn²¹/
Nanning /jɐn²¹/
Hong Kong /jɐn²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lin³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /neiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ziŋ⁵⁵/
/naŋ⁵⁵/ 訓讀
Haikou (Min Nan) /zin³¹/
/naŋ³¹/ 訓儂

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (43)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵin/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵin/
Li
Rong
/ȵiĕn/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rén
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rén
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyin ›
Old
Chinese
/*ni[ŋ]/
English (other) person

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10800
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njin/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. man; person; people (Classifier: ; )
  2. human being (Homo sapiens)
  3. body
  4. everybody; everyone
    • 人人  ―  rénrén  ―  everybody
    • 手一冊 / 手一册  ―  rénshǒu yīcè  ―  It's a bestseller. (lit. Everyone has a copy.)
  5. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition; character; personality
  6. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
  7. manpower; worker; employee
  8. talent; person of talent
  9. other people; others
    • 云亦云  ―  rényún yìyún  ―  to follow the crowd (lit. to say what others say)
  10. common people; commoner
  11. adult; grown-up
  12. reason; cause
  13. sexual intercourse
    •   ―  réndào  ―  sexual intercourse
    •   ―  rénshì  ―  sexual intercourse
  14. company; companion; friend
  15. artificial; man-made
  16. mortal; bodily; earthly
    • /   ―  rénjiān  ―  the mortal world
  17. Alternative form of (rén, “kernel”).
  18. Alternative form of (rén, “charity”).
  19. Alternative form of (rén, “loving; kind”).
  20. (Taishanese) paternal grandmother
SynonymsEdit
Dialectal synonyms of 祖母 (“paternal grandmother”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese 祖母
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 祖母
Mandarin Beijing 奶奶
Taiwan 奶奶
Harbin 奶奶
Shenyang 奶奶
Jinan 奶奶
Muping 婆婆
Luoyang 奶奶
Jiedian
Xi'an suburbs拿拿 Hui
Qingdao 奶奶
Zhengzhou 奶奶
Xining 奶奶
Xuzhou 奶奶
Yinchuan 奶奶
Lanzhou 奶奶
Ürümqi 奶奶阿奶 Hui
Wuhan 奶奶婆婆 dated
Chengdu 婆婆奶奶
Guiyang 太太奶奶老太太
Liuzhou 阿奶
Kunming 奶奶
Yangzhou 奶奶太太 dated
Nanjing 奶奶
Hefei 奶奶
Nantong 奶奶
Cantonese Guangzhou 阿嫲
Hong Kong 阿嫲嫲嫲
Shunde 阿人
Foshan 阿嫲
Zhongshan 阿婆
Dongguan 阿嫲嫲嫲阿婆
Hong Kong (Weitou) 阿婆阿嫲
Taishan 阿人
Doumen 阿婆
Kaiping 阿人
Shaoguan 阿婆阿嫲
Yunfu 阿奶
Yangjiang 阿婆阿嫲
Xinyi 阿婆
Lianjiang 阿嫲
Nanning
Kuala Lumpur 阿嫲
Gan Nanchang 婆婆奶奶奶子
Lichuan 姆媽
Pingxiang 婆婆
Hakka Meixian 阿婆
Xingning 阿婆
Huidong 阿婆
Qujiang 娭姐
Xiaosanjiang 阿婆
Luchuan 阿婆
Changting 娭姐
Pingyu 阿婆
Wuping 娭姐
Liancheng 阿姐
Ninghua 媽媽
Yudu 婆婆婆奶
Ruijin 奶奶
Shicheng
Shangyou 奶奶
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 阿婆
Liudui (S. Sixian) 阿婆阿嬤
Hsinchu (Hailu) 阿婆
Dongshi (Dabu) 阿婆阿奶
Zhuolan (Raoping) 阿嬤阿婆
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿媽
Hong Kong 阿婆
Sabah 阿婆
Senai 阿婆
Singkawang 阿婆
Huizhou Shexian 奶奶老姨
Jixi 阿婦
Jin Taiyuan 奶奶
Pingyao 娘娘
Xinzhou 娘娘啊呀娘娘娘
Min Bei Jian'ou 奶奶嫲嫲
Min Dong Fuzhou 依媽
Fuqing 阿媽
Matsu 依媽
Min Nan Xiamen 阿媽俺媽內媽
Quanzhou 媽仔俺媽內媽
Zhangzhou 阿媽咉媽內媽
Taipei 阿媽內媽 mT
Kaohsiung 阿媽
Tainan 阿媽
Taichung 阿媽
Wuqi 阿媽
Hsinchu 阿媽
Taitung 阿媽
Lukang 阿媽俺媽
Sanxia 阿媽
Yilan 阿媽
Kinmen 俺媽
Magong 阿媽
Penang 阿媽
Singapore 俺媽阿媽
Pingnan
Chaozhou 阿媽
Shantou 阿媽
Haifeng
Johor Bahru 阿媽
Haikou 阿媽
Leizhou 尼媽尼嬭
Puxian Min Putian 阿媽
Xianyou 阿媽
Pinghua Nanning 太婆
Wu Shanghai 爾奶阿奶奶奶
Suzhou 好婆好親婆親婆
Hangzhou 奶奶
Wenzhou 娘娘祖婆祖婆娘
Chongming 裡婆親婆阿婆婆阿
Danyang 嫚嫚
Jinhua 媽媽
Ningbo 阿娘
Xiang Changsha 娭毑
Shuangfeng 奶奶
Xiangtan 娭毑
Loudi 佳婆奶奶
Quanzhou 奶奶
Note mT - mainstream Taiwan (no particular region identified)

