See also: fémina

English

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Etymology

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From Latin fēmina (woman),[1] perhaps via Italian femmina.[2] Doublet of feme, femme, and hembra.

Noun

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femina (plural femina or feminas)

  1. A wing feather from a female ostrich.
    • 1881, Arthur Douglass, “Preparing the Feathers for Market”, in Ostrich Farming in South Africa. Being an Account of Its Origin and Rise; How to set about it; The Profits to be derived; How to Manage the Birds; The Capital required; the Diseases and Difficulties to be met with, &c. &c., London, Paris, New York, N.Y.: Cassell, Petter, Galpin & Co.; London: S. W. Silver & Co., [], page 84:
      The numbers are given here to show all the whites together, and then the feminas, &c.; but in sending them to market it is better to arrange the numbers so that a lot of whites are followed by a lot of feminas, then a lot of whites again, then a lot of fancy colours, then whites again, and so on right through.
    • 1895 June 12, “London Produce”, in Liverpool Mercury, and Lancashire, Cheshire, and General Advertiser, number 14,803, Liverpool, page 8, column 6:
      Feathers. — The auctions will comprise 3168 cases, containing 58,000lbs., against 53,800lb. in last sales. There was a good demand, and white and white and light Femina best quality were firm, seconds and inferior 10s. to 15s. per lb. higher.
    • 1899 September 8, “The Ostrich Feather Market”, in Democrat and Chronicle, 67th year, Rochester, N.Y., page 15, column 5:
      A noticeable feature of the sales was the quantity of fine goods, principally of white and feminas. The best white qualities and good broken brought 10 per cent. to 15 per cent. advance, while other qualities sold firmly. White and light femina were also 10 to 15 per cent. dearer, principally for the best lines. Dark femina and byocks were 10 per cent. higher.
    • 1909, Agricultural Journal of the Cape of Good Hope, page 514:
      3.—Wing-Quills or Remiges; Whites and Feminas.—The wing-quills are the largest feathers in the wing, and are arranged in a single row. They include the “Whites” in the cock, and the “Feminas” in the hen, as well as the “Byocks” or “Fancies” in the cock.
    • 1909 August 12, “Ostrich Feathers of Tripoli”, in Neenah Daily Times, volume 53, number 8,451, Neenah, Wis., Menasha, Wis., column 5:
      The usual kinds of ostrich feathers known to the trade come into the Tripoli market. These are whites, blacks, feminas, byocks, spadonas, boos, drabs and floss.
    • 1912 July 17, The Boston Daily Globe, volume LXXXII, number 17, Boston, Mass., page 16, column 5:
      The feminas brought from $97.35 to $109.50, while spadones were sacrificed at from $34 to $47.45.
    • 1913, The Agricultural Journal of British East Africa, page 8:
      It is somewhat larger than the Southern bird and the plumage of young birds and also the feminas are darker.
    • 1921 September 7, The New York Times, volume LXX, number 23,237, New York, N.Y., page 24, column 6:
      RAW OSTRICH FEATHERS / Primes, Wings, White Feminas, Spads, Etc.
    • 1923, South African Law Reports. Cape Provincial Division: Decisions of the Supreme Court of South Africa (Cape of Good Hope Provincial Decision)., page 532:
      This parcel included 286 lbs. of feathers known as whites, and 211 lbs. of feathers known as feminas. The whites are described as lot 12, and the feminas as lot 13.

References

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  1. ^ femina, n.”, in Dictionary of South African English, Makhanda, Eastern Cape: Dictionary Unit for South African English, 1996–2024:Origin: Latin, ‘woman’.
  2. ^ “An Ostrich-Feather Sale”, in London Society. An Illustrated Magazine of Light and Amusing Literature for the Hours of Relaxation., volume XXXV, London, [], 1879 February, page 186:[] and Femina and Spadona are Italian words pure. As femmina (its proper spelling), for the first, female; as spadone, for the second, a large flat sword; [] these two last ‘sorts’ tell how Italian merchants originated the importation of ostrich feathers into Europe;

Esperanto

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Etymology

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From femino (woman) +‎ -a.

Pronunciation

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  • Audio:(file)
  • IPA(key): [feˈmina]
  • Rhymes: -ina
  • Hyphenation: fe‧min‧a

Adjective

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femina (accusative singular feminan, plural feminaj, accusative plural feminajn)

  1. feminine (of women), women's
    Synonym: virina

Usage notes

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Relatively uncommon; the synonym virina is generally used instead.

Gallurese

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Latin fēmina, from Proto-Italic *fēmanā, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰeh₁m̥h₁néh₂ ((the one) nursing, breastfeeding), the feminine mediopassive participle of *dʰeh₁(y)- (to suck, suckle).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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femina f (plural femini)

  1. woman

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 Mauro Maxia (2012) Fonetica storica del gallurese e delle altre varietà sardocorse (in Gallurese), Editrice Taphros, →ISBN

Etymology

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Borrowed from English feminine, French féminin, Italian femminile, Spanish femenino, from Latin fēminīnus from fēmina (woman), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰeh₁-m̥n-eh₂ ((the one) nursing, breastfeeding).

Adjective

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femina

  1. female, feminine

Antonyms

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Derived terms

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Interlingua

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Interlingua Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ia

Pronunciation

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Noun

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femina (plural feminas)

  1. woman
  2. female

Antonyms

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  • (antonym(s) of woman): viro (man)
  • (antonym(s) of female): masculo (male)
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Latin

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-Italic *fēmanā, from earlier *θēmanā, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰeh₁-m̥h₁n-éh₂ ([the one] nursing, breastfeeding), the feminine mediopassive participle of *dʰeh₁(y)- (to suck, suckle).[1] Related to fellō, fētus, fīlius.

Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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fēmina f (genitive fēminae); first declension

  1. woman
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid 1.361–364:
      conveniunt, quibus aut odium crudele tyranni
      aut metus acer erat; navis, quae forte paratae,
      corripiunt, onerantque auro: portantur avari
      Pygmalionis opes pelago; dux femina facti.
      Those came together that either felt ruthless hate or bitter fear for their tyrant. They seized ships that had incidentally already been arranged and loaded them with gold. The treasures of avaricious Pygmalion were carried to the sea; the leader of the action was a woman.
  2. wife
  3. (of animals) female
    • 45 BCE, Cicero, De Natura Deorum 2.128:
      Nam primum aliae (bestiae) mares, aliae feminae sunt, quod perpetuitatis causa machinata natura est, deinde partes corporis et ad procreandum et ad concipiendum aptissimae, et in mari et in femina commiscendorum corporum mirae libidines; [...]
      To begin with, some of them (animals) are of gender males, others females, the which is for nature's perpetuity wrought, whence of each their parts in procreation and conceiving be optimal, and so the wanton desires in male and female towards sexual union of their own body; [...]
  4. (grammar) the feminine gender
Declension
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First-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative fēmina fēminae
Genitive fēminae fēminārum
Dative fēminae fēminīs
Accusative fēminam fēminās
Ablative fēminā fēminīs
Vocative fēmina fēminae
Synonyms
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Coordinate terms
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Derived terms
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Descendants
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Etymology 2

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See femur.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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femina

  1. nominative/accusative/vocative plural of femur

Etymology 3

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Inflected form of feminō.

Verb

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feminā

  1. second-person singular present active imperative of feminō

References

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  • fēmĭna”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • femina”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • femina in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • fēmĭna in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “fēmina”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 210