Last modified on 31 October 2014, at 12:03

TranslingualEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (U+2ED7) (When used as a combining radical)

Han characterEdit

(radical 173 +0, 8 strokes, cangjie input 一中月卜 (MLBY), four-corner 10227)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1371, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 42210
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1878, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4057, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+96E8

ChineseEdit

simpl. and trad.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *k/r/s-wa.

Graphically: Pictogram (象形) – a cloud with drops of rain falling from it.

Stroke order
雨-bw.png
Stroke order
雨-order.gif
雨 雨 雨 雨
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

Pronunciation 1Edit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (雨), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 云 (35)
Final: 虞
Division: III

Openness: Closed
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 王矩切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɦɨoX/ /i̯uX/ /ɣioX/ /ɦioX/ /ɦuə̆X/ /ɣĭuX/ /ɣioX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ hjuX › /*C.ɢʷ(r)aʔ/ rain

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
15952 0 /*ɢʷaʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. rain
  2. (figuratively)
    1. friend
    2. teaching, instruction

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (雨):

Pronunciation 2Edit

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (雨), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 云 (35)
Final: 虞
Division: III

Openness: Closed
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 王遇切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɦɨoH/ /i̯uH/ /ɣioH/ /ɦioH/ /ɦuə̆H/ /ɣĭuH/ /ɣioH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ hjuH › /*[ɢ]ʷ(r)aʔ-s/ rain (v.t.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
15953 0 /*ɢʷas/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to rain
    • [Classical Chinese, trad. and simp.]
      wǒ gōng tián, suì jí wǒ sī. [Pinyin]
      May it rain first on our public fields, and then come to our private!
  2. to fall from the sky (like the rain)

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

さめ (same) occurs as epenthesis (instead of the more common あめ (ame)) in terms such as 小雨 (kosame, light rain, drizzle) and 春雨 (harusame, spring rain).

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
あめ
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Cognate with same (rain). Found both alone and in compounds. Perhaps derived from /same/ → /ame/ with loss of the initial /s/; see same.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana あめ, romaji ame)

  1. rain
    • 一雨ごとに春が来る
      hito ame goto ni haru ga kuru
      Spring nears by each rain-fall
    • 931-938: Wamyō Ruijushō (book 1 page 24)
      雨 設文云、雨、音禹、阿女○山田本有和名二字、谷川氏曰、阿女天水之急呼、謂如水從天下也、水從雲中而下也

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
さめ
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Cognate with ame (rain). Found in compounds. The /s/ either represents epenthesis between two vowels in compounds or, more likely, is a reflex of an older form of the word ame (rain) only maintained in fossilized compounds. See Derived terms.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana さめ, romaji same)

  1. rain
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(u)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: u, McCune-Reischauer: u, Yale: wu)
  • Name (hangeul): ()
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

MiyakoEdit

KanjiEdit

(hiragana あみ, romaji ami)

NounEdit

(hiragana あみ, romaji ami)

  1. rain

OkinawanEdit

KanjiEdit

(hiragana あみ, romaji ami)

NounEdit

(hiragana あみ, romaji ami)

  1. rain

CompoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(, thủy)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

YonaguniEdit

KanjiEdit

(hiragana あみ, romaji ami)

NounEdit

(hiragana あみ, romaji ami)

  1. rain

YoronEdit

KanjiEdit

(hiragana あみ, romaji ami)

NounEdit

(hiragana あみ, romaji ami)

  1. rain

CompoundsEdit