EnglishEdit

 
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Etymology 1Edit

From Middle English don, from Old English dōn, from Proto-West Germanic *dōn, from Proto-Germanic *dōną, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰeh₁- (to put, place, do, make).

For senses 4 and 5, compare Old Norse duga, whence Danish du.

The past tense form is from Middle English didde, dude, from Old English dyde, *diede, from Proto-Germanic *dedǭ/*dedē, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰédʰeh₁ti, an athematic e-reduplicated verb of the same root *dʰeh₁-.

The obligatory, meaningless use of do in interrogative, negative, and—formerly—affirmative sentences, which is unusual in Germanic languages, is thought by some linguists to be one of the Brittonicisms in English, calqued from Brythonic.[1] It is first recorded in Middle English, where it may have marked the perfective aspect, though in some cases the meaning seems to be imperfective. In Early Modern English, any meaning in such contexts was lost, making it a dummy auxiliary, and soon thereafter its use became mandatory in most questions and negations.

Doublets include deed, deem, -dom, but not deal.

Other cognates include, via Latin, English feast, festival, fair (celebration), via Greek, English theo-, theme, thesis, and Sanskrit दधाति (dadhāti, to put), धातृ (dhātṛ, creator) and धातु (dhātu, layer, element, root).

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

do (third-person singular simple present does, present participle doing, simple past did, past participle done)

