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ItalianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Vulgar Latin *essĕre[1], from Latin esse (infinitive of sum), from Proto-Italic *ezom, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésti (he is, he exists), from *h₁es- (to be). Past historic indicative and imperfect subjunctive forms via the perfect tenses of the Proto-Italic *ezom, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰúHt (he became), from *bʰuH- (to become, to grow, to appear)[1]. The current past participle stato from stare, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *steh₂- (to stand (up)).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈɛs.se.re/, [ˈɛs̪s̪er̺e]
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɛssere
  • Hyphenation: es‧se‧re

VerbEdit

essere

  1. (auxiliary, the non-perfect forms followed by a past participle, used to form composite (perfect) tenses of passive intransitive verbs and of their reflexive forms) to have (done something); to be in the state of having (done something); See Category:Italian verbs taking essere as auxiliary.
    Essente partito e non essendosi ancora fermato, lui è tutt’ora in movimento.Being started and not having stopped yet, he is still moving. (literally, “Being started and not having stopped yet, he is all now in movement.”)
    (io) sono
    (io) sono stato
    I am
    I (have) been
    (io) sto
    (io) sono stato
    I stay
    I (have) stayed
    • (io) mi fermo
      (io) mi sono fermato
      I stop me/myself
      I (have) stopped myself
    (tu) ti fermi
    (tu) ti sei fermato
    you stop yourself
    you (have) stopped yourself
    • (lui/lei/egli/ella/esso/essa) si ferma
      (lui/lei/egli/ella/esso/essa) si è fermato
      he/she/it stops himself/herself/itself
      he/she/it (has) stopped himself/herself/itself
    • (noi) ci fermiamo
      (noi) ci siamo fermati
      we stop ourselves
      we (have) stopped ourselves
    • (voi) vi fermate
      (voi) vi siete fermati
      you stop yourselves
      you (have) stopped yourselves
    • (loro/essi/esse) si fermano
      (loro/essi/esse) si sono fermati
      they stops themselves
      they (have) stopped themselves
    • accade
      è accaduto
      it happens
      it (have) happened
    (io) vado
    (io) sono andato
    I go
    I (have) gone
  2. (auxiliary, the non-perfect forms followed by a past participle, used to form composite (perfect) tenses of reflexive forms of transitive verbs) to have (done something to oneself/oneselves); to be in the state of having (done something to oneself/oneselves); See Category:Italian reflexive verbs.
    Lui guardando verso lo specchio si era visto.He, looking towards the mirror, (had) seen himself.
    • (io) mi ho
      (io) mi sono avuto
      I have me/myself
      I (have) had me/myself
    (io) mi faccio […]
    (io) mi sono fatto […]
    I make myself [...]
    I (have) made myself […]
  3. (auxiliary, both non-perfect and perfect forms followed by a past participle, used to form the passive forms of transitive verbs) to be (done something); to be in the state of being (done something); See Category:Italian transitive verbs.
    Lui è amato da lei.He is loved by her.
    Lei era stata amata da lui.She was been loved by him.
    • (io) avevo/possedevo
      (io) ero avuto/posseduto
      (io) ero stato avuto/posseduto
      I owned/possessed
      I was owned/possessed
      I was been owned/possessed
    (io) amavo
    (io) ero amato
    (io) ero stato amato
    I loved
    I was loved
    I was been loved
  4. (intransitive, absolutive, as predicative verb, affirms the existence, the essence in itself, the pure act, without further determination) to be, to exist (regionally, chiefly in Tuscany, can be found in the singular also when referring to plural subjects)
    Synonym: esistere
    Dio èGod exists
    ci sono varie specie di rosethere are various/many species of roses
    discutere se vi siano il paradiso e l’infernodiscuss if there exist/is the heaven and the hell
    Ci sono molti laureati in legge.There are many law graduates.
