Japanese edit

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Etymology 1 edit

Alternative spellings

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *ari. Compare the classical form () (ari).

Pronunciation edit

  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "ある"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
ある [áꜜrù]
Imperative (命令形) あれ [áꜜrè]
Key constructions
Passive - - -
Causative - - -
Potential あられる られ [àráréꜜrù]
Volitional あろう [àróꜜò]
Negative ない [náꜜì]
Negative perfective なかった かった [náꜜkàttà]
Formal あります りま [àrímáꜜsù]
Perfective あった った [áꜜttà]
Conjunctive あって って [áꜜttè]
Hypothetical conditional あれば れば [áꜜrèbà]

Verb edit

ある (aruintransitive godan (stem あり (ari), past あった (atta))

  1. to exist, to be, to have
    1. 有る:[note 1] (inanimate) to exist, be in existence
      Synonym: 存在する (sonzai suru)
      Nihon ni wa ōku no jinja ga aru.
      There are many shrines in Japan.
    2. 在る:[note 1] (inanimate) to be at a location; to be located
      Synonym: 位置する (ichi suru)
      Tēburu no ue ni uekibachi ga arimasu.
      The flowerpot is on top of the table.
      Nanji ni sachi are.
      I wish you happiness.
      (literally, “May happiness be with you.”)
    3. 有る: (animate) to exist, with the existence considered objective and abstract
      Synonyms: 存在する (sonzai suru), おる (oru, to exist (in a subjective sense))
      Mukashimukashi, ojīsan to obāsan ga arimashita.
      Once upon a time, there was an old man and an old woman.
    4. 有る: to happen, occur; to be performed, carried out
      Synonyms: 起こる (okoru), 発生する (hassei suru), 出来する (shuttai suru), 行われる (okonawareru)
      Nanika attara renraku shite kudasai.
      If anything happens, please call me.
      Konban, kaigi ga arimasu.
      There is a meeting tonight.
    5. 在る: to be put in a certain location, position or situation
      Kanojo wa atarashī shoku ni aru.
      She is in a new position.
      Kare wa ima gyakkyō ni aru.
      He is put currently in difficult circumstances.
    6. 有る: to have a certain number, amount, size, etc.
      Kaimaku made isshūkan aru.
      There is one week until the opening.
      2() GB(ギガバイト)あるni gigabaito mo aruTo have an entire 2 gigabytes large
    7. 有る: (of time) to pass, go by
      Ano hi kara mō sūnen ga aru.
      There are several years since that day.
  2. 有る: (of a matter or state) to be recognized, be acknowledged
    Kinnen, bukka no jōshō ni aru.
    It is known that prices have been rising in recent years.
    (literally, “In recent years, price rise is recognized.”)
  3. 在る: to depend on, lie in, be influenced by
    Synonym: 左右される (sayū sareru)
    Seikō no hiketsu wa doryoku ni aru.
    The secret to success lies in hard work.
  4. 在る: to be alive, surviving
    yo ni aru aida
    during one's lifetime
    (literally, “while alive in the world”)
  5. to have
    1. 有る: to be owned, be possessed
      Kuruma ga aru.
      I have a car.
    2. 有る: to be a characteristic or ability; to be included as a part
      Synonyms: 備わる (sonawaru), 含まれる (fukumareru)
      utau sainō ga aru
      have the talent for singing
      (きょう)(よう)あるkyōyō ga arube culturally refined (literally, “cultural refinement exists”)
    3. 有る: (of thoughts, emotions or sensations) to be felt
      Iitai koto ga aru.
      I have something to say.
      (literally, “(The feeling) that I want to say exists.”)
      Watashi ni wa fuan ga aru.
      I have anxiety.
    4. (auxiliary, after the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative form) of an adjective sometimes followed by a particle) Indicating that something has a particular quality or is in a particular state
      Sono ryōri wa karaku aru.
      That dish is spicily flavored.
  6. (auxiliary, after the conjunctive (te) form of a transitive verb)
    1. Indicating that the result of a certain action or behavior has continued until now.
      Doa ga shimete aru.
      The door is closed (and remains closed).
    2. Indicating that something is done in advance
      Ryokō ni iku mae ni, nimotsu o tsumete aru.