  1. (auxiliary) A syntactic marker.
    1. (auxiliary) A syntactic marker in a question whose main verb is not another auxiliary verb or be.
      Do you go there often?
    2. (auxiliary) A syntactic marker in negations with the indicative and imperative moods.
      I do not go there often.
      Do not listen to him.
    3. (auxiliary) A syntactic marker for emphasis with the indicative, imperative, and subjunctive moods.
      But I do go sometimes.
      Do tell us.
      • 1913, Joseph C. Lincoln, chapter 7, in Mr. Pratt's Patients:
        “I don't know how you and the ‘head,’ as you call him, will get on, but I do know that if you call my duds a ‘livery’ again there'll be trouble. It's bad enough to go around togged out like a life saver on a drill day, but I can stand that 'cause I'm paid for it. []
      • 1950, C. S. Lewis, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe
        "Do stop it," said Susan; "it won't make things any better having a row between you two. Let's go and find Lucy."
    4. (pro-verb) A syntactic marker that refers back to an earlier verb and allows the speaker to avoid repeating the verb; in most dialects, not used with auxiliaries such as be, though it can be in AAVE.
      I play tennis; she does too.
      (nonstandard)
      They don't think it be like it is, but it do.
  2. (transitive) To perform; to execute.
    Synonyms: accomplish, carry out, functionate
    All you ever do is surf the Internet. What will you do this afternoon?
    • 2013 June 21, Oliver Burkeman, “The tao of tech”, in The Guardian Weekly, volume 189, number 2, page 48:
      The dirty secret of the internet is that all this distraction and interruption is immensely profitable. Web companies like to boast about […], or offering services that let you "stay up to date with what your friends are doing", [] and so on. But the real way to build a successful online business is to be better than your rivals at undermining people's control of their own attention.
  3. (obsolete, transitive) To cause, make (someone) (do something).
  4. (intransitive, transitive) To suffice.
    it’s not the best broom, but it will have to do;  this will do me, thanks.
  5. (intransitive) To be reasonable or acceptable.
    It simply will not do to have dozens of children running around such a quiet event.
  6. (ditransitive) To have (as an effect).
    The fresh air did him some good.
  7. (intransitive) To fare, perform (well or poorly).
    Our relationship isn't doing very well;  how do you do?
    • 2013 July 20, “Welcome to the plastisphere”, in The Economist, volume 408, number 8845:
      Plastics are energy-rich substances, which is why many of them burn so readily. Any organism that could unlock and use that energy would do well in the Anthropocene. Terrestrial bacteria and fungi which can manage this trick are already familiar to experts in the field.
  8. (transitive, chiefly in questions) To have as one's job.
    What does Bob do? — He's a plumber.
  9. To perform the tasks or actions associated with (something).
    "Don't forget to do your report" means something quite different depending on whether you're a student or a programmer.
  10. To cook.
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:cook
    I'll just do some eggs.
    • 1889, Jerome K. Jerome, Three Men In a Boat:
      It seemed, from his account, that he was very good at doing scrambled eggs.
    • 1944, News from the Suburbs[3]:
      We went down below, and the galley-slave did some ham and eggs, and the first lieutenant, who was aged 19, told me about Sicily, and time went like a flash.
    • 2005, Alan Tansley, The Grease Monkey, page 99:
      Next morning, they woke about ten o'clock, Kev, went for a shower while Alice, did some toast, put the kettle on, and when he came out, she went in.
  11. (transitive) To travel in, to tour, to make a circuit of.
    • 1869, Louisa M[ay] Alcott, “Our Foreign Correspondent”, in Little Women: Or, Meg, Jo, Beth and Amy, part second, Boston, Mass.: Roberts Brothers, OCLC 30743985, page 115:
      We 'did' London to our hearts' content,—thanks to Fred and Frank,—and were sorry to go away; []
    • 1892, James Batchelder, Multum in Parvo: Notes from the Life and Travels of James Batchelder[4], page 97:
      After doing Paris and its suburbs, I started for London []
    • 1968, July 22, “Ralph Schoenstein”, in Nice Place to Visit[5], page 28:
      No tourist can get credit for seeing America first without doing New York, the Wonderful Town, the Baghdad-on-Hudson, the dream in the eye of the Kansas hooker []
    Let’s do New York also.
  12. (transitive) To treat in a certain way.
    • 1894, Harper's New Monthly Magazine[6], volume 87, page 59, column 1:
      They did me well, I assure you—uncommon well: Bollinger of '84; green chartreuse fit for a prince; []
    • 1928, Sayers, Dorothy L[eigh], “The Abominable History of the Man with Copper Fingers”, in Lord Peter Views the Body:
      Upon my word, although he [my host] certainly did me uncommonly well, I began to feel I'd be more at ease among the bushmen.
    • 1994, Jervey Tervalon, Understand This[7], →ISBN, page 50:
      "Why you gonna do me like that?" I ask. "Do what?" "Dog me."
  13. (transitive) To work for or on, by way of caring for, looking after, preparing, cleaning, keeping in order, etc.
    • 2018, Kate Atkinson, Transcription, →ISBN, page 291:
      The woman-who-did did not do very well, Juliet thought.
  14. (intransitive, obsolete) To act or behave in a certain manner; to conduct oneself.
  15. (transitive) To spend (time) in jail. (See also do time)
    Synonym: serve
    I did five years for armed robbery.
  16. (transitive) To impersonate or depict.
    Synonyms: imitate, personate, take off
    They really laughed when he did Clinton, with a perfect accent and a leer.
  17. (with 'a' and the name of a person, place, event, etc.) To copy or emulate the actions or behaviour that is associated with the person or thing mentioned.
    He did a Henry VIII and got married six times.
    He was planning to do a 9/11.
  18. (transitive, slang) To kill.
    Synonyms: do in, murder, off, rub out; see also Thesaurus:kill
    • 1984, William Gibson, Neuromancer (Sprawl; book 1), New York, N.Y.: Ace Books, →ISBN, page 22:
      Case pulled the .22 out of his pocket and levelled it at Wage's crotch. “I hear you wanna do me.”
    • 2003 August 17, George Pelecanos, “Bad Dreams”, in The Wire, season 2, episode 11, HBO, spoken by Omar Little (Michael K. Williams), 43:27 from the start:
      About a year ago, a boy name Brandon got got here in Baltimore. Stuck and burned before he passed. [] Wasn't no need for y'all to do him the way y'all did.
    • 2004, Patrick Stevens, Politics Is the Greatest Game: A Johannesburg Liberal Lampoon[8], →ISBN, page 314:
      He's gonna do me, Jarvis. I kid you not, this time he's gonna do me proper.
    • 2007, E.J. Churchill, The Lazarus Code, page 153:
      The order came and I did him right there. The bullet went right where it was supposed to go.
  19. (transitive, slang) To deal with for good and all; to finish up; to undo; to ruin; to do for.
    • 1870, Charles Reade, Put Yourself in His Place
      Sometimes they lie in wait in these dark streets, and fracture his skull, [] or break his arm, or cut the sinew of his wrist; and that they call doing him.
  20. (informal) To punish for a misdemeanor.
    He got done for speeding.
    Teacher'll do you for that!
  21. (transitive, slang) To have sex with. (See also do it)
    Synonyms: go to bed with, sleep with; see also Thesaurus:copulate with
  22. (transitive) To cheat or swindle.
    Synonyms: defraud, diddle, mug off, rip off, scam; see also Thesaurus:deceive
    That guy just did me out of two hundred bucks!
    • 1852, Thomas De Quincey, Sir William Hamilton
      He was not to be done, at his time of life, by frivolous offers of a compromise that might have secured him seventy-five per cent.
  23. (transitive) To convert into a certain form; especially, to translate.
    the novel has just been done into English;  I'm going to do this play into a movie
  24. (transitive, intransitive) To finish.
  25. (UK, dated, intransitive) To work as a domestic servant (with for).
    Synonyms: attend, serve, wait on; see also Thesaurus:serve
    • 1915, Frank Thomas Bullen, Recollections:
      I've left my key in my office in Manchester, my family are at Bournemouth, and the old woman who does for me goes home at nine o'clock.
  26. (archaic, dialectal, transitive, auxiliary) Used to form the present progressive of verbs.
    • 1844, Barnes, William, “Evenén in the Village”, in Poems of Rural Life in the Dorset Dialect:
      ...An' the dogs do bark, an' the rooks be a-vled to the elems high and dark, an' the water do roar at mill.
  27. (stock exchange) To cash or to advance money for, as a bill or note.
  28. (informal, transitive, ditransitive) To make or provide.
    Synonyms: furnish, give, supply; see also Thesaurus:give
    Do they do haircuts there?
    Could you do me a burger with mayonnaise instead of ketchup?
  29. (informal, transitive) To injure (one's own body part).
    • 2010 April 24, “Given stretchered off with suspected broken shoulder”, in The Irish Times[10], retrieved 2015-07-21:
      "Defender Kolo Toure admitted Given will be a loss, but gave his backing to Nielsen. 'I think he's done his shoulder,' said the Ivorian."
    • 2014 April 14, Matt Cleary, “What do Australia's cricketers do on holiday?”, in ESPNcricinfo[11], retrieved 2015-07-21:
      "Watto will spend the entire winter stretching and doing Pilates, and do a hamstring after bending down to pick up his petrol cap after dropping it filling his car at Caltex Cronulla."
    • 2014 August 13, Harry Thring, “I knew straight away I'd done my ACL: Otten”, in AFL.com.au[12], retrieved 2015-07-21:
      "'I knew straight away I'd done my ACL, I heard the sound - it was very loud and a few of the boys said they heard it as well,' Otten said."
  30. (transitive) To take drugs.
    I do cocaine.
  31. (transitive, in the form be doing [somewhere]) To exist with a purpose or for a reason.
    What's that car doing in our swimming pool?
Usage notesEdit
  • In older forms of English, when the pronoun thou was in active use, and verbs used -est for distinct second-person singular indicative forms, the verb do had two such forms: dost, in auxiliary uses, and doest, in other uses. The past tense of both forms is didst.
  • Similarly, when the ending -eth was in active use for third-person singular present indicative forms, the form doth was used as an auxiliary, and the form doeth was used elsewhere.
ConjugationEdit
AntonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit
TranslationsEdit
See alsoEdit

