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009 - ren2 - man.svg
U+4EBA, 人
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EBA

[U+4EB9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EBB]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Alternative formsEdit

  • (when used as a left radical)

Han characterEdit

(radical 9 +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 人 (O), four-corner 80000)

  1. Kangxi radical #9, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 91, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 344
  • Dae Jaweon: page 190, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 101, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4EBA

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms
 
component
𠆢 component
component
component

𠔽
𤯔

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Odd character Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
                   





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn, *sn̥ʰiːns
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*njin
*njin
*njin
*neːŋs

Pictogram (象形) – side view of a standing man, highlighting the arms and legs. Compare .

Etymology 1Edit

  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • nyin4 - vernacular;
  • liin4 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3nyin - colloquial;
    • 3zen - literary.
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʐən³⁵/
    Harbin /ʐən²⁴/
    /in²⁴/
    Tianjin /in⁴⁵/
    /ʐən⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʐẽ⁴²/
    Qingdao /iə̃⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʐən⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʐẽ²⁴/
    Xining /ʐə̃²¹³/
    Yinchuan /ʐəŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ʐə̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʐɤŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nən²¹³/
    Chengdu /zən³¹/
    Guiyang /zen²¹/
    Kunming /ʐə̃³¹/
    Nanjing /ʐən²⁴/
    Hefei /ʐən⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /zəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /ʐəŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /ʐə̃ŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵiŋ²³/
    /zəŋ²³/
    Suzhou /zən¹³/
    /ȵin¹³/
    Hangzhou /zen²¹³/
    Wenzhou /zaŋ³¹/ 文讀
    /ȵaŋ³¹/ 白讀
    /naŋ³¹/ 訓讀
    Hui Shexian /iʌ̃⁴⁴/
    /niʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ian⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ʐən¹³/
    Xiangtan /in¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵin⁴⁵/
    /lɨn⁴⁵/ ~參
    Hakka Meixian /ŋin¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋin¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐn²¹/
    Nanning /jɐn²¹/
    Hong Kong /jɐn²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lin³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /neiŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ziŋ⁵⁵/
    /naŋ⁵⁵/ 訓讀
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zin³¹/
    /naŋ³¹/ 訓儂

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (38)
    Final () (43)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ȵiɪn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ȵin/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȵʑjen/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ȵin/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȵiĕn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȵʑĭĕn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȵʑi̯ĕn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    rén
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    rén
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nyin ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ni[ŋ]/
    English (other) person

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10800
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*njin/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. man; person; people (Classifier: ; )
    2. human being (Homo sapiens)
    3. body
    4. everybody; everyone
    5. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition; character; personality
    6. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
    7. manpower; worker; employee
    8. talent; person of talent
    9. other people; others
      • 云亦云  ―  rényún yìyún  ―  to follow the crowd (lit. to say what others say)
    10. common people; commoner
    11. adult; grown-up
    12. reason; cause
    13. sexual intercourse
      •   ―  réndào  ―  sexual intercourse
      •   ―  rénshì  ―  sexual intercourse
    14. company; companion; friend
    15. artificial; man-made
    16. mortal; bodily; earthly
    17. Alternative form of (rén, “kernel”).
    18. Alternative form of (rén, “charity”).
    19. Alternative form of (rén, “loving; kind”).
    20. (Taishanese) paternal grandmother
    SynonymsEdit
    Dialectal synonyms of 祖母 (“paternal grandmother”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 祖母
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 祖母
    Mandarin Beijing 奶奶
    Taiwan 奶奶
    Harbin 奶奶
    Shenyang 奶奶
    Jinan 奶奶
    Muping 婆婆
    Luoyang 奶奶
    Jiedian
    Xi'an suburbs拿拿 Hui
    Qingdao 奶奶
    Zhengzhou 奶奶
    Xining 奶奶
    Xuzhou 奶奶
    Yinchuan 奶奶
    Lanzhou 奶奶
    Ürümqi 奶奶阿奶 Hui
    Wuhan 奶奶婆婆 dated
    Chengdu 婆婆奶奶
    Guiyang 太太奶奶老太太
    Liuzhou 阿奶
    Kunming 奶奶
    Yangzhou 奶奶太太 dated
    Nanjing 奶奶
    Hefei 奶奶
    Nantong 奶奶
    Cantonese Guangzhou 阿嫲
    Hong Kong 阿嫲嫲嫲
    Shunde 阿人
    Foshan 阿嫲
    Zhongshan 阿婆
    Dongguan 阿嫲嫲嫲阿婆
    Hong Kong (Weitou) 阿婆阿嫲
    Taishan 阿人
    Doumen 阿婆
    Kaiping 阿人
    Shaoguan 阿婆阿嫲
    Yunfu 阿奶
    Yangjiang 阿婆阿嫲
    Xinyi 阿婆
    Lianjiang 阿嫲
    Nanning
    Kuala Lumpur 阿嫲
    Gan Nanchang 婆婆奶奶奶子
    Lichuan 姆媽
    Pingxiang 婆婆
    Hakka Meixian 阿婆
    Xingning 阿婆
    Huidong 阿婆
    Qujiang 娭姐
    Xiaosanjiang 阿婆
    Luchuan 阿婆
    Changting 娭姐
    Pingyu 阿婆
    Wuping 娭姐
    Liancheng 阿姐
    Ninghua 媽媽
    Yudu 婆婆婆奶
    Ruijin 奶奶
    Shicheng
    Shangyou 奶奶
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 阿婆
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 阿婆阿嬤
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 阿婆
    Dongshi (Dabu) 阿婆阿奶
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 阿嬤阿婆
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿媽
    Hong Kong 阿婆
    Sabah 阿婆
    Senai 阿婆
    Singkawang 阿婆
    Huizhou Shexian 奶奶老姨
    Jixi 阿婦
    Jin Taiyuan 奶奶
    Pingyao 娘娘
    Xinzhou 娘娘啊呀娘娘娘
    Min Bei Jian'ou 奶奶嫲嫲
    Min Dong Fuzhou 依媽
    Fuqing 阿媽
    Matsu 依媽
    Min Nan Xiamen 阿媽俺媽內媽
    Quanzhou 媽仔俺媽內媽
    Zhangzhou 阿媽咉媽內媽
    Taipei 阿媽內媽 mT
    Kaohsiung 阿媽
    Tainan 阿媽
    Taichung 阿媽
    Wuqi 阿媽
    Hsinchu 阿媽
    Taitung 阿媽
    Lukang 阿媽俺媽
    Sanxia 阿媽
    Yilan 阿媽
    Kinmen 俺媽
    Magong 阿媽
    Penang 阿媽
    Singapore 俺媽阿媽
    Pingnan
    Chaozhou 阿媽
    Shantou 阿媽
    Haifeng
    Johor Bahru 阿媽
    Haikou 阿媽
    Leizhou 尼媽尼嬭
    Puxian Min Putian 阿媽
    Xianyou 阿媽
    Pinghua Nanning 太婆
    Wu Shanghai 爾奶阿奶奶奶
    Suzhou 好婆好親婆親婆
    Hangzhou 奶奶
    Wenzhou 娘娘祖婆祖婆娘
    Chongming 裡婆親婆阿婆婆阿
    Danyang 嫚嫚
    Jinhua 媽媽
    Ningbo 阿娘
    Xiang Changsha 娭毑
    Shuangfeng 奶奶
    Xiangtan 娭毑
    Loudi 佳婆奶奶
    Quanzhou 奶奶
    Note mT - mainstream Taiwan (no particular region identified)

