AbinomnEdit

NounEdit

du

  1. name

AiwooEdit

DeterminerEdit

du

  1. all

ReferencesEdit


Alemannic GermanEdit

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

du

  1. thou, you

DeclensionEdit


AmanabEdit

NounEdit

du

  1. a kind of bird

BambaraEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

du

  1. household

ReferencesEdit


BretonEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Brythonic *duβ, from Proto-Celtic *dubus, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ-.

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

du

  1. black
  2. swollen
  3. starved

MutationEdit

Derived termsEdit

NounEdit

du m

  1. black

MutationEdit

VerbEdit

du

MutationEdit

See alsoEdit

Colors in Breton · livioù (layout · text)
     gwenn      louet      du
             ruz              orañjez, melen-ruz; gell              melen
                          gwer, glas             
             cyan                           glas
                          magenta; glasruz              roz

BurushaskiEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

du (plural duwants)

  1. yew

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Sadaf Munshi (2015), “Word Lists”, in Burushaski Language Documentation Project[1].


CimbrianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle High German du, from Old High German , from Proto-West Germanic *þū, from Proto-Germanic *þū. Cognate with German du, archaic English thou (modern dialectal tha).

PronounEdit

du

  1. (Luserna, Sette Comuni) you (thou, singular familiar)
    Bobrall du geast, gedenkhte ber du pist.Wherever you go, remember who you are.

InflectionEdit

Sette Comuni:

Luserna:

Personal pronouns
singular plural
1st person i biar
2nd person du iar
3rd person er, si, 'z se

ReferencesEdit

  • “du” in Martalar, Umberto Martello; Bellotto, Alfonso (1974) Dizionario della lingua Cimbra dei Sette Communi vicentini, 1st edition, Roana, Italy: Instituto di Cultura Cimbra A. Dal Pozzo
  • “du” in Patuzzi, Umberto, ed., (2013) Ünsarne Börtar [Our Words], Luserna, Italy: Comitato unitario delle isole linguistiche storiche germaniche in Italia / Einheitskomitee der historischen deutschen Sprachinseln in Italien

CornishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Brythonic *duβ, from Proto-Celtic *dubus, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ-.

PronunciationEdit

  • (Revived Middle Cornish) IPA(key): [dyː]
  • (Revived Late Cornish) IPA(key): [diˑʊ]

AdjectiveEdit

du

  1. black

MutationEdit

See alsoEdit

Colors in Cornish · liwyow (layout · text)
     gwynn      loos, glas      du
             rudh; kogh              rudhvelyn; gell, gorm              melyn
                          gwyrdh, glas             
                                       glas
             glasrudh, purpur              majenta; purpur, glasrudh              gwynnrudh, kigliw

DanishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Danish thu, from Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂ (you).

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

du (objective dig)

  1. thou, you (2nd person singular subject pronoun, informal)
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Danish dughæ, from Old Norse duga, from Proto-Germanic *duganą (to be useful), cognate with Swedish duga, German taugen, Gothic 𐌳𐌿𐌲𐌰𐌽 (dugan).

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

du (imperative du, present dur or duer, past duede, past participle duet)

  1. be good
  2. be fit

InflectionEdit


Dena'inaEdit

ParticleEdit

du

  1. interrogative particle (placed at the end of the sentence to make a question)

DutchEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • dou (obsolete, Hollandic)

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Dutch du, from Old Dutch thū, from Proto-West Germanic *þū, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /dy/
  • Hyphenation: du
  • Rhymes: -y

PronounEdit

du

  1. (obsolete or dialectal) Second-person singular informal pronoun; thou
    • 1620, Jacob Cats, Velt-teycken, alle eerbare jonge lieden toegeeygent
      Sy roept, du bist een slaef, in mijne dienst gebonden
      She calls, thou art a slave, bound to my service
    • 1625, Joost van den Vondel, Wiech-liedt
      Soo leyt dyn memmetje dy in dyn wiechje te rust.
      So thy mama lays thee to rest in thy cradle.

Usage notesEdit

  • Du was already falling out of general use in early modern Dutch. It was still relatively common in the oblique cases, in vocatives or close to vocative appositions and when indicating contempt.
  • The corresponding verbal ending was -st. The present form of zijn was bist, for hebben the present forms hebst and hest were in use. When the nominative directly followed the verb, contraction usually occurred: -stu; bistu, hebstu.