    • 1850–1650 B.C., chapter 1, in Bibbia [Bible], volume Genesi [Genesis] (religious text, creation myth, in Hebrew), line 3:
      Dio disse: «la luce sia», e la luce fu
      God said: «the light exist», and the light existed
      (literally, “God said: «the light be», and the light was”)
    • 1314 (volume), 1321 (full book), Alighieri, Dante, “III”, in Divina Commedia [Divine Commedy], volume Inferno [hell] (allegorical-didactic poem, lyric poetry), lines 7–8:
      Dinanzi a me non fuor cose create / se non etterne, […]
      Before me existed not created things / if not eternal, […]
      (literally, “Before me [there] weren’t created things / if not eternal, […]”)
    • 1316 (volume), 1321 (full book), Alighieri, Dante, “XVI”, in Divina Commedia [Divine Commedy], volume Purgatorio [Purgatory] (allegorical-didactic poem), line 97:
      Le leggi [ci] son, ma chi pon mano ad esse?
      The laws exist, but who put its hand on them?
      (literally, “The laws are [there], but who put its hand on them?”)
    • 1840, Manzoni, Alessandro, “II”, in I Promessi Sposi [The bethroted spouses] (novel, historical fiction), 3rd: la Quarantana [the Forty] edition, page 34:
      […] “E poi c’è degli imbrogli” / “Degl’imbrogli? Che imbrogli ci può essere?” […]
      […] “And then there are some entanglements” / “Some entanglements? What entanglements may exist?” […]
      (literally, “[…] “And then there is some cheats” / “Some cheats? What cheats may there be?” […]”)
  5. (intransitive, also followed by presente) to be (present)
    Il verbo “essereè se stesso.The verb “to beis itself.
    (L’)iddio è (presente) dappertutto.(The) god is (present) everywhere.
    Non c’erano persone lungo la strada.There were not (present) people along the road.
    Siete già qui?Are you already here?
    Sono io in carne ed ossaIt’s me in person (literally, “It’s me in meat and bones.”)
    Sono presente in carne ed ossaI am present in person (literally, “I am present in meat and bones.”)
    • 1507–1566, Caro, Annibale, (Please provide the book title or journal name):
      […] fate che al mio ritorno la scena sia in essere […]
      […] let the scene be ready at my return […]
    • 1600–1602, Shakespeare, William, “Atto III [Act 3]”, in Amleto [Hamlet] (Tragedy, in English), Scena V [Scene 5], line 1:
      Essere, o non essere, questo è il dilemma: […]
      To be, or not to be, that is the problem: […]
    • 1626–1697, Redi, Francesco, (Please provide the book title or journal name):
      […] le sue lettere son tutte in essere […]
      […] his letters are all in existence […]
    • 14–19 May 1835, Leopardi, Giacomo, “Dialogo di un fisico e di un metafisico [Dialogue of a physicist and a metaphysician]”, in Operette morali [Moral operettas] (collection of phylosophical novellas and dialogues), page 66:
      […] Ma se tu vuoi, prolungando la vita, giovare agli uomini veramente; trova un’arte per la quale sieno moltiplicate di numero e di gagliardia le sensazioni e le azioni loro. […]
      […] But if you want, prolonging life, to benefit men; find an art in which their sensations and actions are multiplied by number and vigor. […]
      (literally, “[…] But if you want, prolonging life, to benefit men; find an art in which are multiplied by number and vigor, sensations and actions of them. […]”)
    • 1840, Manzoni, Alessandro, “XII”, in I Promessi Sposi [The bethroted spouses] (novel, historical fiction), 3rd: la Quarantana [the Forty] edition, page 251:
      […] Spesso, in simili circostanze, l’annunzio d’una cosa la fa essere [presente]. […]
      […] Often, in similar circumstances, the announcement of a thing makes it present. […]
      (literally, “[…] Often, in similar circumstances, the announcement of a thing makes it to be [present]. […]”)
  6. (intransitive, also followed by vero) to be true
    è (proprio) cosìit is (just/exactly) that way
    affermare ciò che (in realtà) non è (vero)affirm what (in realty) is not (true)
    non può essere (vero)it can not be (true)
  7. (intransitive, used to replace action verbs) to be
    ero stato io (a dare/fare qualcosa)it was been me (who gave/did something)
    (which replace the clause l’avevo dato/fatto io)
    l’avevo dato/fatto ioit was given/done by me
  8. (intransitive, impersonal, used to indicate a situation) to be
    oggi (c’)è bel tempotoday (the weather/it) is lovely
    oggi (il clima) è freddo/caldotoday (the climate/it) is cold/hot
    oggi (il cielo) è già buiotoday (the sky/it) is already dark
  9. (intransitive, impersonal, used to emphasize) to be
    È a te che mi rivolgo.It is to you who I address (my speech).
