English edit

 
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Etymology 1 edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
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From Middle English don, from Old English dōn, from Proto-West Germanic *dōn, from Proto-Germanic *dōną, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰeh₁- (to put, place, do, make).

For senses 4 and 5, compare Old Norse duga, whence Danish du.

The past tense form is from Middle English didde, dude, from Old English dyde, *diede, an unexpected development from Proto-Germanic *dedǭ/*dedē (the expected reflex would be *ded), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰédʰeh₁ti, an athematic e-reduplicated verb of the same root *dʰeh₁-.

The meaningless use of do in interrogative, negative, and affirmative sentences (e.g. "Do you like painting?" "Yes, I do"), existing in some form in most Germanic languages,[1] is thought by some linguists to be one of the Brittonicisms in English, calqued from Brythonic.[2] It is first recorded in Middle English, where it may have marked the perfective aspect, though in some cases the meaning seems to be imperfective. In Early Modern English, any meaning in such contexts was lost, making it a dummy auxiliary, and soon thereafter its use became mandatory in most questions and negations.

Doublets include deed, deem, -dom, but not deal.

Other cognates include, via Latin, English feast, festival, fair (celebration), via Greek, English theo-, theme, thesis, and Sanskrit दधाति (dadhāti, to put), धातृ (dhātṛ, creator) and धातु (dhātu, layer, element, root).

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

do (third-person singular simple present does, present participle doing, simple past did, past participle done)

  1. (auxiliary) A syntactic marker.
    1. (auxiliary) A syntactic marker in a question whose main verb is not another auxiliary verb or be.
      Do you go there often?
    2. (auxiliary) A syntactic marker in negations with the indicative and imperative moods.
      I do not go there often.
      Do not listen to him.
    3. (auxiliary) A syntactic marker for emphasis with the indicative, imperative, and subjunctive moods.
      But I do go sometimes.
      Do tell us.
      • 1913, Joseph C[rosby] Lincoln, chapter VII, in Mr. Pratt’s Patients, New York, N.Y., London: D[aniel] Appleton and Company, →OCLC:
        “I don't know how you and the ‘head,’ as you call him, will get on, but I do know that if you call my duds a ‘livery’ again there'll be trouble. It's bad enough to go around togged out like a life saver on a drill day, but I can stand that 'cause I'm paid for it. []
      • 1950, C. S. Lewis, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe:
        "Do stop it," said Susan; "it won't make things any better having a row between you two. Let's go and find Lucy."
    4. (pro-verb) A syntactic marker that refers back to an earlier verb and allows the speaker to avoid repeating the verb; in most dialects, not used with auxiliaries such as be, though it can be in AAVE.
      I play tennis; she does too.
      (nonstandard)
      They don't think it be like it is, but it do.
  2. (transitive) To perform; to execute.
    Synonyms: accomplish, carry out, functionate
    If you want something done, do it yourself.
    All you ever do is surf the Internet. What will you do this afternoon?
    • 2013 June 21, Oliver Burkeman, “The tao of tech”, in The Guardian Weekly, volume 189, number 2, page 48:
      The dirty secret of the internet is that all this distraction and interruption is immensely profitable. Web companies like to boast about […], or offering services that let you "stay up to date with what your friends are doing", [] and so on. But the real way to build a successful online business is to be better than your rivals at undermining people's control of their own attention.
  3. (obsolete, transitive) To cause, make (someone) (do something).
  4. (intransitive, transitive) To suffice.
    it’s not the best broom, but it will have to do;  this will do me, thanks.
  5. (intransitive) To be reasonable or acceptable.
    It simply will not do to have dozens of children running around such a quiet event.
  6. (ditransitive) To have (as an effect).
    The fresh air did him some good.
  7. (intransitive) To fare, perform (well or poorly).
    Our relationship isn't doing very well;  how do you do?
    • 2013 July 20, “Welcome to the plastisphere”, in The Economist, volume 408, number 8845:
      Plastics are energy-rich substances, which is why many of them burn so readily. Any organism that could unlock and use that energy would do well in the Anthropocene. Terrestrial bacteria and fungi which can manage this trick are already familiar to experts in the field.
    1. (especially England, intransitive) To fare well; to thrive; to prosper; (of livestock) to fatten.
      • 1908 September 21, “The fattening beast”, in Mark Lane Express Agricultural Journal[4], page 340:
        A big framed beast takes a lot of food — expensive food at that [—] to keep it doing []
      • 1971, George Ewart Evans, quoting ploughman Charles Last (born 1878), Tools of Their Trades: An Oral History of Men at Work c. 1900[5], Taplinger Publishing Company, →ISBN, page 68:
        That farm would go like a rick a-fire. It would do: it would go forward and prosper and make him his money.
  8. (transitive, chiefly in questions) To have as one's job.
    What does Bob do? — He's a plumber.
  9. To perform the tasks or actions associated with (something).
    Don't forget to do your report!
  10. To cook.
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:cook
    I'll just do some eggs.
    • 1889, Jerome K. Jerome, Three Men in a Boat [] [6]:
      It seemed, from his account, that he was very good at doing scrambled eggs.
    • 1944, “News from the Suburbs”, in Punch[7]:
      We went down below, and the galley-slave did some ham and eggs, and the first lieutenant, who was aged 19, told me about Sicily, and time went like a flash.
    • 2005, Alan Tansley, The Grease Monkey, page 99:
      Next morning, they woke about ten o'clock, Kev, went for a shower while Alice, did some toast, put the kettle on, and when he came out, she went in.
  11. (transitive) To travel in, to tour, to make a circuit of.
    • 1869, Louisa M[ay] Alcott, “Our Foreign Correspondent”, in Little Women: [], part second, Boston, Mass.: Roberts Brothers, →OCLC, page 115:
      We 'did' London to our hearts' content,—thanks to Fred and Frank,—and were sorry to go away; []
    • 1892, James Batchelder, Multum in Parvo: Notes from the Life and Travels of James Batchelder[8], page 97:
      After doing Paris and its suburbs, I started for London []
    • 1968 July 22, Ralph Schoenstein, “Nice Place to Visit”, in New York Magazine[9], page 28:
      No tourist can get credit for seeing America first without doing New York, the Wonderful Town, the Baghdad-on-Hudson, the dream in the eye of the Kansas hooker []
    Let’s do New York also.
  12. (transitive) To treat in a certain way.
    • 1894, Harper's New Monthly Magazine[10], volume 87, page 59, column 1:
      They did me well, I assure you—uncommon well: Bollinger of '84; green chartreuse fit for a prince; []
    • 1928, Dorothy L[eigh] Sayers, “The Abominable History of the Man with Copper Fingers”, in Lord Peter Views the Body:
      Upon my word, although he [my host] certainly did me uncommonly well, I began to feel I'd be more at ease among the bushmen.
    • 1994, Jervey Tervalon, Understand This[11], →ISBN, page 50:
      "Why you gonna do me like that?" I ask. "Do what?" "Dog me."
    • 2023, “Christmas, Why You Gotta Do Me Like This”, performed by Eels:
      Christmas, why you gotta do me like this / I always embraced you / Held you close inside my heart
  13. (transitive) To work for or on, by way of caring for, looking after, preparing, cleaning, keeping in order, etc.
    • 2018, Kate Atkinson, Transcription, →ISBN, page 291:
      The woman-who-did did not do very well, Juliet thought.
  14. (intransitive, obsolete) To act or behave in a certain manner; to conduct oneself.
    • 1611, The Holy Bible, [] (King James Version), London: [] Robert Barker, [], →OCLC, 2 Kings 17:34, column 2:
      Vnto this day they doe after the former manners: they feare not the Lord, neither doe they after their Statutes, or after their Ordinances, or after the Law and Commaundement which the Lord commaunded the children of Iacob, whom hee named Iſrael, []
  15. (transitive) To spend (time) in jail. (See also do time)
    Synonym: serve
    I did five years for armed robbery.
  16. (transitive) To impersonate or depict.
    Synonyms: imitate, personate, take off
    They really laughed when he did Clinton, with a perfect accent and a leer.
  17. (with 'a' and the name of a person, place, event, etc.) To copy or emulate the actions or behaviour that is associated with the person or thing mentioned.
    He did a Henry VIII and got married six times.
    He was planning to do a 9/11.
  18. (transitive, slang) To kill.
    Synonyms: do in, murder, off, rub out; see also Thesaurus:kill
    • 1984, William Gibson, Neuromancer (Sprawl; book 1), New York, N.Y.: Ace Books, →ISBN, page 22:
      Case pulled the .22 out of his pocket and levelled it at Wage's crotch. “I hear you wanna do me.”
    • 2003 August 17, George Pelecanos, “Bad Dreams” (43:27 from the start), in The Wire, season 2, episode 11 (television production), spoken by Omar Little (Michael K. Williams), via HBO:
      About a year ago, a boy name Brandon got got here in Baltimore. Stuck and burned before he passed. [] Wasn't no need for y'all to do him the way y'all did.
    • 2004, Patrick Stevens, Politics Is the Greatest Game: A Johannesburg Liberal Lampoon[12], →ISBN, page 314:
      He's gonna do me, Jarvis. I kid you not, this time he's gonna do me proper.
    • 2007, E.J. Churchill, The Lazarus Code, page 153:
      The order came and I did him right there. The bullet went right where it was supposed to go.
  19. (transitive, slang) To deal with for good and all; to finish up; to undo; to ruin; to do for.
    • 1870, Charles Reade, Put Yourself in His Place:
      Sometimes they lie in wait in these dark streets, and fracture his skull, [] or break his arm, or cut the sinew of his wrist; and that they call doing him.
  20. (informal) To punish for a misdemeanor.
    He got done for speeding.
    Teacher'll do you for that!
  21. (transitive, slang) To have sex with. (See also do it)
    Synonyms: go to bed with, sleep with; see also Thesaurus:copulate with
    • c. 1588–1593 (date written), [William Shakespeare], The Most Lamentable Romaine Tragedie of Titus Andronicus: [] (First Quarto), London: [] Iohn Danter, and are to be sold by Edward White & Thomas Millington, [], published 1594, →OCLC, [Act IV, scene ii]:
      Deme. Villaine what haſt thou done?
      A. That which thou canſt not vndoe.
      Chiron. Thou haſt vndone our mother.
      Aron. Villaine I haue done thy mother.
    • 1996, James Russell Kincaid, My Secret Life, page 81:
      [] one day I did her on the kitchen table, and several times on the dining-room table.
    • 2008, Donna Hill, On the Line[13], page 84:
      The uninhibited woman within wanted to do him right there on the countertop, but I remained composed.
  22. (transitive) To cheat or swindle.
    Synonyms: defraud, diddle, mug off, rip off, scam; see also Thesaurus:deceive
    That guy just did me out of two hundred bucks!
    • 1852, Thomas De Quincey, Sir William Hamilton:
      He was not to be done, at his time of life, by frivolous offers of a compromise that might have secured him seventy-five per cent.
  23. (transitive) To convert into a certain form; especially, to translate.
    the novel has just been done into English;  I'm going to do this play into a movie
  24. (transitive, intransitive) To finish.
  25. (archaic, dialectal, transitive, auxiliary) Used to form the present progressive of verbs.
    • 1844, William Barnes, “Evenén in the Village”, in Poems of Rural Life in the Dorset Dialect:
      ...An' the dogs do bark, an' the rooks be a-vled to the elems high and dark, an' the water do roar at mill.
  26. (stock exchange) To cash or to advance money for, as a bill or note.
  27. (informal, transitive, ditransitive) To make or provide.
    Synonyms: furnish, give, supply; see also Thesaurus:give
    Do they do haircuts there?
    Could you do me a burger with mayonnaise instead of ketchup?
  28. (informal, transitive) To injure (one's own body part).
    • 2010 April 24, “Given stretchered off with suspected broken shoulder”, in The Irish Times[14], retrieved 2015-07-21:
      "Defender Kolo Toure admitted Given will be a loss, but gave his backing to Nielsen. 'I think he's done his shoulder,' said the Ivorian."
    • 2014 April 14, Matt Cleary, “What do Australia's cricketers do on holiday?”, in ESPNcricinfo[15], retrieved 2015-07-21:
      "Watto will spend the entire winter stretching and doing Pilates, and do a hamstring after bending down to pick up his petrol cap after dropping it filling his car at Caltex Cronulla."
    • 2014 August 13, Harry Thring, “I knew straight away I'd done my ACL: Otten”, in AFL.com.au[16], retrieved 2015-07-21:
      "'I knew straight away I'd done my ACL, I heard the sound - it was very loud and a few of the boys said they heard it as well,' Otten said."
  29. (transitive) To take drugs.
    I do cocaine.
  30. (transitive, in the form be doing [somewhere]) To exist with a purpose or for a reason.
    What's that car doing in our swimming pool?
Usage notes edit
  • In older forms of English, when the pronoun thou was in active use, and verbs used -est for distinct second-person singular indicative forms, the verb do had two such forms: dost, in auxiliary uses, and doest, in other uses. The past tense of both forms is didst.
  • Similarly, when the ending -eth was in active use for third-person singular present indicative forms, the form doth was used as an auxiliary, and the form doeth was used elsewhere.
Conjugation edit
Antonyms edit
Derived terms edit
Translations edit
See also edit

