Japanese Hiragana kyokashotai DA.png
U+3060, だ
Composition: [U+305F] + ◌゙ [U+3099]



Stroke order


Etymology 1Edit

The hiragana character (ta) with a dakuten ().


(romaji da)

  1. The hiragana syllable (da). Its equivalent in katakana is (da).
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

  • Forms beginning with or : From the particle (de) or である (de aru). The lemma form itself is a contraction of であ, clipping of である (de aru).
  • Forms beginning with : From classical Japanese なり (nari), whence Modern Japanese (na, na-inflection ending).


(daintransitive irregular

  1. Following parts of speech that do not inflect by themselves, including nouns, na-adjectives, adverbs and prepositional phrases.
    1. to be
      Kare wa mujitsu da.
      He is not guilty.
      Fuyu yasumi wa ashita kara da.
      Winter vacation is from tomorrow. (Winter vacation starts from tomorrow.)
      watashi ga kodomo datta koro
      when I was a child
      bijin de yasashii hito
      a person who is both beautiful and kind
      Daigakusei nara kore kurai wa dekiru hazu desu.
      This should be easy for a college student.
    2. should; be obliged to; ought to
      Obutsu wa shōdoku da.
      The filth should be disinfected.
      Okawari da.
      (Of a second helping) one more please.
      Nido to kuru n janai!
      Never come again!
  2. Some forms follow also inflectable words.
    1. です follow i-adjectives, as the standard polite terminal form for i-adjectives.
      Osoi desu ne.
      You are too slow.
    2. だろう / でしょう / なら can follow any inflectable word, equivalent to inflectable words + + だろう / でしょう / なら.
      Nomu nara noru na/nomu no nara noru na!
      If you are to drink, don't drive!
      Kare wa kitto seikō suru darō/kare wa kitto seikō suru no darō.
      I believe he will succeed.
Usage notesEdit
  • is the only commonly used modern Japanese verb with the terminal form (終止形) distinct from the attributive form (連体形). As relative clauses in Japanese are syntactically equivalent to attributives, relative clauses must end in the attributive form. Thus , as a terminal form, cannot appear at the end of a relative clause. The following forms are used instead of in such places:
  • Use after nouns, adverbs or prepositional phrases. But use before the nominalizer .
gakusei no Arisu
Alice, who is a student
kokomade no arasuji
the plot summary until now
Atoaji mo sukkiri na no ga tokuchō desu.
That the aftertaste is refreshing too is its distinguishing feature.
Kyō wa yasumi na no de hayaoki shite nakatta.
I didn't get up early because it is a holiday today.
  • Use after a na-adjective.
jikka ga yūfuku na yūjin
a friend whose family is rich
  • Alternatively, である can be used when following nouns and denoting the meaning "to be".
gakusei dearu Arisu
Alice, who is a student
  • This word is phonologically an enclitic, similar to particles. It is classified as 助動詞 (jodōshi, auxiliary verb) in traditional Japanese grammar.
  • である (de aru)
  • (ya) (Kansai dialect)
  • じゃ (ja) (Some western dialects. Also used in archaic speech in fictional characters)
See alsoEdit