See also: etre and étre

Bourbonnais-BerrichonEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old French estre, from Latin sum.

VerbEdit

être

  1. to be

ConjugationEdit


FrenchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle French estre, from a merger of two verbs:

  • Old French ester, from Latin stō (stand, be situated), from Proto-Indo-European *steh₂-. This verb supplied imperfect forms that once originally supplied by forms in ier-/er- (also as the future stems due to analogy with future forms containing -r-) in Old French. The forms with initial ét- derive from this verb.
  • Old French estre, from Latin sum (be). This verb was irregular also in Latin, and derives from Proto-Indo-European *bʰuH- for the forms beginning with f- (see more at fuī), and *h₁es- for the remainder.
    • Instead of forming expected *esse from Latin esse (the infinitive form of sum), it has been regularized by adding third conjugation ending -ere, resulting on *essere. Many others also follow this development.
    • The first-person singular indicative present form suis seems to be derived from *suī, a modified form of fuī by replacing f- with s-.
    • The first-person plural indicative present form sommes is conflated from Latin sumus and Vulgar Latin *esmus (confer Old French esmes, modified from estis (second-plural indicative present form), related to êtes).
  • Some forms of estre are from conflation of Vulgar Latin *essere and sedēre (infinitive of sedeō (I sit)), later sounds similar and resulted on *seēre. The forms with initial soi- and ser- derive from these verbs.
    • The present subjunctive forms are from sedeō and develop independently, but -e- in the third-person singular is replaced by -t in Old French (similar to Modern French avoir), but later -e- is completely removed from singular forms. The deletion of -e- is also similarly once happened in the third-person singular imperfect form in Old French (-oie, -oies, -oit). This is likely due to the subjunctive imperfect suffixes -ât/-ît/-ût.

See cognates in regional languages in France: Bourguignon étre, Champenois ètre, Norman ête, Gallo ête, Picard ète, Franco-Provençal étre, Occitan èsser and estar, Corsican esse.

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

être

  1. to be
    Vous devez être plus clairs.
    You must be clearer.
  2. (auxiliary) Used to form the perfect and pluperfect tense of certain verbs (including all reflexive verbs)
    Après être allé au yoga, je suis rentré chez moi.
    After having gone to yoga, I came back home.
  3. (auxiliary) to be (Used to form the passive voice)
    Il peut être battu ce soir.
    He could be beaten this evening.

ConjugationEdit

Derived termsEdit

Pages starting with “être”.

Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit

NounEdit

être m (plural êtres)

  1. being, creature

Related termsEdit

Further readingEdit


LorrainEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old French estre, from Latin sum.

VerbEdit

être

  1. to be

ConjugationEdit


NormanEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (file)

VerbEdit

être

  1. (Jersey) Alternative form of êt’