NounEdit

do (plural dos or do's)

  1. (colloquial) A party, celebration, social function.
    Synonyms: get-together; see also Thesaurus:party
    We’re having a bit of a do on Saturday to celebrate my birthday.
    • 1980, Jona Lewie; Keef Trouble (lyrics and music), “You'll Always Find Me in the Kitchen at Parties”, performed by Jona Lewie:
      She was into French cuisine but I ain't no Cordon Bleu / This was at some do in Palmers Green, I had no luck with her
    • 2013 September 13, Russell Brand, “Russell Brand and the GQ awards”, in The Guardian[13]:
      [] ; this aside, though, neon forever the moniker of trash, this is a posh do, in an opera house full of folk in tuxes.
  2. (informal) A hairdo.
    Nice do!
    • 2012, Hannah Richell, The Secrets of the Tides, →ISBN, page 464:
      I like the new do.
  3. Something that can or should be done (usually in the phrase dos and don'ts).
    Antonym: don't
    • 1916, Eleanor H. Porter, chapter VIII, in Just David[14]:
      With the coming of Monday arrived a new life for David—a curious life full of "don'ts" and "dos."
  4. (archaic) Ado; bustle; stir; to-do; A period of confusion or argument.
    Synonym: to-do
    • 1689, John Selden, Table Talk
      A great deal of do, and a great deal of trouble.
  5. (obsolete, UK, slang) A cheat; a swindler.
  6. (obsolete, UK, slang) An act of swindling; a fraud or deception.
Usage notesEdit
  • For the plural of the noun, the spelling dos would be correct; do's is often used for the sake of legibility, but is sometimes considered incorrect.
  • For the party, the term usually implies a social function of modest size and formality.
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From the name of musicologist Giovanni Battista Doni, who suggested replacing the original ut with an open syllable for ease of singing. First found in Italian .

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

do (plural dos)

  1. (music) A syllable used in solfège to represent the first and eighth tonic of a major scale.
    Synonym: (archaic) ut
TranslationsEdit

See alsoEdit

names for musical notes

Etymology 3Edit

Short for ditto.

Alternative formsEdit

AdverbEdit

do (not comparable)

  1. (rare) Abbreviation of ditto.[2]

Etymology 4Edit

Shortening of dozen.

NumeralEdit

do

  1. The cardinal number occurring after el and before do one in a duodecimal system. Written 10, decimal value 12.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • do at OneLook Dictionary Search
  1. ^ John McWhorter (2009), “What else happened to English? A brief for the Celtic hypothesis”, in English language & linguistics, volume 13, issue 2, Cambridge: University Press, pages 163-191
  2. ^ “The O'Connell National Statue”, in The Freeman's Journal[1], Dublin, 23 October 1862, page 2

AnagramsEdit


AlbanianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

VerbEdit

do

  1. second/third-person singular present indicative of dua

Atong (India)Edit

EtymologyEdit

From Hindi दो (do).

PronunciationEdit

NumeralEdit

do (Bengali script দো)

  1. two

SynonymsEdit

ReferencesEdit


BambaraEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

do

  1. group

ReferencesEdit


BaraiEdit

NounEdit

do

  1. water

ReferencesEdit

  • The Papuan Languages of New Guinea (1986, →ISBN)

BokoEdit

NumeralEdit

do

  1. one

CatalanEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin dōnum (“gift”).

NounEdit

do m (plural dons)

  1. gift
  2. talent

Etymology 2Edit

Borrowed from Italian do.

NounEdit

do m (plural dos)

  1. (music) do (first note of diatonic scale)

Etymology 3Edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

VerbEdit

do

  1. (obsolete) third-person singular present subjunctive form of dar

Central FranconianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old High German dār (there).

PronunciationEdit

AdverbEdit

do

  1. here; there; in this or that place

Etymology 2Edit

From Old High German duo (then), variant of do, dō. Compare German da, Dutch toen.

Alternative formsEdit

  • du, dunn (southern Moselle Francoinan)

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /doː/ (traditional)
  • IPA(key): /dɔː/ (now sometimes by conflation with etymology 1 under standard German influence)

AdverbEdit

do

  1. (Ripuarian, northern Moselle Franconian) then; back then (at a certain time in the past)

Etymology 3Edit

From Old High German du.

Alternative formsEdit

  • du (many dialects)
  • dou (some dialects of Moselle Franconian)
  • de (unstressed form)

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

do

  1. (few dialects, including Kölsch) thou; you (singular)

CzechEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *do.

PronunciationEdit

PrepositionEdit

do + genitive

  1. into, in (to the inside of)
    Vešel do místnosti.He walked into the room.
    Dostala se jí voda do bot.Water got in her boots.
  2. to, in (in the direction of, and arriving at; indicating destination)
    Jdeme do obchodu.We are walking to the shop.
    Přiletěli jsme do New Yorku.We arrived in New York.
  3. until (up to the time of)
    Zůstal tam až do neděle.He stayed there until Sunday.
  4. by (at some time before the given time)
    Ať jsi zpátky do desíti!Be back by ten o'clock!
  5. to, in (physical blows "to" a body part)
    Do hlavy ne!Don’t hit me in the head!
    Oběť byla pobodána do břichaVictim has stab wounds to the stomach.
  6. to, up to (extreme limit, all the way up to)
    Budeme si to pamatovat do posledního dechuWe will remember it till our last breath.

