Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/gadъ

This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Slavic

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Etymology

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Commonly associated with Lithuanian gė́da (shame), Old Prussian gīdan (shame, disgrace), Proto-West Germanic *kwād (dirt, mud; bad), presumably from Proto-Indo-European *gʷeh₁dʰ- (to defile). Related native terms with root vowel *-y- (*gyda, *gydъkъ, etc.) evince for a possible obscure *-w- in the root, which gets assimilated by the labiovelar *gʷ- in non-zero grades: *gʷ(w)[e/o]H- ~ *gʷuH- + *-dʰ-. If right, then perhaps further akin to Proto-Slavic *govьno (turd), *gavědь (unordered, disorganized group; wild stock).

Less accepted hypotheses draw comparisons with Ancient Greek γάδος (gádos, cod), Latin gadus (gadiform) (whence English cod), often considered of substrate origin, or with Sanskrit नाग (nāgá, serpent) (per Machek).

Noun

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*gàdъ m[1][2][3]

  1. creep (generic eerie or disgusting creature)
    reptile, serpent
    bug, pest, vermin

Alternative forms

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Declension

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Derived terms

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Descendants

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Further reading

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  • Vasmer, Max (1964–1973) “гад”, in Oleg Trubachyov, transl., Этимологический словарь русского языка [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), Moscow: Progress
  • Chernykh, P. Ja. (1993) “гад”, in Историко-этимологический словарь русского языка [Historical-Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), 3rd edition, volume 1 (а – пантомима), Moscow: Russian Lang., →ISBN, page 175
  • Trubachyov, Oleg, editor (1979), “*gadъ”, in Этимологический словарь славянских языков [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), numbers 6 (*e – *golva), Moscow: Nauka, page 81
  • Georgiev, Vladimir I., editor (1971), “гад”, in Български етимологичен речник [Bulgarian Etymological Dictionary] (in Bulgarian), volume 1 (А – З), Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Pubg. House, →ISBN, page 222
  • gėda”, in Lietuvių kalbos etimologinio žodyno duomenų bazė [Lithuanian etymological dictionary database], 2007–2012

References

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  1. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008) “*gàdъ”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, →ISSN, page 160:m. o (a)
  2. ^ Olander, Thomas (2001) “gadъ gada”, in Common Slavic Accentological Word List[1], Copenhagen: Editiones Olander:a reptile (NA 115; PR 131; RPT 99, 101)
  3. ^ Snoj, Marko (2016) “gad”, in Slovenski etimološki slovar [Slovenian Etymology Dictionary] (in Slovene), 3rd edition, https://fran.si:Pslovan. *ga̋dъ