Noun edit

do (plural dos or do's or (uncommon) doos)

  1. (UK, informal) A party, celebration, social function; usually of moderate size and formality.
    Synonyms: get-together; see also Thesaurus:party
    We’re having a bit of a do on Saturday to celebrate my birthday.
    • 1980, Jona Lewie, Keef Trouble (lyrics and music), “You'll Always Find Me in the Kitchen at Parties”, performed by Jona Lewie:
      She was into French cuisine but I ain't no Cordon Bleu / This was at some do in Palmers Green, I had no luck with her
    • 2013 September 13, Russell Brand, “Russell Brand and the GQ awards”, in The Guardian[17]:
      [] ; this aside, though, neon forever the moniker of trash, this is a posh do, in an opera house full of folk in tuxes.
  2. (informal) Clipping of hairdo.
    Alternative form: 'do
    Nice do!
    I don't like to spend time on my hairstyle, so I usually just wear a do-rag.
    • 2012, Hannah Richell, The Secrets of the Tides, →ISBN, page 464:
      I like the new do.
  3. (chiefly fossilized) Something that can or should be done.
    Antonym: don't
    Don't forget the dos and don'ts.
    • 1916, Eleanor H. Porter, chapter VIII, in Just David[18]:
      With the coming of Monday arrived a new life for David—a curious life full of "don'ts" and "dos."
  4. (chiefly obsolete, fossilized in the UK) Something that has been done.
    "How come you quit?" "I'm moving to London." "Fair dos."
  5. (archaic) Ado; bustle; stir; to-do; A period of confusion or argument.
    Synonym: to-do
    • 1689, John Selden, Table Talk:
      A great deal of do, and a great deal of trouble.
  6. (obsolete, UK, slang) A cheat; a swindler.
  7. (obsolete, UK, slang) An act of swindling; a fraud or deception.
  8. (UK, slang) A homicide.
    • 2020 December 4, “No fibs” (from 1:35 of the track, 18:51 of the whole mixtape), in (Zone 2) Karma × Trizzac (lyrics), Demented:
      Get it done, no not properly
      Them man thought that they got me
      True, I came back like a fucking zombie
      Attempted do with the ching
      Have an opp boy say “please don’t chong me!”
Usage notes edit
  • For the plural of the noun, the spelling dos would be correct; do's is often used for the sake of legibility, but is sometimes considered incorrect.
Translations edit

Etymology 2 edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

From the name of musicologist Giovanni Battista Doni, who suggested replacing the original ut with an open syllable for ease of singing. First found in Italian.