Further readingEdit

  • do in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • do in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

DutchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Italian do (“the note”).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

do m or f (plural do's)

  1. do, the musical note
  2. (Belgium) C, the musical note

SynonymsEdit

  • ut (archaic)

See alsoEdit


EsperantoEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

NounEdit

do (accusative singular do-on, plural do-oj, accusative plural do-ojn)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter D.

See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From French donc, likely via apheresis of Latin ad tunc (see adonc). Compare Italian dunque, Romanian atunci, Spanish entonces.

AdverbEdit

do

  1. therefore, then, so (with conclusion), indeed, however

FalaEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Portuguese do, from de + o.

PrepositionEdit

do m (plural dos, feminine da, feminine plural das)

  1. contraction of de o (of the).
    • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Theme I, Chapter 1: Lengua Española:
      I si “a patria do homi é sua lengua”, cumu idía Albert Camus, o que está claru é que a lengua está mui por encima de fronteiras, serras, rius i maris, de situaciós pulíticas i sociu-económicas, de lazus religiosus e inclusu familiaris.
      And if “a man’s homeland [i.e. “homeland of the man”] is his language”, as Albert Camus said, what is clear is that language is above borders, mountain ranges, rivers and seas, above political and socio-economic situations, of religious and even family ties.

FaroeseEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Italian do.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

do n (genitive singular dos, plural do)

  1. (music) do

DeclensionEdit

Declension of do
n3 singular plural
indefinite definite indefinite definite
nominative do doið do doini
accusative do doið do doini
dative doi doinum doum dounum
genitive dos dosins doa doanna

FrenchEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

do m (plural do)

  1. (music) do, the note 'C'
    Synonym: ut

Further readingEdit


GalicianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From contraction of preposition de (“of, from”) + masculine definite article o (“the”)

PronunciationEdit

ContractionEdit

do m (feminine da, masculine plural dos, feminine plural das)

  1. of the; from the; 's
    cabalo do demodemon's horse ("dragonfly")

GaroEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Glottal stop loss of do·o

NounEdit

do (Mandi)

  1. bird

Haitian CreoleEdit

EtymologyEdit

From French dos (“back”)

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

do

  1. (anatomy) back

HunsrikEdit

PronunciationEdit

AdverbEdit

do

  1. here
    Synonyms: hie, hier
    Die Fraa is nimmi do.The woman isn't here anymore.
  2. then; so
    Synonym: dann
    Do sim-mer fortgesprung.Then we fled.

Further readingEdit


IdoEdit

AdverbEdit

do

  1. so, therefore

IrishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle Irish ro-, from Old Irish ro-, from Proto-Celtic *ɸro-, influenced by do- of verbs like do·beir (“give”), do·uccus (“I have given”) (with early modern forms like do-bheirim (“I give”), do-ugas (“I gave”)).

Alternative formsEdit

  • d’ (used before vowels and lenited fh-)

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /d̪ˠɔ/, /d̪ˠə/

ParticleEdit

do (triggers lenition)

  1. (Munster, literary) prefixed before the preterite, imperfect and conditional forms of a verb
    do mhol séhe praised

Etymology 2Edit

Reanalysis of do (past tense marker) and the early modern unstressed preverb do- of verbs like do-gheibhim (“I get”), do-chím (“I see”) (and possibly also a- in a-tú (“I am”), a-deirim (“I say”)) in relative clauses as a relative marker.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /d̪ˠɔ/, /d̪ˠə/

ParticleEdit

do (triggers lenition)

  1. (Munster, literary) relative marker (in direct relative clauses)
    an cailín do mholann séthe girl that he praises

Usage notesEdit

Before vowel sounds takes the form d’ and is often preceeded by the reduced form a: a dh’, a d’:

  1. an té a dh’éiríonn go moch, bíonn an rath airhe who raises early has the prosperity; the early bird catches the worm

Etymology 3Edit

From Old Irish do, from Proto-Celtic *do (to, for).

Alternative formsEdit

  • d’ (used before vowel sounds)

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /d̪ˠɔ/, /d̪ˠə/
  • (Connacht) IPA(key): /ɡə/ (as if spelled go; do and go (“to, up to, until”) have largely become conflated in this dialect)

PrepositionEdit

do (plus dative, triggers lenition)

  1. to, for
    do charato a friend, for a friend
  2. used with the possessive determiners mo, do, bhur to indicate the direct object of a verbal noun, in place of ag after a form of in the progressive aspect
    Tá sé do mo ghortú.It’s hurting me.
    Bhí sé do d’fhiafraí.He was inquiring about you sg.
    Bhí sibh do bhur gcloí.You pl were being overthrown.
InflectionEdit
Derived termsEdit

See also: Category:Irish phrasal verbs with particle (do)

Etymology 4Edit

From Old Irish do, from Proto-Celtic *tou- (your, thy); compare Welsh dy, Cornish dha, Breton da.

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

DeterminerEdit

do (triggers lenition)

  1. your (singular)
    Cá bhfuil do charr?Where is your car?