    È a te che rivolgo il mio discorso.It is to you who I address my speech.
    È per questo che insisto.It is for this reason that I insist.
    Quand’è che ci rivedremo?When will we meet again?
  10. (intransitive) to exist
    Synonyms: esistere, sussistere
    • 1314 (volume), 1321 (full book), Alighieri, Dante, quoting Virgilio [Virgil], “III”, in Divina Commedia [Divine Commedy], volume Inferno [Hell] (allegorical-didactic poem, lyric poetry), lines 49-51:
      […] Fama di loro il mondo esser non lassa; / misericordia e giustizia li sdegna: / non ragioniam di lor, ma guarda e passa.” […]
      […] Fame of them the world does not let exist; / mercy and justice disdains them: / do not reason about them, but look and pass.” […]
      (literally, “[…] Fame of them the world does not allow to be; / mercy and justice disdains them: / do not reason about them, but look and pass.” […]”)
  11. (intransitive) to be, to consist, to stay, to lay
    Synonyms: consistere, stare
    in questo è la difficoltàthe difficult is/lies/consists in this
    la vera felicità non è nel denarotrue happiness is not/does not consist in money
    tutta la sua gioia è nel lavoroall his joy is in (the) work
  12. (intransitive) to live
    Synonym: vivere
    C’era una volta (ed ora non più) […](It lived) once upon a time (and now no longer) […] (literally, “It was once time (and now no longer) […]”)
    • 1350–1353, Boccaccio, Giovanni, “Giornata quinta [Fifth day]”, in Decameron or Decamerone [The Decameron] (collection of Novellas), Novella nona [Ninth novella], page 395:
      […] Dovete adunque sapere che Coppo di Borghese Domenichi, il quale fu nella nostra cittá, e forse è ancora, uomo di grande e di reverenda autoritá ne’ di nostri, […]
      […] You must therefore know that Coppo di Borghese Domenichi, who lived in our city, and maybe still lives there, was, and maybe still is, a man of great and reverend authority in our days […]
      (literally, “[…] You must therefore know that Coppo di Borghese Domenichi, who was in our city, and maybe still is, a man of great and reverend authority in of our […]”)
    • 1821, Manzoni, Alessandro, Il cinque maggio [The Fifth of May] (poetry, ode), line 1, page 689:
      Ei fu. […]
      He lived. […]
      (literally, “He was. […]”)
  13. (intransitive) to have life, to have origin
    Synonyms: avere vita, avere origine
    Di dove siete?From where are you?
    Lui/Egli/Esso è di Milano/Napoli.He was born/lives in Milan/Naples.
    Lei/Ella/Essa è di Milano/Napoli.She was born/lives in Milan/Naples.
  14. (intransitive) to occur, to happen, to take place
    Synonyms: avvenire, accadere
    Cos’è stato?What (is) happened?
    Cosa sarà di noi?What will happen/occur to us?
    Quel che è stato è stato.The thing which (was) happened it (was) happened. (literally, “What (was) happened it (was) happened.”)