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  (にん) (nin);  (じん) (jin)
    • Korean: (, in)
    • Vietnamese: nhân ()

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    simp. and trad.
    alt. forms
    𠆧

    The Min native word for “person”; used as a replacement character for . Use of is recommended by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.

    Pronunciation 1Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    (Min)

    1. man; person; people; human being; Homo sapiens
    2. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
    3. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    (Min)

    1. other people
    2. I; me

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ひと
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /pi1to2/ invalid IPA characters (12) → */pitə//fito//hito/

    From Old Japanese.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (counter , hiragana ひと, katakana ヒト, rōmaji hito)

    1. person; human
      • 2004 June 4, “レオニンのじゅうしゃ [Leonin Squire]”, in フィフス・ドーン [Fifth Dawn] (in Japanese), Wizards of the Coast:
         (わたし) (おう)かもしれないが、 (へい) () (ひと) (びと)なくしては、 (わたし) (なに) (もの)でもないのだ。
        Watashi wa ō kamo shirenai ga, heishi ya hitobito naku shite wa, watashi wa nanimono demo nai no da.
        I may be king, but without my soldiers and my people, I am nobody.
    2. someone else
    Derived termsEdit
    SynonymsEdit
    • Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory

    Etymology 2Edit

    Lua error: not enough memory From Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory. The goon, so likely the earlier borrowing.

    PronunciationEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    CounterEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. people
    Usage notesEdit

    The nin reading is used when counting three people or more. When counting one or two people as in Lua error: not enough memory or Lua error: not enough memory, the reading is Lua error: not enough memory.

    Etymology 3Edit

    Lua error: not enough memory From Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory. The kan'on, so likely a later borrowing.

    PronunciationEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    SuffixEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. person from that group
      Lua error: not enough memoryLua error: not enough memory
    2. person who does the activity of the suffixed word

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, Lua error: not enough memory (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBNLua error: not enough memory
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, Lua error: not enough memory (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBNLua error: not enough memory
    3. 3.0 3.1 1997, Lua error: not enough memory (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBNLua error: not enough memory

    Lua error: not enough memory


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    NounEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. person
    2. human
    3. someone else

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    Han characterEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory (Lua error: not enough memory)

    1. Lua error: not enough memory Hán tự form of Lua error: not enough memory, “human
    2. Lua error: not enough memory Hán tự form of Lua error: not enough memory, “human

    NounEdit

    Lua error: not enough memoryLua error: not enough memory

    1. Abbreviation of Lua error: not enough memory.Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory
      con = con người

    Alternative formsEdit

    • Lua error: not enough memory

    ReferencesEdit