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

do (plural dos)

  1. (music) A syllable used in solfège to represent the first and eighth tonic of a major scale.
    Synonym: (archaic) ut
Translations edit

See also edit

names for musical notes

Etymology 3 edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Short for ditto.

Alternative forms edit

Adverb edit

do (not comparable)

  1. (archaic) Abbreviation of ditto.[3]

Etymology 4 edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Shortening of dozen.

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit

do

  1. The cardinal number occurring after el and before do one in a duodecimal system. Written 10, decimal value 12.

See also edit

See also edit

etymologically unrelated terms

References edit

  • do”, in OneLook Dictionary Search.
  1. ^ Langer, Nils (2001) Linguistic Purism in Action: How auxiliary tun was stigmatized in Early New High German[1], de Gruyter, →ISBN
  2. ^ John McWhorter (2009), “What else happened to English? A brief for the Celtic hypothesis”, in English language & linguistics, volume 13, issue 2, Cambridge: University Press, pages 163-191
  3. ^ “The O'Connell National Statue”, in The Freeman's Journal[2], Dublin, 23 October 1862, page 2

Anagrams edit

Albanian edit

Alternative forms edit

Verb edit

do

  1. second/third-person singular present indicative of dua

Atong (India) edit

Etymology edit

From Hindi दो (do).

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit

do (Bengali script দো)

  1. two

Synonyms edit

References edit

Bambara edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

do

  1. group

References edit

Barai edit

Noun edit

do

  1. water

References edit

  • The Papuan Languages of New Guinea (1986, →ISBN)

Bavarian edit

Etymology edit

From Middle High German doch, from Old High German doh, from Proto-West Germanic *þauh, from Proto-Germanic *þauh. Cognates include German doch, Dutch doch, Yiddishדאָך(dokh), Luxembourgish dach, English though, Old Norse þó, Gothic 𐌸𐌰𐌿𐌷 (þauh).

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

do

  1. Expresses a contrast
    1. Contradicts what may be believed and/or emphasises a certainty: certainly, but, really, just (always unstressed)
      Mia san do kane Trottln.We certainly are no idiots.
      Des Gschäft håd do zugsperrt.But the shop has closed down.
      Den kenn i do!I do know him.
      I wui do nur wissa, wo's då auße geht.I really just want to know where the exit is.
    2. Emphasis on a different outcome than expected: after all, in the end (always stressed)
      Mia san do kane Trottln.We are no idiots after all.
      Des Gschäft håd do zugsperrt.The shop has closed down after all.
      I håb's versuacht, owa dånn do ned gschåfft.I've tried, but in the end I failed.

Boko edit

Numeral edit

do

  1. one

Catalan edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Latin dōnum (gift).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

do m (plural dons)

  1. gift
  2. talent

Etymology 2 edit

Borrowed from Italian do.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

do m (plural dos)

  1. (music) do (first note of diatonic scale)

Etymology 3 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

do

  1. (obsolete) first-person singular present indicative of dar

Central Franconian edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old High German dār (there).

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

do

  1. here; there; in this or that place

Etymology 2 edit

From Old High German duo (then), variant of do, dō. Compare German da, Dutch toen.

Alternative forms edit

  • du, dunn (southern Moselle Francoinan)

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /doː/ (traditional)
  • IPA(key): /dɔː/ (now sometimes by conflation with etymology 1 under standard German influence)

Adverb edit

do

  1. (Ripuarian, northern Moselle Franconian) then; back then (at a certain time in the past)

Etymology 3 edit

From Old High German du.

Alternative forms edit

  • du (many dialects)
  • dou (some dialects of Moselle Franconian)
  • de (unstressed form)

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

do

  1. (few dialects, including Kölsch) thou; you (singular)

Chinese edit

Etymology edit

From English do. Resemblance to Taishanese (du1) is probably coincidence.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

do (Hong Kong Cantonese)

  1. to do
  2. to work
  3. (euphemistic) to have sex

Synonyms edit

Derived terms edit

References edit

  • Bolton, Kingsley; Hutton, Christopher (2005) A Dictionary of Cantonese Slang: The Language of Hong Kong Movies, Street Gangs and City Life, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, →ISBN, page 100
  • English Loanwords in Hong Kong Cantonese

Czech edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Czech do, from Proto-Slavic *do.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

do [+genitive]

  1. into, in (to the inside of)
    Vešel do místnosti.He walked into the room.
    Dostala se jí voda do bot.Water got in her boots.
  2. to, in (in the direction of, and arriving at; indicating destination)
    Jdeme do obchodu.We are walking to the shop.
    Přiletěli jsme do New Yorku.We arrived in New York.
  3. until (up to the time of)
    Zůstal tam až do neděle.He stayed there until Sunday.
  4. by (at some time before the given time)
    Ať jsi zpátky do desíti!Be back by ten o'clock!
  5. to, in (physical blows "to" a body part)
    Do hlavy ne!Don’t hit me in the head!
    Oběť byla pobodána do břichaVictim has stab wounds to the stomach.
  6. to, up to (extreme limit, all the way up to)
    Budeme si to pamatovat do posledního dechuWe will remember it till our last breath.

Further reading edit

  • do in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • do in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Dutch edit

Etymology edit

From Italian do (the note).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

do m or f (plural do's)

  1. do, the musical note
  2. (Belgium) C, the musical note

Synonyms edit

  • ut (archaic)

See also edit

Esperanto edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Noun edit

do (accusative singular do-on, plural do-oj, accusative plural do-ojn)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter D.

See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

From French donc, likely via apheresis of Latin ad tunc (see adonc). Compare Italian dunque, Romanian atunci, Spanish entonces.

Adverb edit

do

  1. therefore, then, so (with conclusion), indeed, however

Fala edit

Alternative forms edit

  • du (Lagarteiru, Valverdeñu)

Etymology edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese do, equivalent to de (of) +‎ o (masculine singular definite article).

Contraction edit

do m sg (plural dos, feminine da, feminine plural das)

  1. (Mañegu) of the
    • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Theme I, Chapter 1: Lengua Española:
      I si “a patria do homi é sua lengua”, cumu idía Albert Camus, o que está claru é que a lengua está mui por encima de fronteiras, serras, rius i maris, de situaciós pulíticas i sociu-económicas, de lazus religiosus e inclusu familiaris.
      And if “a man’s homeland [i.e. “homeland of the man”] is his language”, as Albert Camus said, what is clear is that language is above borders, mountain ranges, rivers and seas, above political and socio-economic situations, of religious and even family ties.

References edit

  • Valeš, Miroslav (2021) Diccionariu de A Fala: lagarteiru, mañegu, valverdeñu (web)[19], 2nd edition, Minde, Portugal: CIDLeS, published 2022, →ISBN

Faroese edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Italian do.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

do n (genitive singular dos, plural do)

  1. (music) do

Declension edit

Declension of do
n3 singular plural
indefinite definite indefinite definite
nominative do doið do doini
accusative do doið do doini
dative doi doinum doum dounum
genitive dos dosins doa doanna

French edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

do m (plural do)

  1. (music) do, the note 'C'
    Synonym: ut

Further reading edit

Galician edit

Etymology edit

From contraction of preposition de (of, from) + masculine definite article o (the).

Pronunciation edit

Contraction edit

do m (feminine da, masculine plural dos, feminine plural das)

  1. of the; from the; 's
    cabalo do demodemon's horse ("dragonfly")

Garo edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Glottal stop loss of do·o

Noun edit

do (Mandi)

  1. bird

Haitian Creole edit

Etymology edit

From French dos (back).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

do

  1. (anatomy) back

Hunsrik edit

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

do

  1. here
    Synonyms: hie, hier
    Die Fraa is nimmi do.The woman isn't here anymore.
  2. then; so
    Synonym: dann
    Do sim-mer fortgesprung.Then we fled.

Further reading edit

Ido edit

Adverb edit

do

  1. so, therefore

Irish edit

Etymology 1 edit

From confusion between Middle Irish ro- (in perfect), no- (in imperfect and conditional), and do- (of many verbs with that preverb), from Old Irish ro-, no-, to- respectively.[1][2][3]

Alternative forms edit

  • d’ (used before vowels and lenited fh-)

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /d̪ˠɔ/, /d̪ˠə/

Particle edit

do (triggers lenition)

  1. (Munster, literary) prefixed before the preterite, imperfect and conditional forms of a verb
    do mhol séhe praised

Etymology 2 edit

Reanalysis of do (past tense marker) and the early modern unstressed preverb do- of verbs like do-gheibhim (I get), do-chím (I see) (and possibly also a- in a-tú (I am), a-deirim (I say)) in relative clauses as a relative marker.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /d̪ˠɔ/, /d̪ˠə/

Particle edit

do (triggers lenition)

  1. (Munster, literary) relative marker (in direct relative clauses)
    an cailín do mholann séthe girl that he praises
Usage notes edit

Before vowel sounds takes the form d’ and is often preceded by the reduced form a: a dh’, a d’:

  1. an té a dh’éiríonn go moch, bíonn an rath airhe who raises early has the prosperity; the early bird catches the worm

Etymology 3 edit

From Old Irish do, from Proto-Celtic *do (to, for).

Alternative forms edit

  • d’ (used before vowel sounds)

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /d̪ˠɔ/, /d̪ˠə/
  • (Connacht) IPA(key): /ɡə/ (as if spelled go; do and go (to, up to, until) have largely become conflated in this dialect)
  • (Ulster, colloquial) IPA(key): /ə/, (before a vowel) /ə j-/[4]

Preposition edit

do (plus dative, triggers lenition)

  1. to, for
    do charato a friend, for a friend
  2. used with the possessive determiners mo, do, bhur to indicate the direct object of a verbal noun, in place of ag after a form of in the progressive aspect
    Tá sé do mo ghortú.It’s hurting me.
    Bhí sé do d’fhiafraí.He was inquiring about you sg.
    Bhí sibh do bhur gcloí.You pl were being overthrown.
Inflection edit
Derived terms edit

See also: Category:Irish phrasal verbs with particle (do)

Etymology 4 edit

From Old Irish do, from Proto-Celtic *towe (your, thy); compare Welsh dy, Cornish dha, Breton da.

Alternative forms edit

  • d’ (used before vowel sounds)
  • t’ (non-standard, used before vowel sounds)

Pronunciation edit

Determiner edit

do (triggers lenition)

  1. your (singular)
    Cá bhfuil do charr?
    Where is your car?

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Seán Ó Catháin (1933), “Some Studies in the Development from Middle to Modern Irish, Based on the Annals of Ulster”, in Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie, volume 19, issue 1, →DOI, The Transition ro > do, pages 14–20
  2. ^ Liam Breatnach (1994), “An Mheán-Ghaeilge”, in K. McCone, D. McManus, C. Ó Háinle, N. Williams, L. Breatnach, editors, Stair na Gaeilge: in ómós do P[h]ádraig Ó Fiannachta (in Irish), Maynooth: Roinn na Sean-Ghaeilge, Coláiste Phádraig, →ISBN, §§11.4–5, page 280
  3. ^ Damian McManus (1994), “An Nua-Ghaeilge Chlasaiceach”, in K. McCone, D. McManus, C. Ó Háinle, N. Williams, L. Breatnach, editors, Stair na Gaeilge: in ómós do P[h]ádraig Ó Fiannachta (in Irish), Maynooth: Roinn na Sean-Ghaeilge, Coláiste Phádraig, →ISBN, §§7.2, 7.5, 7.16, pages 394–5, 399, 408–12
  4. ^ Quiggin, E. C. (1906) A Dialect of Donegal, Cambridge University Press, page 73
  5. ^ Sjoestedt, M. L. (1931) Phonétique d’un parler irlandais de Kerry (in French), Paris: Librairie Ernest Leroux, page 88

Further reading edit

Italian edit

Etymology 1 edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈdɔ/*
  • Rhymes:
  • Hyphenation:

Verb edit

do

  1. first-person singular present indicative of dare

Etymology 2 edit

 
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia it

Clipping of Doni, the surname of Giovanni Battista Doni. Coined in the 17th century to replace ut.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈdɔ/°, (traditional) /ˈdɔ/*
  • Rhymes:
  • Hyphenation:

Noun edit

do m

  1. do (musical note)
  2. C (musical note or key)

Further reading edit

do in Luciano Canepari, Dizionario di Pronuncia Italiana (DiPI)

Etymology 3 edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈdɔ/°, /ˈdɔ/*, /ˈdɔh/, /ˈdɔʔ/
  • Rhymes: , -ɔh, -ɔʔ
  • Hyphenation:

Noun edit

do

  1. (archaic) Alternative form of doh

Anagrams edit

Japanese edit

Romanization edit

do

  1. Rōmaji transcription of
  2. Rōmaji transcription of

Kashubian edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *do.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈdɔ/
  • Syllabification: do

Preposition edit

do [+genitive]

  1. Denotes allative movement; to, toward
  2. Denotes purpose; for, to
  3. until, till, to
  4. up to, as many as
  5. Denotes a deadline; by

Related terms edit

prefix

Further reading edit

  • Stefan Ramułt (1893), “do”, in Słownik języka pomorskiego czyli kaszubskiego, page 25
  • Eùgeniusz Gòłąbk (2011), “do”, in Słownik Polsko-Kaszubski / Słowôrz Pòlskò-Kaszëbsczi, volume 1, page 271
  • do”, in Internetowi Słowôrz Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka [Internet Dictionary of the Kashubian Language], Fundacja Kaszuby, 2022

Ladin edit

Preposition edit

do

  1. behind
    Antonym: dant
  2. before (time)

Latin edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Italic *didō, from Proto-Indo-European *dédeh₃ti, from the root *deh₃- (give). The reduplication was lost in Latin in the present tense, but is preserved in the other Italic languages. A root aorist (from Proto-Indo-European *déh₃t) is preserved in Venetic 𐌆𐌏𐌕𐌏 (doto); the other Italic perfect forms reflect a reduplicated stative, *dedai. However, the root aorist possibly served as the source of the Latin present forms.[1] Cognates include Ancient Greek δίδωμι (dídōmi), Sanskrit ददाति (dádāti), Old Persian 𐎭𐎭𐎠𐎬𐎢𐎺 (d-d-a-tu-u-v).

The derivatives of are not always easy to distinguish from those of -dō (put) < *dʰeh₁-.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

(present infinitive dare, perfect active dedī, supine datum); first conjugation, irregular

  1. to give
    Synonym: dōnō
    Tertium non datur.law of excluded middle
    A third [possibility] is not given:  .
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Exodus.20.12:
      Honora patrem tuum et matrem tuam, ut sis longaevus super terram, quam Dominus Deus tuus dabit tibi.
      Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
  2. to impart, offer, render, present with
    Synonyms: reddō, afferō
    • c. 200 BC, Plautus Captivi (“the captives”) (English and Latin text)
      Do tibi operam, Aristophontes, si quid est quod me velis.
      “I’m at your service, Aristophontes, if there’s anything you want of me.” (“I offer labour to you, Aristophontes…”)
    • Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita I, 14:
      causam minus mirabilem dedit
      he rendered the circumstances less strange
    • 43 BCEc. 17 CE, Ovid, Fasti 5.511:
      dumque mora est, tremulā dat vīna rubentia dextrā
      And while there is a delay, with his trembling right hand he offers [them] red wine.
      (Hyrieus serves his guests, unaware that they are gods. See: Hyrieus; Orion (mythology).)
  3. to afford, grant
    Synonym: dōnō
    • 44 BCE, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Philippics , 1.22.7:
      Non igitur provocatio ista lege datur, sed duae maxime salutares leges quaestionesque tolluntur. Quid est aliud hortari adulescentis ut turbulenti, ut seditiosi, ut perniciosi cives velint esse?
      It is not, therefore, a right of appeal that is afforded by that law, but two most salutary laws and modes of judicial investigation that are abolished. And what is this but exhorting young men to be turbulent, seditious, mischievous citizens?
    • 44 BCE, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Philippics , 1.23.4:
      Quid, quod obrogatur legibus Cæsaris, quae iubent ei qui de vi itemque ei qui maiestatis damnatus sit aqua et igni interdici? quibus cum provocatio datur, nonne acta Cæsaris rescinduntur? Quae quidem ego, patres conscripti, qui illa numquam probavi, tamen ita conservanda concordiae causa arbitratus sum ut non modo, quas vivus leges Cæsar tulisset, infirmandas hoc tempore non putarem, sed ne illas quidem quas post mortem Cæsaris prolatas esse et fixas videtis.
      What more? Is not this a substitution of a new law for the laws of Cæsar, which enact that every man who has been convicted of violence, and also every man who has been convicted of treason, shall be interdicted from fire and water? And, when those men have a right of appeal granted them, are not the acts of Cæsar rescinded? And those acts, O conscript fathers, I, who never approved of them, have still thought it advisable to maintain for the sake of concord; so that I not only did not think that the laws which Cæsar had passed in his lifetime ought to be repealed, but I did not approve of meddling with those even which since the death of Cæsar you have seen produced and published.
  4. to bestow, confer (on or upon)
    Synonym: dōnō
  5. to concede, surrender, yield, deliver, give up
    Synonyms: dēdō, addīcō, concēdō, dēcēdō, committō, remittō, trādō, tribuō, dēferō, reddō, cēdō, permittō
  6. to put
  7. to adduce (e.g., a witness)

Conjugation edit

In Vulgar Latin, becomes *dao, by analogy with the root vowel -a-, but also by some elided third conjugation verbs like *vao, *vare (< vadō, vadere).

This table includes an archaic present subjunctive conjugation on a du- root that appears in the works of Plautus and Terence.

   Conjugation of (first conjugation, irregular short a in most forms except dās and )
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present dās dat damus datis dant,
danunt
imperfect dabam dabās dabat dabāmus dabātis dabant
future dabō dabis dabit dabimus dabitis dabunt
perfect dedī dedistī dedit dedimus dedistis dedērunt,
dedēre
pluperfect dederam dederās dederat dederāmus dederātis dederant
future perfect dederō dederis dederit dederimus dederitis dederint
passive present dor daris,
dare
datur damur daminī dantur
imperfect dabar dabāris,
dabāre
dabātur dabāmur dabāminī dabantur
future dabor daberis,
dabere
dabitur dabimur dabiminī dabuntur
perfect datus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect datus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect datus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present dem,
duim
dēs,
duās,
duīs
det,
duit
dēmus dētis dent,
duint
imperfect darem darēs daret darēmus darētis darent
perfect dederim dederīs dederit dederīmus dederītis dederint
pluperfect dedissem dedissēs dedisset dedissēmus dedissētis dedissent
passive present der dēris,
dēre
dētur dēmur dēminī dentur
imperfect darer darēris,
darēre
darētur darēmur darēminī darentur
perfect datus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect datus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present date
future datō datō datōte dantō
passive present dare daminī
future dator dator dantor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives dare dedisse datūrum esse darī datum esse datum īrī
participles dāns datūrus datus dandus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
dandī dandō dandum dandō datum datū

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Aragonese: dar
  • Aromanian: dau, dari
  • Asturian: dar
  • Corsican:
  • Dalmatian: dur
  • Emilian: dèr
  • Friulian:
  • Istriot:
  • Interlingua: dar
  • Istro-Romanian: dåu
  • Ladin: , dèr
  • Ligurian:
  • Lombard: da, daa
  • Navarro-Aragonese: dar
  • Neapolitan:
  • Italian: dare
  • Old Leonese: dar
  • Old Galician-Portuguese: dar
    • Fala: dal
    • Galician: dar
    • Portuguese: dar
      • Angolar: ra
      • Annobonese: da
      • Guinea-Bissau Creole: da
      • Indo-Portuguese:
      • Kabuverdianu: da
      • Korlai Creole Portuguese: da
      • Macanese:
      • Kristang: da
      • Principense: da
      • Sãotomense: da
      • Saramaccan:
  • Old Occitan: dar
  • Old Spanish: dar
  • Piedmontese:
  • Romagnol:
  • Romanian: da, dare
  • Romansch: dar, der
  • Sabir: dar, dara
  • Sardinian: dàe, dai, dare
  • Sicilian: dari, rari
  • Tarantino: dare
  • Venetian: dar

References edit

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[3], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN

Further reading edit

  • do in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • do in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • do in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[20], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to set out on a journey: in viam se dare
    • to give a horse the reins: frenos dare equo
    • to require, give, take time for deliberation: tempus (spatium) deliberandi or ad deliberandum postulare, dare, sibi sumere
    • to give some one a few days for reflection: paucorum dierum spatium ad deliberandum dare
    • to own oneself conquered, surrender: manus dare
    • to show oneself to some one: se in conspectum dare alicui
    • to take care of one's health: valetudini consulere, operam dare
    • to give a person poison in bread: dare venenum in pane
    • to give funeral games in honour of a person: ludos funebres alicui dare
    • this is the inscription on his tomb..: sepulcro (Dat.) or in sepulcro hoc inscriptum est
    • a favourable[1] opportunity presents itself: occasio datur, offertur
    • to give a man the opportunity of doing a thing: occasionem alicui dare, praebere alicuius rei or ad aliquid faciendum
    • to give a man the opportunity of doing a thing: facultatem alicui dare alicuius rei or ut possit...
    • to give a man the opportunity of doing a thing: potestatem, copiam alicui dare, facere with Gen. gerund.
    • to give ground for suspicion: locum dare suspicioni
    • to give occasion for blame; to challenge criticism: ansas dare ad reprehendum, reprehensionis
    • to bring a man to ruin; to destroy: aliquem affligere, perdere, pessumdare, in praeceps dare
    • to do any one a service or kindness: beneficium alicui dare, tribuere
    • to award the prize to..: palmam deferre, dare alicui
    • to entrust a matter to a person; to commission: mandatum, negotium alicui dare
    • to consider a thing creditable to a man: aliquid laudi alicui ducere, dare
    • to reproach a person with..: aliquid alicui crimini dare, vertere
    • to take great pains in order to..: studiose (diligenter, enixe, sedulo, maxime) dare operam, ut...
    • to expend great labour on a thing: egregiam operam (multum, plus etc. operae) dare alicui rei
    • to abandon oneself to inactivity and apathy: ignaviae et socordiae se dare
    • to give a person his choice: optionem alicui dare (Acad. 2. 7. 19)
    • to offer a person the alternative of... or..: optionem alicui dare, utrum...an
    • to give a person advice: consilium dare alicui
    • to be forgotten, pass into oblivion: oblivioni esse, dari
    • to become a pupil, disciple of some one: operam dare or simply se dare alicui, se tradere in disciplinam alicuius, se conferre, se applicare ad aliquem
    • to give advice, directions, about a matter: praecepta dare, tradere de aliqua re
    • to grant, admit a thing: dare, concedere aliquid
    • to produce a play (of the writer): fabulam dare
    • to applaud, clap a person: plausum dare (alicui)
    • to give a gladiatorial show: munus gladiatorium edere, dare (or simply munus edere, dare)
    • to give a gladiatorial show: gladiatores dare
    • to let oneself be jovial: se dare iucunditati
    • to write a letter to some one: epistulam (litteras) dare, scribere, mittere ad aliquem
    • to charge some one with a letter for some one else: epistulam dare alicui ad aliquem
    • to be in correspondence with..: litteras inter se dare et accipere
    • Rome, January 1st: Kalendis Ianuariis Romā (dabam)
    • to give time for recovery: respirandi spatium dare
    • to pardon some one: alicui veniam dare (alicuius rei)
    • to guarantee the protection of the state; to promise a safe-conduct: fidem publicam dare, interponere (Sall. Iug. 32. 1)
    • to give one's word that..: fidem dare alicui (opp. accipere) (c. Acc. c. Inf.)
    • to rouse a person's suspicions: suspicionem movere, excitare, inicere, dare alicui
    • to deceive a person, throw dust in his eyes: verba dare alicui (Att. 15. 16)
    • to swear an oath to a person: iusiurandum dare alicui
    • to give an oracular response: oraculum dare, edere
    • to give an oracular response: responsum dare (vid. sect. VIII. 5, note Note to answer...), respondere
    • to give some one to drink: alicui bibere dare
    • to devote oneself to a person's society: se dare in consuetudinem alicuius
    • to enter into conversation with some one: se dare in sermonem cum aliquo
    • to give audience to some one: colloquendi copiam facere, dare
    • to give audience to some one: conveniendi aditum dare alicui
    • to give one's right hand to some one: dextram alicui porrigere, dare
    • to give a dowry to one's daughter: dotem filiae dare
    • to give one's daughter in marriage to some-one: filiam alicui in matrimonium dare
    • to give one's daughter in marriage to some-one: filiam alicui nuptum dare
    • to lend, borrow money at interest: pecuniam fenori (fenore) alicui dare, accipere ab aliquo
    • to lend money to some one: pecuniam alicui mutuam dare
    • to present a person with the freedom of the city: civitatem alicui dare, tribuere, impertire
    • to make laws (of a legislator): leges scribere, facere, condere, constituere (not dare)
    • let the consuls take measures for the protection of the state: videant or dent operam consules, ne quid res publica detrimenti capiat (Catil. 1. 2. 4)
    • to give a man audience before the senate: senatum alicui dare (Q. Fr. 2. 11. 2)
    • to produce as a witness: aliquem testem dare, edere, proferre
    • to reproach, blame a person for..: aliquid alicui crimini dare, vitio vertere (Verr. 5. 50)
    • to pardon a person: veniam dare alicui
    • to be (heavily) punished by some one: poenas (graves) dare alicui
    • to put some one in irons, chains: in vincula (custodiam) dare aliquem
    • to enlist oneself: nomen (nomina) dare, profiteri
    • to give furlough, leave of absence to soldiers: commeatum militibus dare (opp. petere)
    • to pay the troops: stipendium dare, numerare, persolvere militibus
    • to give the watchword, countersign: tesseram dare (Liv. 28. 14)
    • to give the signal to engage: signum proelii dare
    • the cavalry covers the retreat: equitatus tutum receptum dat
    • to put the enemy to flight: in fugam dare, conicere hostem
    • to flee, run away: terga vertere or dare
    • to run away from the enemy: terga dare hosti
    • to take to flight: se dare in fugam, fugae
    • to dictate the terms of peace to some one: pacis condiciones dare, dicere alicui (Liv. 29. 12)
    • to give hostages: obsides dare
    • to reduce a people to their former obedience: aliquem ad officium (cf. sect. X. 7, note officium...) reducere (Nep. Dat. 2. 3)
    • to put to sea: vela in altum dare (Liv. 25. 27)
    • to set the sails: vela dare
    • to run before the wind: vento se dare

Laz edit

Conjunction edit

do

  1. Latin spelling of დო (do)

Ligurian edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

de +‎ o

Pronunciation edit

Contraction edit

do

  1. of the (masculine singular)

Limburgish edit

Etymology 1 edit

Derived from Old High German doret. Compare German dort.

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

do

  1. (Eupen, local) there, yonder
  2. (Eupen, temporal) at that time (in the past); at the time, then
  3. (Eupen) then, after that

Etymology 2 edit

Unstressed form of dou.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

do

  1. (Eupen) Reduced form of dou (you)

Lower Sorbian edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Slavic *do.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

do (with genitive)

  1. to, into
    do Chóśebuzato Cottbus
    do jsyto the village, into the village
    do wognjainto the fire
    do njebjato heaven
    • 1998, Erwin Hannusch, Niedersorbisch praktisch und verständlich, Bauzten: Domowina, →ISBN, page 30:
      Jana chójźi hyšći do šule, wóna jo wuknica.
      Jana still goes to school; she is a schoolgirl.

Further reading edit

  • Muka, Arnošt (1921, 1928), “do”, in Słownik dolnoserbskeje rěcy a jeje narěcow (in German), St. Petersburg, Prague: ОРЯС РАН, ČAVU; Reprinted Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag, 2008
  • Starosta, Manfred (1999), “do”, in Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch (in German), Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag

Luxembourgish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Germanic *þar.

Adverb edit

do

  1. there, in that place

Etymology 2 edit

Verb edit

do

  1. second-person singular imperative of doen

Masurian edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Polish do.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ˈdɔ]
  • Syllabification: do

Preposition edit

do [+genitive]

  1. With a gerund or other action; denotes an action to be done; to
  2. Denotes the function of an instrument, tool, or material; for
  3. Denotes allative movement; to, toward
  4. Denotes object of emotions; to, toward, for
  5. Denotes object of speaking; to
  6. Denotes joining; to
  7. Denotes limits or boundaries; [[]]
    1. Denotes temporal limits or boundaries; to; by
    2. Denotes result; until; to
    3. Denotes physical limits or boundaries; to
    4. Denotes uncrossable temporal border; before
  8. Denotes upper limit of amounts; to

Further reading edit

  • Zofia Stamirowska (1987-2021), “do”, in Anna Basara, editor, Słownik gwar Ostródzkiego, Warmii i Mazur, volume 2, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, →ISBN, page 43-47

Nias edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *daʀaq, from Proto-Austronesian *daʀaq. Compare Malay darah, Ilocano dara.

Noun edit

do (mutated form ndro)

  1. blood

References edit

  • Sundermann, Heinrich. 1905. Niassisch-deutsches Wörterbuch. Moers: Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, p. 52.

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Etymology 1 edit

Possibly an abbreviation of "do-hūs" ("do house") from Middle Low German dōn.

Noun edit

do m or n (definite singular doen or doet, indefinite plural doer or do, definite plural doene or doa)

  1. a toilet, a loo
    Synonyms: dass, toalett
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Noun edit

do m

  1. do (the musical note)

References edit

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Etymology 1 edit

Possibly an abbreviation of "do-hūs" ("do house") from Middle Low German dōn.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

do m or n (definite singular doen or doet, indefinite plural doar or do, definite plural doane or doa)

  1. a toilet, a loo
    Synonyms: dass, toalett
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Norse þó.

Adverb edit

do

  1. anyhow, still, nevertheless

Etymology 3 edit

From the name of musicologist Giovanni Battista Doni, who suggested replacing the original ut with an open syllable for ease of singing. First found in Italian.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

do m (definite singular do-en, indefinite plural do-ar, definite plural do-ane)

  1. (music) do, a syllable used in solfège to represent the second note of a major scale.
Coordinate terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

Verb edit

do

  1. (non-standard since 1917) past singular of døy

References edit

Anagrams edit

Old Czech edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *do.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

do [+genitive]

  1. Denotes allative movement; to, toward
  2. Denotes illative movement; into, in
  3. Denotes length of time; to, until
  4. Denotes final period of time; by
  5. Denotes period before something else; before; by
  6. according to, in agreeance with
  7. Denotes recepient of action; to
  8. regarding
  9. up to, as many as
  10. Denotes purpose; for, to
  11. because of

Descendants edit

References edit

Old Galician-Portuguese edit

Contraction edit

do m sg (plural dos, feminine da, feminine plural das)

  1. Contraction of de o (of the, from the, -'s (masculine singular)).

Old Irish edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Celtic *dū (to), from Proto-Indo-European *de. Unrelated to the prefix to-.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

do (with dative; triggers lenition of a following consonant-initial noun.)

  1. to, for
  2. indicates the subject of a verbal noun
    • c. 800–825, Diarmait, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 97d10
      Is peccad díabul lesom .i. fodord doïb di dommatu, ⁊ du·fúairthed ní leu fora sáith din main, ⁊ todlugud inna féulæ ɔ amairis nánda·tibérad Día doïb, ⁊ nach coimnacuir ⁊ issi dano insin ind frescissiu co fochaid.
      It is a double sin in his opinion, i.e. the murmuring by them of want, although there remained some of the manna with them upon their satiety, and demanding the meat with faithlessness that Good would not give it to them, and [even] that he could not; therefore that is the expectation with testing.
Inflection edit

Combinations with a definite article:

Combinations with a possessive determiner:

  • dom (to/for my)
  • dot (to/for your sg)
  • dia (to/for his/her/their)
  • diar (to/for our)

Combinations with a relative pronoun:

  • dia· (to/for whom/which)
Alternative forms edit

Pronoun edit

do

  1. Alternative spelling of

Adverb edit

do

  1. Alternative spelling of

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Celtic *towe.

Determiner edit

do (triggers lenition)

  1. your (singular)
Descendants edit
  • Middle Irish: do
    • Irish: do
    • Scottish Gaelic: do
    • Manx: dty

Further reading edit

Old Polish edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *do. First attested in the 14th century.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

do [+genitive]

  1. denotes allative movement; to, toward
    Synonym: ku
  2. until
    Synonym: ku
  3. denotes a deadline; by
  4. denotes duration; within
  5. denotes purpose; for
  6. denotes the subject of an address or action;

Descendants edit

References edit

Old Spanish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From de +‎ o, from Latin (from) + ubi (where).

Adverb edit

do

  1. where

Conjunction edit

do

  1. where

Etymology 2 edit

See lemma.

Verb edit

do

  1. first-person singular present of dar

Pennsylvania German edit

Etymology edit

Compare German da.

Adverb edit

do

  1. here
    Heit iss en Feierdaag do in Amerikaa.
    Today is a holiday here in America.

Polish edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Polish do.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

do [+genitive]

  1. Denotes allative movement; to, toward
    Synonym: (sometimes) na
    Zwykle jeżdżę do pracy pociągiem.I usually go to work by train.
    Chcę wrócić do domu.I want to go home. (literally, “I want to return to home.”)
  2. Denotes illative movement; into, in
    Proszę włożyć mleko do lodówki.Please put the milk in the fridge.
  3. Denotes purpose; for, to
    Zapomniałem szczoteczki do zębów.I forgot my toothbrush (literally, “I forgot brush for teeth.”)
    Masz ochotę na coś do picia?Do you fancy something to drink?
  4. Denotes the subject of an address or action; to
    Napisałam do ciebie list.I wrote you a letter.
    Szymon w każdą sobotę dzwoni do mamy.Simon calls his mother every Saturday.
  5. until, till, to
    Do zeszłego miesiąca mieszkałem całe życie w Łodzi.Until last month I had lived in Łódź my entire life.
    Pracujemy od dziewiątej do piątej.We work from nine to five.
  6. up to, as many as
    Grozi mu do sześciu lat więzienia.He could get up to six years' imprisonment.
    Nasz syn ma tylko pięć lat, a już umie liczyć do stu.Our son is only five and can already count to 100.
  7. Denotes a deadline; by (indicates an intended deadline)
    Mój szef chce, żebym do jutra skończył raport.My boss wants me to finish the report by tomorrow.

Trivia edit

According to Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej (1990), do is one of the most used words in Polish, appearing 1245 times in scientific texts, 1326 times in news, 1088 times in essays, 1260 times in fiction, and 935 times in plays, each out of a corpus of 100,000 words, totaling 5854 times, making it the 9th most common word in a corpus of 500,000 words.[1]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Ida Kurcz (1990), “do”, in Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej [Frequency dictionary of the Polish language] (in Polish), volume 1, Kraków; Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Języka Polskiego, page 76

Further reading edit

  • do in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • do in Polish dictionaries at PWN
  • do”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish], 2010-2023
  • DO”, in Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century], 07.03.2019
  • Samuel Bogumił Linde (1807–1814), “do”, in Słownik języka polskiego
  • Aleksander Zdanowicz (1861), “do”, in Słownik języka polskiego, Wilno 1861
  • J. Karłowicz, A. Kryński, W. Niedźwiedzki, editors (1900), “do”, in Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish), volume 1, Warsaw, page 466

Portuguese edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese do, from de (of, from) + o (the). Akin to Galician do, Spanish del, and French du.

Pronunciation edit

  • (Madeira) IPA(key): /dø/
  • Hyphenation: do

Contraction edit

do m sg (plural dos, feminine da, feminine plural das)

  1. Contraction of de o (of the, from the, -'s (masculine singular)).

Quotations edit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:do.

Romanian edit

Etymology edit

From Italian do.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

do m (plural do)

  1. do (musical note)

Declension edit

Saterland Frisian edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form. Cognates include West Frisian de and German die.

Article edit

do (unstressed de)

  1. plural of die

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Frisian thā, from Proto-Germanic *þan. Cognates include West Frisian dan and German dann.

Adverb edit

do

  1. then

References edit

  • Marron C. Fort (2015), “die”, in Saterfriesisches Wörterbuch mit einer phonologischen und grammatischen Übersicht, Buske, →ISBN
  • Marron C. Fort (2015), “do”, in Saterfriesisches Wörterbuch mit einer phonologischen und grammatischen Übersicht, Buske, →ISBN

Scottish Gaelic edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): (stressed) /t̪ɔ/, (unstressed) /t̪ə/
  • Hyphenation: do

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Irish do. Cognates include Irish do.

Determiner edit

do (triggers lenition)

  1. thy, your (singular)
    Bha iongantach do ghràdh dhomh.Wonderful was thy love for me.
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Irish do. Cognates include Irish do.

Preposition edit

do (+ dative, triggers lenition of consonants and Dh-prothesis of vowels, combined with the singular definite article dhan)

  1. to
    Bha e a' siubhal do Shasainn an-uiridh.He travelled to England last year.
  2. for
    Do dh'ar beatha, dhut, dhèanainn e.For our life, for thee, I would do it.
Usage notes edit
  • Before a word beginning with a vowel or fh, the form do dh' may be used:
    Tha sinn a' dol do dh'Ìle.We are going to Islay.
  • If the definite article in the singular follows, it combines with do into dhan or don:
    Fàilte don dùthaich.Welcome to the country.
    Tha mi a' dol dhan bhùth.I'm going to the shop.
Inflection edit
Personal inflection of do
Number Person Simple Emphatic
Singular 1st dhomh dhòmhsa
2nd dhut dhutsa
3rd m dha dhàsan
3rd f dhi dhìse
Plural 1st dhuinn dhuinne
2nd dhuibh dhuibhse
3rd dhaibh dhaibhsan
Synonyms edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

From Middle Irish ro-, from Old Irish ro-, from Proto-Celtic *ɸro-.

Particle edit

do (triggers lenition)

  1. indicates the past tense of a verb
    An do sgrìobh thu litir?Did you write a letter?
    Cha do bhrist mi an uinneag.I didn't break the window.
Usage notes edit
  • Becomes dh' before a word beginning with a vowel or a lenited fh followed by a vowel.
    Dh'fhàg an t-òran brònach mi.The song made me sad.
    Dh'òl e am pinnt.He drank the pint.
    An do dh'innis mi thu mar-thà.Did I not already tell you.
  • Usually omitted before a consonant except after particles such as an, cha etc.

Serbo-Croatian edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Slavic *do, from Proto-Indo-European *de, *do.

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

(Cyrillic spelling до̏)

  1. only, except
    ni(t)ko do janobody but me, only me
    ne jede ništa do komad hljeba/hlebahe eats nothing except a piece of bread
  2. around, approximately
    do dva metraaround two meters
    do 5 kilaaround five kilograms
  3. due to, because of
    to je do hranethat's due to the food

Preposition edit

(Cyrillic spelling до̏) (+ genitive case)

  1. up to, to, until, as far as, by
    od Zagreba do Beogradafrom Zagreb to Belgrade
    od jutra do mraka / od 5 do 10 satifrom morning to night / from 5 to 10 o'clock
    od vrha do dnafrom top to bottom
    do r(ij)ekeas far as the river
    sad je pet do sedamnow it's five minutes to seven
    do poned(j)eljkaby Monday
    do sadaso far, thus far, till now
    do nedavnauntil recently
    do dana današnjegato this very day
    sve doas far as up to, all the way to
    do kudahow far
    do tudathus far, up to here
  2. before (= prȉje/prȅ)
    do ratabefore the war
  3. beside, next (to)
    s(j)edi do menesit next to me
    jedan do drugogaside by side
  4. (by extension, idiomatic and figurative meanings) up to one; interested in; feel like
    nije mi do togaI don't feel like doing that
    nije mi do sm(ij)ehaI don't feel like laughing
    njemu je samo do seksahe is only interested in sex
    nije mi puno stalo do togaI'm not very much interested in that
    nije do meneit's not up to me, it's no me to lame

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Slavic *dolъ.

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

 m (Cyrillic spelling до̑)

  1. (regional, Bosnia, Serbia) dale, small valley
Declension edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Borrowed from Italian do.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

 m (Cyrillic spelling до̑) (indeclinable)

  1. (music) do

References edit

  • do” in Hrvatski jezični portal
  • do” in Hrvatski jezični portal
  • do” in Hrvatski jezični portal

Silesian edit

Alternative forms edit

  • (before nasals)

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Polish do.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈdɔ/
  • Rhymes:
  • Syllabification: do

Preposition edit

do [+genitive]

  1. Denotes allative movement; to, toward
    Synonyms: ku, w
  2. Denotes maximum amount; to
  3. until, till, to
  4. Denotes purpose; for, to
  5. Denotes benefactive beneficent; for
    Synonym: dlŏ
  6. Denotes recepient of action; to
    Synonym: dlŏ

Related terms edit

prefix

Further reading edit

  • do in dykcjonorz.eu
  • do in silling.org

Slovak edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *do.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

do (+ genitive)

  1. into, in, to, until

Further reading edit

  • do”, in Slovníkový portál Jazykovedného ústavu Ľ. Štúra SAV [Dictionary portal of the Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Science] (in Slovak), https://slovnik.juls.savba.sk, 2024

Slovene edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Slavic *do.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

do

  1. (with genitive) by (some time before the given time)
  2. (with genitive) till

Further reading edit

  • do”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran

Spanish edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈdo/ [ˈd̪o]
  • Rhymes: -o
  • Syllabification: do

Etymology 1 edit

Borrowed from Italian do.

Noun edit

do m (plural dos)

  1. do (musical note)
  2. C (musical note or key)

See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Spanish do, from de (from) + o (where).

Adverb edit

do

  1. (obsolete) where
    Synonym: (modern) donde

Pronoun edit

do

  1. (obsolete) where
    Synonym: (modern) donde
Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

Taworta edit

Noun edit

do

  1. fire

Further reading edit

Bill Palmer, The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area (→ISBN, 2017), page 531, table 95, Comparative basic vocabulary in Lakes Plain Languages

Turkish edit

Noun edit

do

  1. C (musical note)

Venetian edit

Verb edit

do

  1. first-person singular present indicative of dar (I give)

Vietnamese edit

Etymology edit

Sino-Vietnamese word from .

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

do

  1. (neutral passive voice marker) by
    Hầu hết các mô hình dưỡng lão đều do nhà nước bảo trợ, […]
    Most of the aged care models are sponsored by the state, […]
  2. because of; due to

Related terms edit

Volapük edit

Conjunction edit

do

  1. though, although, even though

Welsh edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Celtic *tod, from Proto-Indo-European *tód (that).

Adverb edit

do

  1. yes
  2. indeed
    Do, es i i'r parc ddoe.
    Yes, I went to the park yesterday.
Usage notes edit
  • Used to express an affirmative answer to verbs in the preterite (simple past) tense.
    • In colloquial speech it can sometimes be heard as an answer to any question referring to the past (such as those in the perfect or pluperfect), but this is considered nonstandard.
Antonyms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Alternative forms edit

Verb edit

do

  1. first-person singular future colloquial of dod

Mutation edit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
do ddo no unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Etymology 3 edit

Noun edit

do

  1. Soft mutation of to.

Mutation edit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
to do nho tho
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

West Frisian edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Frisian thū, from Proto-West Germanic *þū, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

do

  1. (Clay) you, thou; informal second-person singular pronoun
    Ik hâld fan dy.I love you.
Inflection edit
Alternative forms edit
Further reading edit
  • do (I)”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Frisian *dūve, from Proto-West Germanic *dūbā.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

do c (plural dowen, diminutive doke)

  1. pigeon, dove
Further reading edit
  • do (II)”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011

Etymology 3 edit

Borrowed from Italian do.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

do c (plural do's)

  1. do (musical note)
Further reading edit
  • do (IV)”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011

West Makian edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

do

  1. (transitive) to find
  2. (transitive) to obtain, get hold of
  3. (transitive) to receive

Conjugation edit

Conjugation of do (action verb)
singular plural
inclusive exclusive
1st person todo modo ado
2nd person nodo fodo
3rd person inanimate ido dodo
animate
imperative nodo, do fodo, do

References edit

  • Clemens Voorhoeve (1982) The Makian languages and their neighbours[21], Pacific linguistics

Yoruba edit

Etymology 1 edit

From do used in solfège to represent the first tonic of a major scale.

Alternative forms edit

  • (abbreviated): D, d

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

  1. The syllable used to represent the low-tone and its diacritic (`)
    Ẹ bá mi fàmì sí "pàtàkì"
    pà-tà-kì dò-dò-dò
    Help me tone mark "pàtàkì"
    pà-tà-kì low-tone, low-tone, low-tone

See also edit

names for tones

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

  1. (vulgar) to fuck
Derived terms edit
proverbs

Etymology 3 edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

  1. (transitive) to settle; to found a settlement
    Synonym: tẹ̀ dó
    Àwọn Àwórì ló kọ́kọ́ sí Èkó.The Awori people settled Lagos first.
  2. (transitive) to colonise
Derived terms edit

Zazaki edit

Etymology edit

Related to Persianدوغ(duğ) and Tajik дуғ (duġ).

Noun edit

do

  1. airan

Zoogocho Zapotec edit

Noun edit

do

  1. mecate, rope made of maguey or hair fiber

References edit

  • Long C., Rebecca; Cruz M., Sofronio (2000) Diccionario zapoteco de San Bartolomé Zoogocho, Oaxaca (Serie de vocabularios y diccionarios indígenas “Mariano Silva y Aceves”; 38)‎[22] (in Spanish), second electronic edition, Coyoacán, D.F.: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, A.C., page 367