      I've packed my luggage (in advance) before going on a trip.
  7. (auxiliary, after the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative form) of a verb followed by つつ (tsutsu)) Indicating that the action or effect is currently ongoing.
    Kanojo no taichō wa jojoni kaifuku shitsutsu aru.
    Her health condition is gradually improving.
  8. (auxiliary, after a noun followed by (de)) Judging that something has a certain nature or state based on its explanation; or simply expressing assertion (see: である (de aru))
    Roba wa uma to dōzoku de aru.
    The donkey belongs to the same family as the horse.
    Kono shigoto wa kantan de wa aru ga, tanchō da.
    Easy as the job is, it's monotonous.
  9. (auxiliary, after the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative form) of a verb or a Sino-Japanese action noun which is usually prefixed with (o) or (go) respectively) Expressing respect toward the person performing the action
    O-ide are.
    Please come.
    Go-rikai aru to arigatai desu.
    It would be greatly appreciated if there is understanding (from you).
Usage notes edit
  • Various combinations with the term have certain meanings:
    • Used after (to, quotation particle), meaning to say; to give information, similar to という (to iu).
      Memo ni wa gogo ni-ji ni raisha suru to aru.
      On the memo it says "Come to the company at 2 p.m."
    • Used in the form あって (to atte), meaning due to (the situation or result), which is more formal than だから (dakara).
      Kono ibento wa, muryō de sanka dekiru to atte, ōku no hito ga atsumatta.
      Many people gathered for this event due to the fact that it was free to participate.
    • Used in the form だけある (dake aru) or だけのことはある (dake no koto wa aru), expressing that a suitable state or result can be obtained, which roughly translates as as expected; it is no surprise.
      Kanojo wa yūmei daigaku o dete iru dake atte, totemo atama ga ii.
      As expected from someone who graduated from a famous university, she is very intelligent.
    • Used in the form ことがある (koto ga aru), indicating a possible reaction to or result from a situation, or referring to experience, literally There exists that ....
      Renshū sureba jōtatsu suru koto ga aru.
      If you practice, you may improve.
      Nihon ni itta koto ga arimasu ka.
      Have you ever been to Japan?
    • Used in the form あって (ni atte), meaning in terms of; within the context of.
      Sekai-teki na pandemikku ni atte, hitobito wa masuku ya tearai o suru koto ga jūyō desu.
      During the global pandemic, it is important for people to wear masks and wash their hands.
    • Used in the form してある (ni shite aru), indicating that someone is intentionally considering something as if it were a certain way, even if it is not actually so.
      Kanojo wa kekkon shite inai ga, sudeni kekkon shita kibun ni shite aru.
      She's not married yet, but she already feels as if she were.
  1. 1.0 1.1 As a purely written distinction that exists because of two different Chinese characters (, ) mapping to a single Japanese verb (ある) that covers both concepts (kanbun kundoku), they have been confused since antiquity, as noted at   和習 on the Japanese Wikipedia.Wikipedia ja

Conjugation edit

Derived terms edit

See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Alternative spellings

The (れん)(たい)(けい) (rentaikei, adnominal form) of the classical verb () (ari, to exist).

Pronunciation edit

Adnominal edit

ある (aru

  1. certain, one, some
    Aru seijika ga sō itta.
    A certain politician said so.

Etymology 3 edit

For pronunciation and definitions of ある – see the following entries.
[verb] (obsolete) to become scattered
[verb] (obsolete) to become distant, to fade away, to wane
Alternative spelling
(This term, ある, is the hiragana spelling of the above term.)
For a list of all kanji read as ある, see Category:Japanese kanji read as ある.)

(The following entries are uncreated: 生る, 荒る.)

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN