See also: , ح, ج, خ, and Շ

U+3067, で
HIRAGANA LETTER DE
Composition: [U+3066] + ◌゙ [U+3099]

[U+3066]
Hiragana
[U+3068]

Japanese edit

Stroke order
 

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

The hiragana character (te) with a dakuten ().

Syllable edit

(de

  1. The hiragana syllable (de). Its equivalent in katakana is (de).
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Originally a contraction of にて (nite), later treated as a conjugation of the copula (da).

Particle edit

(de

  1. at: indicating a location at which something happens
    ここ(やす)たい。
    Koko de yasumitai.
    I want to rest here (at this location).
  2. with, by, using: indicating the means by or with which something happens
    (ふで)ペン()
    fudepen de kaku
    to write with a brush pen
    ()(てん)(しゃ)()きましょう。
    Jitensha de ikimashō.
    Let's go by bicycle.
  3. (Can we verify(+) this sense?) in: indicating the containing by something
    (しろ)(みず)()(およ)いでみた
    Shiromizugi de oyoidemita
    I tried to swim in white swimsuit
Alternative forms edit
  • (formal) にて (nite)
  • (informal, playful) de

Adverb edit

(de

  1. (informal) indicating the following sentence is a consequence of something previously stated: and then; therefore
    で?
    De?
    So what?
    で?どうする
    De? Dō suru?
    Well? What will you do?
    で、オリンピックやめませんか?
    De, Orinpikku yamemasen ka?
    Then, should we just give up the Olympic Games?

Verb edit

(de

  1. is/am/are ... and: the て-form or conjunctive form of (da)
    これ(ほん)とても(おも)(しろ)です。
    Kore wa hon de, totemo omoshiroi desu.
    This is a book, and it is very interesting.

See also edit

Etymology 3 edit

Considered to be a contraction of (nite), where the ni is the continuative form of the negative auxiliary (zu). In use since Early Middle Japanese,[1] and first attested in The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter of the late 800s.[2]

Suffix edit

(-de

  1. [from late 800s] (Classical Japanese, archaic) Attaches to the 未然形 (mizenkei, irrealis or incomplete form) of verbs to form the negative conjunctive, equivalent to the modern ないで (-naide) or ずに (-zuni).

Etymology 4 edit

Corrupted from (ze, sentence-ending particle signifying emphasis).

Particle edit

(de

  1. (dialectal, chiefly Kansai) sentence-ending particle signifying emphasis
    そないな(こと)したらあかん
    Sonai na koto shitara akan de.
    You shouldn't do things like that.

References edit

  1. ^ Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000