    • 1516, Ariosto, Ludovico, “Canto primo [First song]”, in Orlando furioso [Furious Orlando] (poetry, chivalric romance), 1, lines 2–4:
      [...], l’audaci imprese io canto, / che furo al tempo che passaro i Mori / d’Africa il mare, […]
      […], I sing the audacious enterprises, / which happened at the time the Moors / of Africa passed the sea, […]
      (literally, “[…], the audacious enterpsrises I sing, / which were at the time the Moors / of Africa passed the sea, […]”)
    • 1911, Gozzano, Guido, “Alle soglie [On the thresholds]”, in I colloqui [The interviews] (poetry), Cocotte, lines 27–29:
      […] Non amo che le cose / che potevano essere e non sono / state…. […]
      […] I do not like the things that / could happen but which did not / happened…. […]
      (literally, “[…] I do not like that the things that / could be and did not / been…. […]”)
  15. (intransitive, followed by in, su or a, or a locative adverb or phrase, also figuratively) to be in/at a place; to be in a particular place/position compared to someone/something else
    Synonym: stare
    essere in casa/nei campi/in ufficioto be at home/in the fields/in the office
    essere a casa/a scuola/a lettoto be at home/at school/in the bed
    essere sulla strada di casato be on the way for/to home
    essere sul postoto be on the spot
    essere davanti a qualcuno/qualcosato be in front of someone/something
    essere dietro a qualcuno/qualcosato be behind someone/something
    essere sopra a qualcuno/qualcosato be over someone/something
    essere sotto a qualcuno/qualcosato be under/below someone/something
    essere dentro a qualcosato be inside something
    essere fuori da qualcosato be out of something
    la porta èthe door is there
    l’ingresso sta da questa parte/da questo latothe entrance is on this side
    la collina è a(d) ovestthe hill is to the west
    (loro/essi/esse) erano tutti lì ad aspettarlothey were all there waiting for him
    quand’ero in collegiowhen I was in college
    essere in compagnia di qualcunoto be in someone’s company
    essere fra/tra amicito be among friends
    Ero già stato in quella città.I’ve (yet) been to that city before.
    Il nemico è alle porte.The enemy is at the door(s).
    essere in guerra/paceto be at war/peace
    essere al sicuroto be safe
    essere in pericoloto be in danger
    essere nei guai/pasticcito be in trouble
    essere nel veroto be (in) true
    essere in colpato be at fault
    essere in erroreto be in error
    essere all’oscuro di tuttoto be in the dark about everything
    essere agli ordini di qualcunoto be under someone’s orders
    essere sotto il dominio di qualcunoto be under someone’s domain
    essere sotto la protezione di qualcunoto be under someone’s protection
    essere in agoniato be in agony
    essere in luttoto mourn
    essere in simpatia/odio a qualcunoto be in sympathy/hate to someone
    essere in/nella grazia di dio/Dioto be in the grace of god/God
    essere in collera per qualcosato be angry at something
    essere in pena/ansia per qualcosato be worried/anxious about something
  16. (intransitive, followed by in, su or a, or a locative adverb or phrase) to be in/at a place, to come to a place; to be in/at a particular place/position compared to someone/something else, to come to a particular place/position compared to someone/something else
    Synonyms: giungere, venire
    essere in/a casa/nei campi/in ufficioto be at home/in the fields/in office
    essere a scuola/a tavola/a lettoto be at school/at the table/in bed
    essere sulla via di/per casa/sul postoto be on the way (to) home/on the spot
    quando saremo (arrivati) a casawhen we will be (arrived) at home
    aspetta che sia vicinowait for it to be/come close
  17. (intransitive, also figuratively) to be (used in relation to the idea of motion)
    essere in via (di arrivo)to be on the way
    essere in via di partenzato be in the start
    essere in camminoto be on the way
    essere in viaggioto be travelling
    essere in via di guarigioneto be on the mend
    essere al principio/alla fineto be at the beginning/end
    essere avanti/indietro a fare qualcosato be ahead/back doing something
    essere a buon punto a fare qualcosato be well advanced/on one’s way doing something
    essere alla minestra/fruttato be at the soup/fruit (time)
    l’acqua è a bollorethe water is boiling
    esserci (quasi)to be (almost) there
    (noi) ci siamo quasiwe are almost there
    coraggio, ci siamo quasicourage, we are almost there
  18. (intransitive) to be (used in reference to time)
    è presto/tradiit is early/late
    (Noi) siamo già a Natale.We are already at Christmas.