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  (にん) (nin);  (じん) (jin)
  • Korean: (, in)
  • Vietnamese: nhân ()

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms
𠆧

The Min native word for “person”; used as a replacement character for . Use of is recommended by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.

Pronunciation 1Edit


DefinitionsEdit

(Min)

  1. man; person; people; human being; Homo sapiens
  2. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
  3. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition

Pronunciation 2Edit


DefinitionsEdit

(Min)

  1. other people
  2. I; me

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
ひと
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

/pi1to2/ invalid IPA characters (12) → */pitə//fito//hito/

From Old Japanese.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(counter , hiragana ひと, katakana ヒト, rōmaji hito)

  1. person; human
    • 2004 June 4, “レオニンのじゅうしゃ [Leonin Squire]”, in フィフス・ドーン [Fifth Dawn] (in Japanese), Wizards of the Coast:
       (わたし) (おう)かもしれないが、 (へい) () (ひと) (びと)なくしては、 (わたし) (なに) (もの)でもないのだ。
      Watashi wa ō kamo shirenai ga, heishi ya hitobito naku shite wa, watashi wa nanimono demo nai no da.
      I may be king, but without my soldiers and my people, I am nobody.
  2. someone else
Derived termsEdit
SynonymsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
にん
Grade: 1
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (nyin, person). The goon, so likely the earlier borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

CounterEdit

(hiragana にん, rōmaji -nin)

  1. people
Usage notesEdit

The nin reading is used when counting three people or more. When counting one or two people as in 一人 (hitori, one person) or 二人 (futari, two people), the reading is (-ri).

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
じん
Grade: 1
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (nyin, person). The kan'on, so likely a later borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

(hiragana じん, rōmaji -jin)

  1. person from that group
    アジア (じん)イギリス (じん)スペイン (じん)ドイツ (じん)アメリカ (じん)スコットランド (じん)
    Ajiajin, Igirisujin, Supeinjin, Doitsujin, Amerikajin, Sukottorandojin
    an Asian, an Englishman, a Spaniard, a German, an American, a Scot
  2. person who does the activity of the suffixed word

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. 3.0 3.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(in)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: in, McCune-Reischauer: in, Yale: in)
    • Name (hangeul): 사람 (revised: saram, McCune-Reischauer: saram, Yale: salam)

NounEdit

(in) (counter , hangeul )

  1. person
  2. human
  3. someone else

CompoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this word

Han characterEdit

(nhân, nhơn)

  1. (Northern Vietnam) Hán tự form of nhân, “human
  2. (Southern Vietnam) Hán tự form of nhơn, “human

NounEdit

  1. Abbreviation of người. (only in handwriting)
    con = con người

Alternative formsEdit

ReferencesEdit