InflectionEdit


ElfdalianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂. Cognate with Swedish du.

PronounEdit

du

  1. you (singular), thou

EsperantoEdit

Esperanto numbers (edit)
20
 ←  1 2 3  → 
    Cardinal: du
    Ordinal: dua
    Adverbial: due
    Multiplier: duobla, duopa
    Fractional: duona, duono

EtymologyEdit

From Latin duo, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /du/
  • (file)

NumeralEdit

du

  1. two (2)

Derived termsEdit


FrenchEdit

EtymologyEdit

An irregular development from Old French del. The expected modern form would be *deau.

PronunciationEdit

ContractionEdit

du

  1. Contraction of de + le (of the)
  2. Contraction of de + le; forms the partitive article

Usage notesEdit

  • The partitive article signifies "some", but it often is not translated in English, Dutch, or German.

GaikundiEdit

NounEdit

du

  1. man

Further readingEdit


GermanEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle High German du, duo, , from Old High German (akin to Old Saxon thū and English thou), itself from Proto-West Germanic *þū, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

PronunciationEdit

  • (standard, generally) IPA(key): /duː/
  • (colloquially in unstressed position) IPA(key): /də/
  • In colloquial speech in Germany, the /d/ can be lost after a preceding coronal when du is unstressed. This can happen after the second person singular verb ending, even in purposefully enunciated speech.

PronounEdit

du

  1. you (thou, singular familiar)

Usage notesEdit

  • Du is the informal second person pronoun. In formal speech, the third person plural Sie (always capitalised) is used instead.
  • A general rule of thumb is that du is used to address one's friends, relatives, and those under about 16 years of age. Du is always used to address children and non-human beings.
  • Usage also depends on the setting: two unacquainted, middle-aged persons are likely to use du when they meet at social gatherings, but much less so when they happen on each other in the street. People under 30 often use du among each other, but they still use Sie when one of them is at work, e.g. in a shop (some cafés and most pubs are an exception).
  • There is also a great deal of (often subtle) regional variation throughout the German-speaking world.

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit

  • du” in Duden online

GothicEdit

RomanizationEdit

du

  1. Romanization of 𐌳𐌿

HunsrikEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle High German and Old High German (akin to Old Saxon thū and English thou), itself from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

du

  1. thou, you
    Du bist aarich scheen.
    You are so beautiful.

InflectionEdit

Further readingEdit


IdoEdit

Ido numbers (edit)
20
 ←  1 2 3  → 
    Cardinal: du
    Ordinal: duesma
    Adverbial: dufoye
    Multiplier: duopla
    Fractional: duima

EtymologyEdit

From Esperanto du, from French deux, Spanish dos, Italian due, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁.

NumeralEdit

du

  1. two (2)

KalashaEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Sanskrit द्व (dva), from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁. Compare Hindi दो (do), Bhojpuri दू (), Konkani दोन (don).

NumeralEdit

du

  1. two; 2

LithuanianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Baltic *duwō, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁. Compare Latvian divi. Cognate to Latin duo.

PronunciationEdit

NumeralEdit

Lithuanian cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : du
    Ordinal : antras

 m (feminine dvì)

  1. two (2)

DeclensionEdit


Lower SorbianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *jьdǫ (first-person singular) and *jьdǫtь (third-person plural), inflected forms of *jьti.

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

du

  1. inflection of hyś:
    1. first-person singular present
    2. third-person plural present

SynonymsEdit

  • (first-person singular): źom

LuxembourgishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *þū.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

du

  1. second-person singular, informal, nominative: you, thou
    Wéi al bass du?How old are you?

DeclensionEdit


MandarinEdit

RomanizationEdit

du

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of .
  4. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notesEdit

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Middle DutchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Dutch thū, from Proto-West Germanic *þū, from Proto-Germanic *þū.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

du

  1. thou, you (singular, informal)
    Synonym: gi

Usage notesEdit

This pronoun began to be replaced by gi in formal address during the Middle Dutch period, and eventually fell out of use altogether.

InflectionEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Dutch: (obsolete) du, dou, douw
  • Limburgish: doe

Further readingEdit

  • du”, in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000
  • Verwijs, E.; Verdam, J. (1885–1929), “du”, in Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, →ISBN

Middle EnglishEdit

AdjectiveEdit

du

  1. Alternative form of dewe (due)

Middle Low GermanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Saxon thū, from Proto-Germanic *þū.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

  1. thou, you (second person singular nominative)

DeclensionEdit

DescendantsEdit


MòchenoEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle High German du, from Old High German , from Proto-West Germanic *þū, from Proto-Germanic *þū. Cognate with German du, archaic English thou (modern dialectal tha).

PronounEdit

du

  1. you (thou, singular familiar)

InflectionEdit

Personal pronouns
singular plural
1st person i biar
2nd person du ir
3rd person er, si, s sei

ReferencesEdit


NormanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin dux, ducem.

NounEdit

du m

  1. duke

Related termsEdit


North FrisianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Frisian dwā, from Proto-Germanic *dōną. Cognates include West Frisian dwaan, English do.

VerbEdit

du

  1. (Föhr-Amrum) to do
  2. (Föhr-Amrum) to give

ConjugationEdit



Northern KurdishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Iranian *dwáH (compare Persian دو(do), Pashto دوه(dwa), Avestan 𐬛𐬎𐬎𐬀(duua)), from Proto-Indo-Iranian *dwáH (compare Sanskrit द्व (dvá), Marathi दोन (don), Hindi दो (do)/Urdu دو(do), Punjabi ਦੋ (do)), from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁ (compare Russian два (dva), Lithuanian du, Greek δύο (dýo), Spanish dos, English two).

NumeralEdit

Central Kurdish دوو()

du

  1. two (2)

Northern SamiEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (Kautokeino) IPA(key): /ˈtuː/

PronounEdit

  1. accusative/genitive of don

Norwegian BokmålEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse þú (you), from Proto-Germanic *þū (you), from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂ (you).

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

du (objective case deg)

  1. thou, you (second person, singular)

Derived termsEdit

  • due (to say 'you' to someone)

VerbEdit

du

  1. imperative of due

ReferencesEdit

See alsoEdit


Norwegian NynorskEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂. Akin to English thou.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

du (objective case deg)

  1. you, thou (second person, singular)

ReferencesEdit

See alsoEdit


ObokuitaiEdit

NounEdit

du

  1. bird

Further readingEdit

Bill Palmer, The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area (→ISBN, 2017), page 531, table 95, Comparative basic vocabulary in Lakes Plain Languages


Old FrenchEdit

Alternative formsEdit

ContractionEdit

du

  1. contraction of de + le (of the)

Old High GermanEdit

 
one drawing of the inscription on the Bülach fibula

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-West Germanic *þū, from Proto-Germanic *þū, whence also Old English þū, Old Norse þú, and ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂. Perhaps the earliest attestation of the pronoun is the inscription on the Bülach fibula, which may show ᛞᚢ (du) already differentiated from other Germanic languages’ þu.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

  1. thou, you (second-person singular pronoun)
    • 6th-7th century, inscription on the Bülach fibula:
      ᚠᚱᛁᚠᚱᛁᛞᛁᛚ / ᛞᚢ / ...
      frifridil / du / []
      [my] beloved, you / []

Usage notesEdit

Some speakers of Old High German appear to have contrasted the "polite" singular (plural forms) with the regular, informal singular (singular forms), as in New High German (Modern German) Sie versus du. This distinction is however not well-attested, and may have been regional, genre-dependent, or only in Late Old High German.