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit


ItalianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈdɔ/*, /ˈdɔ/
  • Rhymes:
  • Hyphenation:

VerbEdit

do

  1. first-person singular present indicative of dare

Etymology 2Edit

 
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia it

Clipping of Doni, the surname of Giovanni Battista Doni. Coined in the 17th century to replace ut.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈdɔ/, /ˈdɔ/*
  • Rhymes:
  • Hyphenation:

NounEdit

do m

  1. do (musical note)
  2. C (musical note or key)

AnagramsEdit

ReferencesEdit

do in Luciano Canepari, Dizionario di Pronuncia Italiana (DiPI)


JapaneseEdit

RomanizationEdit

do

  1. Rōmaji transcription of
  2. Rōmaji transcription of

LadinEdit

PrepositionEdit

do

  1. behind
    Antonym: dant
  2. before (time)

LatinEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Italic *didō, from Proto-Indo-European *dédeh₃ti, from the root *deh₃- (give). The reduplication was lost in Latin in the present tense, but is preserved in the other Italic languages. A root aorist (from Proto-Indo-European *déh₃t) is preserved in Venetic 𐌆𐌏𐌕𐌏 (doto); the other Italic perfect forms reflect a reduplicated stative, *dedai. However, the root aorist possibly served as the source of the Latin present forms.[1]

Cognates include Ancient Greek δίδωμι (dídōmi), Sanskrit ददाति (dádāti), Old Persian 𐎭𐎭𐎠𐎬𐎢𐎺 (dā-).

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

(present infinitive dare, perfect active dedī, supine datum); first conjugation, irregular

  1. I give
    Synonym: dōnō
    Tertium non datur.law of excluded middle
    A third [possibility] is not given:  .
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Exodus.20.12:
      Honora patrem tuum et matrem tuam, ut sis longaevus super terram, quam Dominus Deus tuus dabit tibi.
      Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
  2. I impart, offer, render, present with
    Synonym: afferō
  3. I afford, grant
    Synonym: dōnō
    • 44 BCE, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Philippics , 1.22.7:
      Non igitur provocatio ista lege datur, sed duae maxime salutares leges quaestionesque tolluntur. Quid est aliud hortari adulescentis ut turbulenti, ut seditiosi, ut perniciosi cives velint esse?
      It is not, therefore, a right of appeal that is afforded by that law, but two most salutary laws and modes of judicial investigation that are abolished. And what is this but exhorting young men to be turbulent, seditious, mischievous citizens?
    • 44 BCE, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Philippics , 1.23.4:
      Quid, quod obrogatur legibus Cæsaris, quae iubent ei qui de vi itemque ei qui maiestatis damnatus sit aqua et igni interdici? quibus cum provocatio datur, nonne acta Cæsaris rescinduntur? Quae quidem ego, patres conscripti, qui illa numquam probavi, tamen ita conservanda concordiae causa arbitratus sum ut non modo, quas vivus leges Cæsar tulisset, infirmandas hoc tempore non putarem, sed ne illas quidem quas post mortem Cæsaris prolatas esse et fixas videtis.
      What more? Is not this a substitution of a new law for the laws of Cæsar, which enact that every man who has been convicted of violence, and also every man who has been convicted of treason, shall be interdicted from fire and water? And, when those men have a right of appeal granted them, are not the acts of Cæsar rescinded? And those acts, O conscript fathers, I, who never approved of them, have still thought it advisable to maintain for the sake of concord; so that I not only did not think that the laws which Cæsar had passed in his lifetime ought to be repealed, but I did not approve of meddling with those even which since the death of Cæsar you have seen produced and published.
  4. I bestow, confer (on or upon)
    Synonym: dōnō
  5. I concede, surrender, yield
  6. I put
  7. I adduce (e.g., a witness)

ConjugationEdit

In Vulgar Latin, becomes *dao, by analogy with the root vowel -a-, but also by some elided third conjugation verbs like *vao, *vare (< vadō, vadere).

This table includes an archaic present subjunctive conjugation on a du- root that appears in the works of Plautus and Terence.

   Conjugation of (first conjugation, irregular short a in most forms except dās and )
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present dās dat damus datis dant,
danunt
imperfect dabam dabās dabat dabāmus dabātis dabant
future dabō dabis dabit dabimus dabitis dabunt
perfect dedī dedistī dedit dedimus dedistis dedērunt,
dedēre
pluperfect dederam dederās dederat dederāmus dederātis dederant
future perfect dederō dederis dederit dederimus dederitis dederint
passive present dor daris,
dare
datur damur daminī dantur
imperfect dabar dabāris,
dabāre
dabātur dabāmur dabāminī dabantur
future dabor daberis,
dabere
dabitur dabimur dabiminī dabuntur
perfect datus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect datus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect datus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present dem,
duim
dēs,
duās,
duīs
det,
duit
dēmus dētis dent,
duint
imperfect darem darēs daret darēmus darētis darent
perfect dederim dederīs dederit dederīmus dederītis dederint
pluperfect dedissem dedissēs dedisset dedissēmus dedissētis dedissent
passive present der dēris,
dēre
dētur dēmur dēminī dentur
imperfect darer darēris,
darēre
darētur darēmur darēminī darentur
perfect datus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect datus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present date
future datō datō datōte dantō
passive present dare daminī
future dator dator dantor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives dare dedisse datūrum esse darī datum esse datum īrī
participles dāns datūrus datus dandus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
dandī dandō dandum dandō datum datū

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Aragonese: dar
  • Aromanian: dau, dari
  • Asturian: dar
  • Corsican:
  • Dalmatian: dur
  • Emilian: dèr
  • Friulian:
  • Istriot:
  • Interlingua: dar
  • Istro-Romanian: dåu
  • Ladin: , dèr
  • Ligurian:
  • Lombard: da, daa
  • Navarro-Aragonese: dar
  • Neapolitan:
  • Italian: dare
  • Old Leonese: dar
  • Old Portuguese: dar
    • Fala: dal
    • Galician: dar
    • Portuguese: dar
      • Angolar: ra
      • Annobonese: da
      • Guinea-Bissau Creole: da
      • Indo-Portuguese:
      • Kabuverdianu: da
      • Korlai Creole Portuguese: da
      • Macanese:
      • Kristang: da
      • Principense: da
      • Sãotomense: da
      • Saramaccan:
  • Old Occitan: dar
  • Old Spanish: dar
  • Piedmontese:
  • Romagnol:
  • Romanian: da, dare
  • Romansch: dar, der
  • Sabir: dar, dara
  • Sardinian: dàe, dai, dare
  • Sicilian: dari, rari
  • Tarantino: dare
  • Venetian: dar

Further readingEdit

  • do in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • do in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • do in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[2], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN

LigurianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

de +‎ o

PronunciationEdit

ContractionEdit

do

  1. of the (masculine singular)

Lower SorbianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *do.

