Contents

LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Baltic *spēkas, from *spē- with a suffix -ko, from Proto-Indo-European *speh₁- (to develop, to evolve, to increase). The meaning changed from “(well) developed, big, fat” to “stout, strong”, i.e., for the nominal form, “strength,” “force.” Cognates include Lithuanian spė̃kas, spėkà.[1]

PronunciationEdit

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NounEdit

spēks m (1st declension)

  1. (physics) force (physical quantity describing the interaction of bodies whereby they undergo acceleration or deformation)
    Zemes pievilkšanas spēks‎ ― the Earth's attraction force, gravity
    gravitācijas, berzes spēks‎ ― gravitational, attrition force
    centrbēdzes, centrtieces spēks‎ ― centrifugal, centripetal force
    spēka lauks‎ ― force field
    spēka pielikšanas punkts‎ ― force application point
    pielikt spēku‎ ― to apply a force
  2. (of people, animals) force, strength, power (capacity to carry out (especially physical) actions or motion)
    fiziskais spēks‎ ― physical strength
    taupīt spēku‎ ― to spare, to save strength, power
    uzkrāt spēku‎ ― to accumulate strength, power
    nav spēka piecelties‎ ― (s/he) doesn't have the strength to get up
    izsmelt (visus) spēkus‎ ― to exhaust (all) (one's) forces, strength
    pēdējiem spēkiem sasniegt krastu‎ ― to reach the coast with (one's) last strength
  3. (of people's behavior) (physical) force, coercion, violence
    viņa ar spēku izrāva Mārim no rokām meitas fotogrāfiju‎ ― she snatched the girl's photograph from Māris' hands by force
    jūs uzvaru redzat tikai spēkā; bet saprāta uzvara, kur tad paliek tā?‎ ― you see only victory in violence; but the victory of reason, where is it then?
  4. strength, power (of mental processes: mental features that support or strengthen their expression)
    garīgais, morālais spēks‎ ― spiritual, moral strength
    gribas spēks, gribasspēks'‎ ― willpower
    iekšējs, dvēseles spēks‎ ― inner, soul strength
    negaidīti aktrise atrada sevī lielu speku, tuvojoties varonības robežai‎ ― unexpectedly, the actress found in herself intense strength, verging on heroism
  5. (of laws) force (legal validity, power)
    likuma spēks‎ ― force of law, legal force
    būr, palikt, uzturēt spēkā‎ ― to be, to remain, to keep in force
    stāties spēkā‎ ― to come into force
  6. force, power, strength (capacity or power to influence, to persuade, to make something happen)
    personības spēks‎ ― strength of personality
    ieraduma spēks‎ ― force of habit
    vārda spēks‎ ― the power of the word
    mākslas spēks‎ ― the power of art
    dažādu ar valdībām nesaistīto organizāciju pretkara kustība ieguvusi milzīgu spēku‎ ― various non-governmental organizations' anti-war movement has gained enormous power, strength
  7. (chiefly in the plural) forces (a group within society, united by a common feature)
    demokrātiskie, revolucinārie spēki‎ ― democratic, revolutionary forces
  8. (chiefly plural; of professionals, soldier, etc.) forces (people united by a goal, ideal, task)
    teātra jaunie spēki‎ ― new young forces of theater
    mākslinieciskie spēki‎ ― artistic forces
    bruņotie spēki‎ ― armed forces
    karaspēks'‎ ― armed forces, (national) army, troops
    starptautisko spēku samērs‎ ― international balance of forces, power

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “spēks”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7