    è di cinque mesiit is of five months/five years old
    era nato da cinque mesiit was born five months ago
    è al quinto mese (di gravidanza)it is in the fifth months (of pregnancy)
    sono le noveit’s nine o’clock
    è il tempo di agireit’s time to act
    è primaveraIt is spring
    (noi) siamo in primaverawe are in spring
    (Egli) è sulla quarantinaHe is in his forties/He is about forty years old
    È (da) un’ora (fa) che aspetto.It’s (from) an hour (ago) that I’m here.
    (Io) l’avevo incontrato quindici giorni or sonoI (had) met him fifteen days ago (literally, “I him had met fifteen days now are.”)
  19. (intransitive) to be (used in reference to the spatial or temporal distance)
    Synonyms: distare, mancare
    Da qui al paese dovrebbero essere/esserci almeno 6 miglia.From here to the town there should be at least six miles.
    C’è più di un’ora di cammino (ancora da percorrere)there is more than an hour of walk (still to go)
    Quanti giorni ci sono (ancora) per arrivare a Pasqua?How many days are there (still) to get to Easter?
  20. (intransitive, usually followed by the preposition di or a possessive adjective or pronoun) to be (of)
    essere di buon appetitoto be (of) good appetite
    (esso/essa) è una persona di gustohe/she is a person of taste
    il fatto è di natura diversathe fact is different in nature (literally, “the fact is of different nature”)
    essere di buon umoreto be in a good mood
    essere d’aiutoto be helpful (literally, “to be of help”)
    essere utile/d’utilitàto be useful
    essere di confortoto be of comfort/consolation/support
    essere di servizioto be of service
    essere di guardiato be on guard
    essere di turnoto be on duty
    essere di giornatato be of the day
    essere dell’opinione/dell’avviso/dell’idea (che)to be of the opinion (that)
    essere di ritornoto be back (literally, “to be on return”)
    • 1314 (volume), 1321 (full book), Alighieri, Dante, “IV”, in Divina Commedia [Divine Commedy], volume Inferno [Hell] (allegorical-didactic poem, lyric poetry), lines 16-18:
      […] E io, che del color mi fui accorto, / dissi: “Come verrò, se tu paventi / che suoli al mio dubbiare esser conforto?”. […]
      […] And I, who has noticed the colo(u)r / I said: “How will I come, if you fear / that I have the habit to doubt be (of) comfort?”. […]
      (literally, “[…] And I, who myself has noticed of the colo(u)r / I said: “How will I come, if you fear / that I have the habit to doubt be comfort?”. […]”)
  21. (intransitive, usually followed by the preposition da + verb) to be (to do something)
    Synonyms: dovere, doversi
    c’è da spedire subito questo telegrammaThis telegram must be sent immediately (literally, “There is this telegram to be send immediately”)
    C’è da attendere molto?Is there much to wait for?
    (Queste) non sono cose da dirsi.These are not things to be said.
    Non è da credere.It is not to be believed.
    È da ancora (tutto) vedere.It is still (everything) to be seen.
    C’è da impazzire.There is to become crazy.
    C’è da mettersi le mani nei capelli.(please add an English translation of this usage example) (literally, “There is to put one’s hands in oneself/oneselves hair.”)
    Ci sarebbe da guadagnare parecchio.There would be a lot to gain.
  22. (intransitive, usually followed by the preposition da) to be (from)
    non è da tanto (tempo)it is not from so long (time)
    Non è da galantuomo/gentiluomo comportarsi così.It is not a gentlemen’s behavio(u)r to do so.
