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009 - ren2 - man.svg
U+4EBA, 人
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EBA

[U+4EB9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EBB]
See also: and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Alternative formsEdit

  • (when used as a left radical)

Han characterEdit

(radical 9 +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 人 (O), four-corner 80000)

  1. Kangxi radical #9, (man).

Usage notesEdit

In print, 人 may have symmetric legs. However in handwriting, to distinguish from , the right leg will be shorter, the shape looking like a ʎ; in 入 the left leg is shorter.

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 91, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 344
  • Dae Jaweon: page 190, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 101, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4EBA

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms component
𠆢 component

𠔽
𤯔

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
         





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn, *sn̥ʰiːns
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*njin
*njin
*njin
*neːŋs

Pictogram (象形) – side view of a standing man, highlighting the arms and legs. Compare .

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • nyin4 - vernacular;
  • liin4 - literary.
Note:
  • 3nyin - colloquial;
  • 3zen - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐən³⁵/
Harbin /ʐən²⁴/
/in²⁴/
Tianjin /in⁴⁵/
/ʐən⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʐẽ⁴²/
Qingdao /iə̃⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐən⁴²/
Xi'an /ʐẽ²⁴/
Xining /ʐə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /ʐəŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʐə̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʐɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /nən²¹³/
Chengdu /zən³¹/
Guiyang /zen²¹/
Kunming /ʐə̃³¹/
Nanjing /ʐən²⁴/
Hefei /ʐən⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /zəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ʐəŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ʐə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ȵiŋ²³/
/zəŋ²³/
Suzhou /zən¹³/
/ȵin¹³/
Hangzhou /zen²¹³/
Wenzhou /zaŋ³¹/ 文讀
/ȵaŋ³¹/ 白讀
/naŋ³¹/ 訓讀
Hui Shexian /iʌ̃⁴⁴/
/niʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ian⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʐən¹³/
Xiangtan /in¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵin⁴⁵/
/lɨn⁴⁵/ ~參
Hakka Meixian /ŋin¹¹/
Taoyuan /ŋin¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐn²¹/
Nanning /jɐn²¹/
Hong Kong /jɐn²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lin³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /neiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ziŋ⁵⁵/
/naŋ⁵⁵/ 訓讀
Haikou (Min Nan) /zin³¹/
/naŋ³¹/ 訓儂

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (43)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵin/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵin/
Li
Rong
/ȵiĕn/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rén
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rén
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyin ›
Old
Chinese
/*ni[ŋ]/
English (other) person

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10800
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njin/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. man; person; people (Classifier: )
  2. human being (Homo sapiens)
  3. body
  4. everybody; everyone
    • 人人  ―  rénrén  ―  everybody
    • 手一冊 / 手一册  ―  rénshǒu yīcè  ―  It's a bestseller. (lit. Everyone has a copy.)
  5. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition; character; personality
  6. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
  7. manpower; worker; employee
  8. talent; person of talent
  9. other people; others
    • 云亦云  ―  rényún yìyún  ―  to follow the crowd (lit. to say what others say)
  10. common people; commoner
  11. adult; grown-up
  12. reason; cause
  13. sexual intercourse
    •   ―  réndào  ―  sexual intercourse
    •   ―  rénshì  ―  sexual intercourse
  14. company; companion; friend
  15. artificial; man-made
  16. mortal; bodily; earthly
  17. Alternative form of (rén, “kernel”).
  18. Alternative form of (rén, “charity”).
  19. Alternative form of (rén, “loving; kind”).
  20. (Taishanese) paternal grandmother
SynonymsEdit
Dialectal synonyms of 祖母 (“paternal grandmother”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese 祖母
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 祖母
Mandarin Beijing 奶奶
Taiwan 奶奶
Jinan 奶奶
Xi'an
Wuhan 婆婆奶奶
Chengdu 婆婆奶奶
Yangzhou 奶奶
Hefei 奶奶
Cantonese Guangzhou 嫲嫲阿嫲
Hong Kong 嫲嫲阿嫲
Taishan 阿人
Yangjiang 阿婆阿嫲
Gan Nanchang 奶奶婆婆
Hakka Meixian 阿婆
Xingning 阿婆
Huidong 阿婆
Qujiang 娭姐
Xiaosanjiang 阿婆
Changting 娭姐
Pingyu 阿婆
Ruijin 奶奶
Shicheng
Shangyou 奶奶
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 阿婆
Liudui (S. Sixian) 阿婆阿嬤
Hsinchu (Hailu) 阿婆
Dongshi (Dabu) 阿婆阿奶
Zhuolan (Raoping) 阿嬤阿婆
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿媽
Jin Taiyuan 奶奶
Min Bei Jian'ou 嫲嫲奶奶
Min Dong Fuzhou 依媽
Min Nan Xiamen 阿媽俺媽內媽
Quanzhou 媽仔俺媽內媽
Zhangzhou 阿媽姆媽內媽
Taipei 阿媽內媽
Kaohsiung 阿媽內媽
Tainan 阿媽內媽
Taichung 阿媽內媽
Hsinchu 阿媽內媽
Lukang 阿媽俺媽內媽
Sanxia 阿媽內媽
Yilan 阿媽內媽
Kinmen 俺媽內媽
Magong 阿媽內媽
Penang 阿媽內媽
Chaozhou 阿媽
Wu Shanghai 阿婆
Suzhou 好婆好親婆親婆
Wenzhou 祖婆娘祖婆娘娘
Chongming 阿婆
Xiang Changsha 娭毑
Shuangfeng 奶奶