PronunciationEdit

PrepositionEdit

do (with genitive)

  1. to, into
    • 1998, Erwin Hannusch, Niedersorbisch praktisch und verständlich, Bauzten: Domowina, →ISBN, p. 30:
      Jana chójźi hyšći do šule, wóna jo wuknica.
      Jana still goes to school; she is a schoolgirl.
    do Chóśebuzato Cottbus
    do jsyto the village, into the village
    do wognjainto the fire
    do njebjato heaven

Further readingEdit

  • Muka, Arnošt (1921, 1928), “do”, in Słownik dolnoserbskeje rěcy a jeje narěcow (in German), St. Petersburg, Prague: ОРЯС РАН, ČAVU; Reprinted Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag, 2008
  • Starosta, Manfred (1999), “do”, in Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch (in German), Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag

LuxembourgishEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Germanic *þar.

AdverbEdit

do

  1. there, in that place

Etymology 2Edit

VerbEdit

do

  1. second-person singular imperative of doen

NiasEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *daʀaq, from Proto-Austronesian *daʀaq. Compare Malay darah, Ilocano dara.

NounEdit

do (mutated form ndro)

  1. blood

ReferencesEdit

  • Sundermann, Heinrich. 1905. Niassisch-deutsches Wörterbuch. Moers: Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, p. 52.

Norwegian BokmålEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Possibly an abbreviation of "do-hūs" ("do house") from Middle Low German dōn.

NounEdit

do m or n (definite singular doen or doet, indefinite plural doer or do, definite plural doene or doa)

  1. a toilet, a loo
    Synonyms: dass, toalett
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

NounEdit

do m

  1. do (the musical note)

ReferencesEdit


Norwegian NynorskEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Possibly an abbreviation of "do-hūs" ("do house") from Middle Low German dōn.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

do m or n (definite singular doen or doet, indefinite plural doar or do, definite plural doane or doa)

  1. a toilet, a loo
    Synonyms: dass, toalett

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Norse þó.

AdverbEdit

do

  1. anyhow, still, nevertheless
Derived termsEdit

For other terms please refer to do (Bokmål) for the time being.

Etymology 3Edit

From the name of musicologist Giovanni Battista Doni, who suggested replacing the original ut with an open syllable for ease of singing. First found in Italian.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

do m (definite singular do-en, indefinite plural do-ar, definite plural do-ane)

  1. (music) do, a syllable used in solfège to represent the second note of a major scale.
Coordinate termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

VerbEdit

do

  1. (non-standard since 1917) past singular of døy

ReferencesEdit

AnagramsEdit


Old IrishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Celtic *do (to), from Proto-Indo-European *de. Unrelated to the prefix to-.

PronunciationEdit

PrepositionEdit

do (with dative; triggers lenition of a following consonant-initial noun.)

  1. to, for
  2. indicates the subject of a verbal noun
    • c. 800–825, Diarmait, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 97d10
      Is peccad díabul lesom .i. fodord doïb di dommatu, ⁊ du·fúairthed ní leu fora sáith din main, ⁊ todlugud inna féulæ ɔ amairis nánda·tibérad Día doïb, ⁊ nach coimnacuir ⁊ issi dano insin ind frescissiu co fochaid.
      It is a double sin in his opinion, i.e. the murmuring by them of want, although there remained some of the manna with them upon their satiety, and demanding the meat with faithlessness that Good would not give it to them, and [even] that he could not; therefore that is the expectation with testing.

InflectionEdit

Combinations with a definite article:

Combinations with a possessive determiner:

  • dom (to/for my)
  • dot (to/for your sg)
  • dia (to/for his/her/their)

Combinations with a relative pronoun:

  • dia· (to/for whom/which)

Alternative formsEdit

PronounEdit

do

  1. Alternative spelling of

AdverbEdit

do

  1. Alternative spelling of

Further readingEdit


Pennsylvania GermanEdit

EtymologyEdit

Compare German da.

AdverbEdit

do

  1. here
    Heit iss en Feierdaag do in Amerikaa.
    Today is a holiday here in America.

PolishEdit

EtymologyEdit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *do, from Proto-Indo-European *de, *do, whence English to.