    • 1321 (volume and full book), Alighieri, Dante, “XXXIII”, in Divina Commedia [Divine Commedy], volume Paradiso [Paradise] (allegorical-didactic poem, epic poetry), line 139:
      […] Ma non eran da ciò le proprie penne: […]
      […] But their own pens were not from these […]
      (literally, “[…] But their own feathers were not from these […]”)
  23. (intransitive, followed by the preposition in, by extension of the figurative use of the meaning 16, also figuratively) to be (in)
    essere in buon(o)/cattivo statoto be in (a) good/bad condition(s)/state
    essere male in arneseto be bad in tools
    essere in castigo/punizioneto be in punishment
    essere in erroreto be in error
    essere in vestagliato be in a robe
    essere in pantofoleto be in slippers
    essere in maniche di camiciato be in shirt sleeves
    essere in maniche corte/lungheto be in short/long sleeves
    essere nei panni di qualcunoto be in someone’s shoes
    essere in qualcunoto be in someone
    Se io fossi nei tuoi panni.If I were in your shoes, I would act differently.
    Se io fossi in te.If I were (in) you, I would act differently.
    (non) essere in sé (stessi)to be (not) in oneself/oneselves
  24. (intransitive, followed by the preposition in, also figuratively) to be (in)
    Synonyms: stare (a/in), dipendere (da)
    (Io) farò tutto quanto è/sia in me.I will do everything (is/be) in me.
    (Io) farò tutto quanto è/sia nei miei doveri.I will do everything (is/be) in my duties.
    (Noi) faremo tutto, per quant’è/quanto sia in noi.We will do everything, as it (is/be) in us.
    (Noi) faremo tutto, per quant’è/quanto sia nelle nostre capacità.We will do everything, as much as it (is/be) in our abilities.
  25. (intransitive, followed by in grado di + verb, also figuratively) to be able to (do something)
    Synonyms: sapere, potere, essere capace di
    Io non sono in grado di risponderti.I am not able to answer (to) you.
    Loro non sono in grado di risponderti.They are not able to answer (to) you.
    Il ferito non era in grado di camminare.The injured (man) was unable to walk.
    L’uomo ferito non era in grado di camminare.The injured man was unable to walk.
    La (donna) ferita non era in grado di camminare.The injured (woman) was unable to walk.
  26. (intransitive, followed by a, also figuratively) to be (at)
    essere a tavolato be at the table (literally, “to be at table”)
    essere a cavalloto be on the horseback (literally, “to be at horse”)
    essere a cavalloto feel good (literally, “to be at horse”)
    essere a spasso/passeggioto be (out) for a walk
    essere alla disperazioneto be in despair
    essere alla fameto be hungry
    essere a'l verdeto be without money (literally, “to be at green”)
  27. (intransitive, preceded by a dative pronoun or pronominal phrase) to have
    Synonym: avere
    • 1350–1353, Boccaccio, Giovanni, “Giornata prima [First day]”, in Decameron or Decamerone [The Decameron] (collection of Novellas), Introduzione [Introduction], page 20:
      […] E per ciò, acciò che noi per ischifiltá o per trascutaggine non cadessimo in quello di che noi per avventura per alcuna maniera volendo potremmo scampare, non so se a voi quello se ne parrá che a me ne parrebbe: io giudicherei ottimamente fatto che noi, sì come noi siamo, sì come molti innanzi a noi hanno fatto e fanno, di questa terra uscissimo, e fuggendo come la morte i disonesti esempli degli altri, onestamente a’ nostri luoghi in contado, de’ quali a ciascuna di noi è gran copia, ce n’andassimo a stare, e quivi quella festa, quell’allegrezza, quello piacere che noi potessimo, senza trapassare in alcuno atto il segno della ragione, prendessimo. […]
      […] And for these reason, to what we in disgust or neglect did not fall into what we as an adventure in some way wanting could escape, I do not know if for you it thinks that I think about it: I would judge excellently the fact that we, as we are, as many before us have made and currently do, we go out from this land, and escaping as the die from the dishonest examples, honestly to our places in the countryside, from which each of us (it) is a great copy, we went from there to stay, and there that feast, the joy, that pleasure that we could, without going beyond in any act the limit of reason, we took. […]
      (literally, “[…] And for these reason, to what we, in disgust or neglect, did not fall into what we, as an adventure, for some way, wanting, could escape, I do not know if for you itself thinks about that I think about it: I would judge excellently fact that we, as we are, as many ahead to us have made and do, of this land we exit, and escaping as the die the dishonest examples of other, honestly to our places in the countryside, of which each of us it is a great copy, we went from there to stay, and there that feast, the joy, that pleasure that we could, without going beyond in any act the sign of reason, we took. […]”)
  28. (intransitive, followed by the preposition a, calque of the French use) to be (given) to
    La parola è (data) al ministro.The word is (given) to the minister.
  29. (intransitive, followed by the preposition per, also figuratively) to be for
    questo (pacco) è per tethis package is for you
    questa non è roba per tethis is not (stuff) for you
    essere per qualcunoto be for someone
    Io sono per chi supporta la mia causa.I am for those who support the just cause.
  30. (intransitive, followed by the preposition per + infinitive, used to express a continous event which is near in the future, also figuratively) to be (almost) (+ gerund); to be going to (+ infinitive)
    Synonyms: stare quasi + gerund (more common), stare per + infinitive (more common)
    (Io) ero/stavo già per partire (per andare da qualche parte).I was (almost) already leaving/starting (to go somewhere).
    • 1835, Leopardi, Giacomo, “XV. Il sogno [XV. The dream]”, in Canti [Songs] (poetry collection), page 53:
      […] Ma sei tu per lasciarmi un’altra volta? […]
      […] Are you going to leave me another time? […]
      (literally, “[…] But are you to leave me another time? […]”)
  31. (followed by the prepositions con, su or tra/fra, or the prepositional use of the adverb contro, or of the adverbal phrase a favore di) to be with/against; to be on/over; to be between/among
    Io sono con voi.I am with you
    essere contro la/a favore della guerrato be against/in favor of the war
    essere sulla bocca di tuttito be on the everyone’s lips
    essere sulle brecciato be in the breach
    essere tra/fra tantito be among/between others
    essere (uno) tra/fra tantito be (one) among others
  32. (used to form prepositional phrases) to be; to have
    Quant’è (che costa) quest’orologio?How much is/costs this watch?
    Quant’è (che pesa/costa) questo cocomero/quest’anguria?How much is heavy/costs this watermelon?
    Quant’è (che pesa/costa) questo melone?How much is heavy/costs this melon?
    Cosa sarebbe a dire?What would (be) that mean?
    Vuol’essere un affare serio.It wants to be a serious business.
    Così sia.So be it.
    Allora che sia così.So that be it.
    Come se nulla fosse (accaduto).As if nothing had happened.
    Sia così sia/che cosà.Both in that way and in that other way.
    Sia che accada questo (sia) che accada quest’altro.Either/Whatever if happen this and if happen that.
    (Che) sia chi (si)/chiunque sia.Be whoever it be.
  33. (intransitive, copula, used to put a subject in relation with a predicate (an adjective, a noun, a pronoun, the infinitive form of a verb, an adverb, ...)) to be
    La neve è bianca.The snow is white.
    La neve bianca è qui/lì.The white snow is here/there.
    La neve bianca era stata qui/lì.The white snow (was) been here/there.
    Carlo è un amico.Charles is a friend.
    Non so chi lui/egli/esso sia./Non so chi sia lui/egli/esso.I don’t know who be he.
    Questo non è vivere (bene).This is not living (well).
    Questo problema è difficile.This problem is difficult.
    Voglio fargli vedere chi sono (io/loro).I want to show him/them who I am/they are.
    Voglio mostrargli come sono/son fatto.I want to show him/them how I am done.
    Che è/Cos’è questo liquido?What is that liquid?