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  (にん) (nin);  (じん) (jin)
  • Korean: (, in)
  • Vietnamese: nhân ()

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms
𠆧

The Min native word for “person”; used as a replacement character for . Use of is recommended by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.

Pronunciation 1Edit


DefinitionsEdit

(Min)

  1. man; person; people; human being; Homo sapiens
  2. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
  3. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition

Pronunciation 2Edit


DefinitionsEdit

(Min)

  1. other people
  2. I; me

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
ひと
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

/pi1to2/ invalid IPA characters (12) → */pitə//fito//hito/

From Old Japanese.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(counter , hiragana ひと, katakana ヒト, rōmaji hito)

  1. person; human
    • 2004 June 4, “レオニンのじゅうしゃ [Leonin Squire]”, in フィフス・ドーン [Fifth Dawn] (in Japanese), Wizards of the Coast:
       (わたし) (おう)かもしれないが、 (へい) () (ひと) (びと)なくしては、 (わたし) (なに) (もの)でもないのだ。
      Watashi wa ō kamo shirenai ga, heishi ya hitobito naku shite wa, watashi wa nanimono demo nai no da.
      I may be king, but without my soldiers and my people, I am nobody.
  2. someone else
Derived termsEdit
SynonymsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
にん
Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (nyin, person). The goon, so likely the earlier borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

CounterEdit

(hiragana にん, rōmaji -nin)

  1. people
Usage notesEdit

The nin reading is used when counting three people or more. When counting one or two people as in 一人 (hitori, one person) or 二人 (futari, two people), the reading is (-ri).

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
じん
Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (nyin, person). The kan'on, so likely a later borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

(hiragana じん, rōmaji -jin)

  1. person from that group
    アジア (じん)、イギリス (じん)、スペイン (じん)、ドイツ (じん)、アメリカ (じん)、スコットランド (じん)
    Ajiajin, Igirisujin, Supeinjin, Doitsujin, Amerikajin, Sukottorandojin
    an Asian, an Englishman, a Spaniard, a German, an American, a Scot
  2. person who does the activity of the suffixed word

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. 3.0 3.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(in)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: in, McCune-Reischauer: in, Yale: in)
    • Name (hangeul): 사람 (revised: saram, McCune-Reischauer: saram, Yale: salam)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

NounEdit

() (counter )

  1. person
  2. human
  3. someone else

CompoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this word

Han characterEdit

(nhân, nhơn)

  1. (Northern Vietnam) Hán tự form of nhân, “human
  2. (Southern Vietnam) Hán tự form of nhơn, “human

NounEdit

  1. Abbreviation of người. (only in handwriting)
    con = con người

Alternative formsEdit

ReferencesEdit