PronunciationEdit

PrepositionEdit

do

  1. (+ genitive) to, towards (indicates an intended end-point or location)
    Zwykle jeżdżę do pracy pociągiem.I usually go to work by train.
    Chcę wrócić do domu.I want to go home. (literally, “I want to return to home.”)
    Synonym: (sometimes) na
  2. (+ genitive) into, in (indicates movement towards the interior of something)
    Proszę włożyć mleko do lodówki.Please put the milk in the fridge.
  3. (+ genitive) for, to (indicates an intended use or purpose, often analyzable as an verbal adjective or attributive noun in English)
    Zapomniałem szczoteczki do zębów.I forgot my toothbrush (literally, “I forgot brush for teeth.”)
    Masz ochotę na coś do picia?Do you fancy something to drink?
  4. (+ genitive) to (indicates the subject of an address or action)
    Napisałam do ciebie list.I wrote you a letter.
    Szymon w każdą sobotę dzwoni do mamy.Simon calls his mother every Saturday.
  5. (+ genitive) until, till, to
    Do zeszłego miesiąca mieszkałem całe życie w Łodzi.Until last month I had lived in Łódź my entire life.
    Pracujemy od dziewiątej do piątej.We work from nine to five.
  6. (+ genitive) up to, as many as
    Grozi mu do sześciu lat więzienia.He could get up to six years' imprisonment.
    Nasz syn ma tylko pięć lat, a już umie liczyć do stu.Our son is only five and can already count to 100.
  7. (+ genitive) by (indicates an intended deadline)
    Mój szef chce, żebym do jutra skończył raport.My boss wants me to finish the report by tomorrow.

Further readingEdit

  • do in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • do in Polish dictionaries at PWN

PortugueseEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Portuguese do, from de (“of”) + o (“the”). Akin to Spanish del and French du.

PronunciationEdit

ContractionEdit

do (plural dos, feminine da, feminine plural das)

  1. Contraction of de o (pertaining or relating to the); of the; from the (masculine singular)

QuotationsEdit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:do.

See alsoEdit

  • da (feminine form)
  • dos (plural form)
  • das (feminine plural form)

RomanianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Italian do.

NounEdit

do m (plural do)

  1. do (musical note)

DeclensionEdit


Saterland FrisianEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form. Cognates include West Frisian de and German die.

ArticleEdit

do (unstressed de)

  1. plural of die

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Frisian thā, from Proto-Germanic *þan. Cognates include West Frisian dan and German dann.

AdverbEdit

do

  1. then

ReferencesEdit

  • Marron C. Fort (2015), “die”, in Saterfriesisches Wörterbuch mit einer phonologischen und grammatischen Übersicht, Buske, →ISBN
  • Marron C. Fort (2015), “do”, in Saterfriesisches Wörterbuch mit einer phonologischen und grammatischen Übersicht, Buske, →ISBN

Scottish GaelicEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): (stressed) /t̪ɔ/, (unstressed) /t̪ə/
  • Hyphenation: do

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Irish do. Cognates include Irish do.

DeterminerEdit

do (triggers lenition)

  1. thy, your (singular)
    Bha iongantach do ghràdh dhomh.Wonderful was thy love for me.
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Irish do. Cognates include Irish do.

PrepositionEdit

do (+ dative, triggers lenition)

  1. to
    Bha e a' siubhal do Shasainn an-uiridh.He travelled to England last year.
  2. for
    Do dh'ar beatha, dhut, dhèanainn e.For our life, for thee, I would do it.
InflectionEdit
Personal inflection of do
Number Person Simple Emphatic
Singular 1st dhomh dhòmhsa
2nd dhut dhutsa
3rd m dha dhàsan
3rd f dhi dhìse
Plural 1st dhuinn dhuinne
2nd dhuibh dhuibhse
3rd dhaibh dhaibhsan
Usage notesEdit
  • Before a word beginning with a vowel or fh, the form do dh' may be used:
    Tha sinn a' dol do dh'Ìle.We are going to Islay.
  • If the definite article in the singular follows, it combines with do into don or dhan:
    Fàilte don dùthaich.Welcome to the country.
    Tha mi a' dol dhan bhùth.I'm going to the shop.
SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

From Middle Irish ro-, from Old Irish ro-, from Proto-Celtic *ɸro-.

ParticleEdit

do (triggers lenition)

  1. indicates the past tense of a verb
    An do sgrìobh thu litir?Did you write a letter?
    Cha do bhrist mi an uinneag.I did break the window.
Usage notesEdit
  • Becomes dh' before a word beginning with a vowel or a lenited fh followed by a vowel.
    Dh'fhàg an t-òran brònach mi.The song made me sad.
    Dh'òl e am pinnt.He drank the pint.
    An do dh'innis mi thu mar-thà.Did I not already tell you.
  • Usually omitted before a consonant except after particles such as an, cha etc.

Serbo-CroatianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Slavic *do, from Proto-Indo-European *de, *do.

PronunciationEdit

AdverbEdit

(Cyrillic spelling до̏)

  1. only, except
    ni(t)ko do janobody but me, only me
    ne jede ništa do komad hljeba/hlebahe eats nothing except a piece of bread
  2. around, approximately
    do dva metraaround two meters
    do 5 kilaaround five kilograms
  3. due to, because of
    to je do hranethat's due to the food

PrepositionEdit

(Cyrillic spelling до̏) (+ genitive case)

  1. up to, to, until, as far as, by
    od Zagreba do Beogradafrom Zagreb to Belgrade
    od jutra do mraka / od 5 do 10 satifrom morning to night / from 5 to 10 o'clock
    od vrha do dnafrom top to bottom
    do r(ij)ekeas far as the river
    sad je pet do sedamnow it's five minutes to seven
    do poned(j)eljkaby Monday
    do sadaso far, thus far, till now
    do nedavnauntil recently
    do dana današnjegato this very day
    sve doas far as up to, all the way to
    do kudahow far
    do tudathus far, up to here
  2. before (= prȉje/prȅ)
    do ratabefore the war
  3. beside, next (to)
    s(j)edi do menesit next to me
    jedan do drugogaside by side
  4. (by extension, idiomatic and figurative meanings) up to one; interested in; feel like
    nije mi do togaI don't feel like doing that
    nije mi do sm(ij)ehaI don't feel like laughing
    njemu je samo do seksahe is only interested in sex
    nije mi puno stalo do togaI'm not very much interested in that
    nije do meneit's not up to me, it's no me to lame

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Slavic *dolъ.

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

 m (Cyrillic spelling до̑)

  1. (regional, Bosnia, Serbia) dale, small valley
DeclensionEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Borrowed from Italian do.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

 m (Cyrillic spelling до̑) (indeclinable)

  1. (music) do

ReferencesEdit

  • do” in Hrvatski jezični portal
  • do” in Hrvatski jezični portal
  • do” in Hrvatski jezični portal

SlovakEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *do.

PronunciationEdit

PrepositionEdit

do (+ genitive)

  1. into, in, to, until

Further readingEdit

  • do in Slovak dictionaries at slovnik.juls.savba.sk

SloveneEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *do.

PronunciationEdit

PrepositionEdit

do

  1. (with genitive) by (some time before the given time)
  2. (with genitive) till

Further readingEdit

  • do”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran

SpanishEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈdo/, [ˈd̪o]
  • Hyphenation: do

Etymology 1Edit

Borrowed from Italian do.

NounEdit

do m (plural dos)

  1. do (musical note)
  2. C (musical note or key)

See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From a prefixation of Old Spanish o (“where”) with de (“of, from”).

AdverbEdit

do

  1. (obsolete) where
    Synonym: (modern) donde

PronounEdit

do

  1. (obsolete) where
    Synonym: (modern) donde
Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit


TawortaEdit

NounEdit

do

  1. fire

Further readingEdit

Bill Palmer, The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area (→ISBN, 2017), page 531, table 95, Comparative basic vocabulary in Lakes Plain Languages


TurkishEdit

NounEdit

do

  1. C (musical note)

VenetianEdit

VerbEdit

do

  1. first-person singular present indicative of dar (I give)

VietnameseEdit

EtymologyEdit

Sino-Vietnamese word from .

PronunciationEdit

PrepositionEdit

do

  1. (neutral passive voice marker) by
    Hầu hết các mô hình dưỡng lão đều do nhà nước bảo trợ, […]
    Most of the aged care models are sponsored by the state, […]
  2. because of; due to

Related termsEdit


VolapükEdit

ConjunctionEdit

do

  1. though, although, even though

WelshEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

AdverbEdit

do

  1. yes
  2. indeed
    Do, es i i'r parc ddoe.
    Yes, I went to the park yesterday.
Usage notesEdit
  • Used to express an affirmative answer to verbs in the past tense.

Etymology 2Edit

Alternative formsEdit

VerbEdit

do

  1. (colloquial) first-person singular future of dod

MutationEdit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
do ddo no unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Etymology 3Edit

NounEdit

do

  1. Soft mutation of to.

MutationEdit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
to do nho tho
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

West FrisianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Frisian thū, from Proto-West Germanic *þū, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

do

  1. (Clay) you; informal second-person singular pronoun
    Ik hâld fan dy.I love you.
InflectionEdit
Alternative formsEdit
Further readingEdit
  • do (I)”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Frisian *dūve, from Proto-West Germanic *dūbā.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

do c (plural dowen, diminutive doke)

  1. pigeon, dove
Further readingEdit
  • do (II)”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011

Etymology 3Edit

Borrowed from Italian do.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

do c (plural do's)

  1. do (musical note)
Further readingEdit
  • do (IV)”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011

West MakianEdit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

do

  1. (transitive) to find
  2. (transitive) to obtain, get hold of
  3. (transitive) to receive

ConjugationEdit

Conjugation of do (action verb)
singular plural
inclusive exclusive
1st person todo modo ado
2nd person nodo fodo
3rd person inanimate ido dodo
animate
imperative nodo, do fodo, do

ReferencesEdit

  • Clemens Voorhoeve (1982) The Makian languages and their neighbours[15], Pacific linguistics

YolaEdit

VerbEdit

do

  1. Alternative form of doone
    • 1927, “ZONG O DHREE YOLA MYTHENS”, in THE ANCIENT DIALECT OF THE BARONIES OF FORTH AND BARGY, COUNTY WEXFORD, line 14:
      Do leigh an praat.
      Do laugh and prate.

ReferencesEdit

  • Kathleen A. Browne (1927) The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland Sixth Series, Vol.17 No.2, Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, page 131

YorubaEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From do used in solfège to represent the first tonic of a major scale.

Alternative formsEdit

  • (abbreviated): D, d

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

  1. The syllable used to represent the low-tone and its diacritic (`)
    Ẹ bá mi fàmì sí "pàtàkì"
    pà-tà-kì dò-dò-dò
    Help me tone mark "pàtàkì"
    pà-tà-kì low-tone, low-tone, low-tone

See alsoEdit

names for tones

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

  1. (vulgar) to fuck

Derived termsEdit

proverbs

Etymology 3Edit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

  1. (transitive) to settle; to found a settlement
    Synonym: tẹ̀ dó
    Àwọn Àwórì ló kọ́kọ́ sí Èkó.The Awori people settled Lagos first.
  2. (transitive) to colonise

Derived termsEdit


ZazakiEdit

EtymologyEdit

Related to Persian دوغ(duğ) and Tajik дуғ (duġ).

NounEdit

do ?

  1. airan

Zoogocho ZapotecEdit

NounEdit

do

  1. mecate, rope made of maguey or hair fiber

ReferencesEdit

  • Long C., Rebecca; Cruz M., Sofronio (2000) Diccionario zapoteco de San Bartolomé Zoogocho, Oaxaca (Serie de vocabularios y diccionarios indígenas “Mariano Silva y Aceves”; 38)‎[16] (in Spanish), second electronic edition, Coyoacán, D.F.: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, A.C., page 367