InflectionEdit

Old High German personal pronouns
Number Person Gender Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative
Singular First ih
(ihha, ihcha)
mīn mir mih
Second dīn dir dih
Third Masculine er (her) (sīn) imu, imo inan, in
Feminine siu; , si ira (iru, iro) iru, iro sia
Neuter iz es, is imu, imo iz
Plural First wir unsēr uns unsih
Second ir iuwēr iu iuwih
Third Masculine sie iro im, in sie
Feminine sio iro im, in sio
Neuter siu iro im, in siu
Polite form Second   ir iuwēr iu iuwih

DescendantsEdit

  • Middle High German: du
    • Alemannic German: du
      Swabian: dau, d
    • Bavarian:
      Cimbrian: du
      Mòcheno: du
    • Central Franconian: du, dou
      Hunsrik: du
      Kölsch: do
    • German: du
    • Luxembourgish: du
    • Rhine Franconian:
      Palatine German: du
      Pennsylvania German: du
    • Yiddish: דו(du)

ReferencesEdit

  • Heinz Klingenberg, Runenfibel von Bülach, Kanton Zürich. Liebesinschrift aus alemannischer Frühzeit, in the Alemannisches Jahrbuch (1973/75), page 308
  • Heinz Klingenberg, Die Runeninschrift aus Bülach, in Helvetia archaeologica, volume 7 (1976), pages 116–121
  • Stephan Opitz, Südgermanische Runeninschriften im älteren Futhark aus der Merowingerzeit (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1977)

Old IrishEdit

PrepositionEdit

du

  1. Alternative form of do

MutationEdit

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
du du
pronounced with /ð(ʲ)-/
ndu
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Pennsylvania GermanEdit

EtymologyEdit

Compare German du, English thou, Swedish du.

PronounEdit

du

  1. you

DeclensionEdit


Pite SamiEdit

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

du

  1. those

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Joshua Wilbur (2014) A grammar of Pite Saami, Berlin: Language Science Press

RomanianEdit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

du

  1. second-person singular imperative of duce
    Du-te acasă.
    Go home.

Saterland FrisianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Frisian thū, from Proto-West Germanic *þū.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /du/
  • Hyphenation: du
  • Rhymes: -u

PronounEdit

du (oblique die)

  1. thou, you

Usage notesEdit

  • du is at times omitted when used with a verb.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Marron C. Fort (2015), “du”, in Saterfriesisches Wörterbuch mit einer phonologischen und grammatischen Übersicht, Buske, →ISBN

ScotsEdit

PronounEdit

du (objective case dee, vocative dee, possessive determiner dines)

  1. Orkney, Shetland form of thou (thou)

Sranan TongoEdit

EtymologyEdit

From English do.

VerbEdit

du

  1. to do

NounEdit

du

  1. deed, action
  2. (archaic) dance performance

SumerianEdit

RomanizationEdit

du

  1. Romanization of 𒁺 (du)

SwedishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Swedish þū, from Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

du

  1. you (familiar sg.)
  2. thou

Usage notesEdit

While du is the traditionally familiar mode of address, it is since the early '70s the standard in almost all circumstances, possibly capitalized in formal communications. This was the result of the so-called du-reformen.

Recently, use of the second-person plural pronoun ni as a less familiar (and thus more formal) pronoun has appeared to some extent, but mainly amongst shopkeepers towards the customers.

The same pronoun ni has also been used historically as a formal way of address, but its use has (in particular in Sweden, not so much in Swedish-speaking parts of Finland) been restricted to addressing people of lower social status, whereby a plethora of different constructions were employed as to avoid the issue of pronouns whatsoever. See also the article about T-V distinction in Wikipedia.

DeclensionEdit

AnagramsEdit


TlingitEdit

PronounEdit

du

  1. his/her

See alsoEdit


VenetianEdit

EtymologyEdit

Compare Italian due

NumeralEdit

du m

  1. two

SynonymsEdit


VietnameseEdit

PronunciationEdit

EtymologyEdit

Sino-Vietnamese word from /.

VerbEdit

du

  1. (only in compounds) to walk

Derived termsEdit

Derived terms

WelshEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Brythonic *duβ, from Proto-Celtic *dubus, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ-.

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

du (feminine singular du, plural duon, equative dued, comparative duach, superlative duaf)

  1. black
    Mae ganddo fo fwstash du.
    He has a black mustache

Related termsEdit

MutationEdit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
du ddu nu unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

See alsoEdit

Colors in Welsh · lliwiau (layout · text)
     gwyn      llwyd      du
             coch; rhudd              oren, melyngoch; brown              melyn; melynwyn
             gwyrdd leim              gwyrdd             
             gwyrddlas; glaswyrdd              asur, gwynlas              glas
             fioled; indigo              majenta; porffor              pinc

White HmongEdit

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

du

  1. smooth