Wiktionary:Sindhi transliteration

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These are the rules concerning transliteration in Sindhi entries. The transliteration of Devanagari for Sindhi corresponds mostly to the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, while transcriptions of phonemes unique to Sindhi adhere to R. L. Turner's A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages.

Perso-Arabic edit

No. Letter Name of letter Transcription IPA
1 ا, آ ʾalif ā, ', – /aː, ʔ/, ∅
2 ب be b /b/
3 ٻ ḇe /ɓ/
4 ڀ bhe bh /bʱ/
5 ت te t /t̪/
6 ٺ the th /t̪ʰ/
7 ٽ ṭe /ʈ/
8 ٺ ṭhe ṭh /ʈʰ/
9 ث se s /s/
10 پ pe p /p/
11 ج jīm j /d͡ʒ/
12 ڄ j̄īm /ʄ/
13 جھ jhīm jh /d͡ʒʱ/
14 ڃ ñe ñ /ɲ/
15 چ ce c /t͡ʃ/
16 ڇ che ch /t͡ʃʰ/
17 ح he h /ɦ/
18 خ xe x /x/
19 د dāl d /d̪/
20 ڌ dhāl dh /d̪ʱ/
21 ڊ ḍāl /ɖ/
22 ڏ ḍ̠āl ḍ̠ /ɗ/
23 ڍ ḍhāl ḍh /ɖʱ/
24 ذ zāl z /z/
25 ر re r /r/
26 ڙ ṛe /ɽ/
27 ز ze z /z/
28 س sīn s /s/
29 ش śīn ś /ʃ/
30 ص su'ād s /s/
31 ض zu'ād z /z/
32 ط to'e t /t/
33 ظ zo'e z /z/
34 ع ʿain ā, o, e, ', /aː, oː, eː, ʔ/, ∅
35 غ ġain ġ /ɣ/
36 ف fe f /f/
37 ڦ phe ph /pʰ/
38 ق qāf q /q/
39 ڪ kāf k /k/
40 ک khāf kh /kʰ/
41 گ gāf g /ɡ/
42 ڳ g̠āf /ɠ/
43 گهہ‎ ghāf gh /ɡʱ/
42 ڱ‎ ṅe /ŋ/
43 ل lām l /l/
44 م mīm m /m/
45 ن nūn n, ◌̃ /n, ◌̃/
46 ڻ‎ ṇūn /ɳ/
47 و va'o v, u, o, au, ū /ʋ, ʊ, oː, ɔː, uː/
48 ء hamzā ', – /ʔ/, Ø
49 ى ye y, ī, e /j, iː, eː/
52 ه he h /ɦ/ or /h/
51 ھ do caśmī he h /ʰ/ or /ʱ/

Devanagari edit

Vowels edit

1 2 3 4 5 6
short independent
diacritic inherent ि
trans. a i u ŕ e o
IPA [ə] [ɪ] [ʊ] [rɪ] [eː] [oː]
long independent
trans. ā ī ū ai au
IPA [ɑː] [iː] [uː] [ɛː] [ɔː]

Consonants edit

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
velar deva.
trans. k kh g gh h
IPA [k] [kʰ] [ɡ] [ɠ] [ɡʱ] [ŋ] [h]/[ɦ]
palatal deva.
trans. c ch j jh ñ y ś
IPA [tʃ] [tʃʰ] [dʒ] [ɟ] [dʒʱ] [ɲ] [j] [ʃ]
retroflex deva.
trans. ṭh ḍ̠ ḍh r
IPA [ʈ] [ʈʰ] [ɖ] [ɖɦ] [ɖʱ] [ɳ] [ɾ] [ʂ]
dental deva.
trans. t th d dh n l s
IPA [t̪] [t̪ʰ] [d̪] [d̪ʱ] [n] [l] [s]
labial deva. ॿ
trans. p ph b bh m v
IPA [p] [pʰ] [b] [ɓ] [bʱ] [m] [ʋ]/[v]/[w]

Diacritics edit

Nuqtā edit

The (नुक़्ता, nuqtā) diacritic describes sounds not found in Sanskrit, and therefore not represented by standard Devanagari. Most of these sounds are found in Persian and English loanwords.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
deva. क़ ख़ ग़ ज़ फ़ ड़ ढ़
trans. q x ġ z f ṛh
IPA [q] [x] [ɣ] [z] [f] [ɽ] [ɽʱ]
Anusvara edit

The (अनुस्वार, anusvara) is "transliterated" according to its context in a word. Basically, the consonant (or lack thereof) immediately following the nasal vowel determines exactly how the transliteration will occur.

  1. First, a tilde diacritic is added to the nasalized vowel
    ã, ā̃, ẽ, ĩ, ī̃, ũ, ū̃, etc.
  2. If a consonant follows the nasalized vowel, the transliteration of the consonant's corresponding nasal consonant follows.
    Gutturals (क, ख, ग, घ, ह) will use ṅ (for )
    Dentals (त, थ, द, ध, ल, स) will use n (for )
    Labials (प, फ, ब, भ, व) will use m (for ), etc.
    — 'n' and 'm' are disambiguated from and .