はる (rōmaji haru)
はる (godan conjugation, rōmaji haru)
はる (rōmaji -haru)
- (Kansai) verbal suffix expressing respect to subject of verb; X-a-haru is equivalent to standard o-X-i ni naru.
Characteristic of Kyoto 敬語 (keigo, honorific/court language), used throughout Kansai dialect. Intermediate in politeness between base (informal) form of verb and polite -masu form, though in Kyoto widely used in casual speech, and much closer to informal.
- In Osaka and surrounding areas, attaches to -masu stem.
- In Kyoto and surrounding areas, such as Nara and Shiga, attaches to -a inflection of verb; with vowel stems, takes epenthetic -ya-: toor-u → toora-haru (= otoori ni naru). ik-u → ika-haru (= irassharu). mi-ru → miya-haru (= goran nasaru). suru → shi-haru. kuru → ki-haru. i-ru (to be) → iya-haru.
- After て form of verb, sometimes て changes た, is equivalent to irassharu: kangae-te haru (= kangaete irassharu).
- 〜はる can in turn take ます for additional politeness, yielding 〜はります, and other polite endings such as 〜んです, yielding 〜はるんです.