See also: , ح, ج, خ, and Շ

U+3067, で
Composition: [U+3066] + ◌゙ [U+3099]


Japanese edit

Stroke order

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

The hiragana character (te) with a dakuten ().

Syllable edit


  1. The hiragana syllable (de). Its equivalent in katakana is (de).
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Originally a contraction of にて (nite), later treated as a conjugation of the copula (da).

Particle edit


  1. at: indicating a location at which something happens
    Koko de yasumitai.
    I want to rest here (at this location).
  2. with, by, using: indicating the means by or with which something happens
    fudepen de kaku
    to write with a brush pen
    Jitensha de ikimashō.
    Let's go by bicycle.
  3. (Can we verify(+) this sense?) in: indicating the containing by something
    Shiromizugi de oyoidemita
    I tried to swim in white swimsuit
Alternative forms edit
  • (formal) にて (nite)
  • (informal, playful) de

Adverb edit


  1. (informal) indicating the following sentence is a consequence of something previously stated: and then; therefore
    So what?
    De? Dō suru?
    Well? What will you do?
    De, Orinpikku yamemasen ka?
    Then, should we just give up the Olympic Games?

Verb edit


  1. is/am/are ... and: the て-form or conjunctive form of (da)
    Kore wa hon de, totemo omoshiroi desu.
    This is a book, and it is very interesting.

See also edit

Etymology 3 edit

Considered to be a contraction of (nite), where the ni is the continuative form of the negative auxiliary (zu). In use since Early Middle Japanese,[1] and first attested in The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter of the late 800s.[2]

Suffix edit


  1. [from late 800s] (Classical Japanese, archaic) Attaches to the 未然形 (mizenkei, irrealis or incomplete form) of verbs to form the negative conjunctive, equivalent to the modern ないで (-naide) or ずに (-zuni).

Etymology 4 edit

Corrupted from (ze, sentence-ending particle signifying emphasis).

Particle edit


  1. (dialectal, chiefly Kansai) sentence-ending particle signifying emphasis
    Sonai na koto shitara akan de.
    You shouldn't do things like that.

References edit

  1. ^ Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000