    Essente partito e non essendosi ancora fermato, lui è tutt’ora/ancora in movimento.Being started and not having stopped yet, he is still moving. (literally, “Being started and not having stopped yet, he is all now/is still in movement.”)
    (Io) sono stanco/affamato/(am)malato.I am tired/hungry/sick.
    essere seduto/seduta/seduti/sedute/a sedereto be sitting
    essere disteso/distesa/distesi/distese/sdraiato/sdraiata/sdraiati/sdraiateto be lying (down)
    essere in piedi/in posizione erettato be standing
    essere in ginocchioto be on ones knees
    essere genuflessoto be genuflected
    essere la metà/il doppio di ...to be half/double of
    essere primoto be (the) first
    essere il diciottesimo classificatoto be eighteenth ranked
    essere (il) diciottesimo in classificato be eighteenth in the placings
    Quanti siete (voi)?How many are you?
    Suo fratello è un professionista.His brother is a professional.
    Le tigri sono (dei) felini.Tigers are felines.
    «sedia» è un nome/sostantivo.«chair» is a noun/substantive.
    è bene tacereit is good to be silent
    è meglio non parlarneit is better to not speak about it/them
    essere da piùto be for more
    non essere da menodo not be outbone
    essere tutt’uno con qualcunoto be (all in) one with someone (literally, “to be all one with someone”)
    Quel bambino è tutto suo padre/papà/babbo.That child is all his father/dad.
    essere tutt’orecchi/tutt’orecchî/in ascoltoto be all ears/listening
    Lo spettacolo sarà di grand’effettoThe show will be of great effect/impressive.
    è fama discussa/indiscussa/è di discussa/indiscussa famait is (of) disputed/undisputed fame
    è (una) voce comune che [...]it is a common voice that [...]
    è d’uso comune/non comuneit is of common/uncommon use
    è di tradizione (diffusa)/è di (diffusa) tradizioneit is of (widespread) tradition
  34. (intransitive, copula, used to put a subject in relation with a predicate (an adjective, a noun, a pronoun, the infinitive form of a verb, an adverb, ...)) to be
    Synonyms: costituire, rappresentare, risolversi in
    È un piacere vederti.It is a pleasure to see you again.
    Questo è niente.This is nothing.
    Per me è già molto.For me it is already a lot.
    L’impresa era stata/fu un disastro.The activity was a disaster (literally, “The company was a disaster.”)
    L’attività era stata/fu un disastro.The activity was a disaster
    democrazia è libertàdemocracy is freedom
    volontà è poterewant is power

[1]

Usage notesEdit

  • The present participle essente is very rare, and is usually replaced with stante, the present participle of stare, or with the present participles of its synonyms. Similarly the past participle essuto has disappeared, with stato, the past participle of stare, being used instead.[2]
  • The verb essere (including all its forms) is the word that occurs most frequently in speech and the most necessary for the expression of thought. It differs from all other verbs because, in its absolute use, it does not determine the subject, but only sets it as existing; used as a copula or as an auxiliary, it only performs the function of introducing the nominal or verbal predicate; it is therefore never, strictly speaking, a true predicate.[1]

ConjugationEdit

[1]

Derivated termsEdit

  • riessere (to be again)
  • essermi/essermelo (first-person singular reflexive/dative/accusative form)
  • esserci (first-person plural reflexive/dative/accusative form, third-person/impersonal strumental/locative/lative form)/essercelo (first-person plural reflexive/dative/accusative form)
  • esserti/essertelo (second-person singular reflexive/dative/accusative form)
  • esservi (second-person plural reflexive/dative/accusative form, third-person/impersonal lative form)/esservelo (second-person plural reflexive/accusative/dative form)
  • essersi/esserselo (impersonal/third-person reflexive form)
  • essergli (third-person masculine singular dative form, third-person plural dative form)/esserglielo (third-person masculine singular accusative form, third-person plural dative form)
  • esserla (third-person feminine singular dative form)/esserle (third-person plural feminine dative form, third-person singular feminine accusative form)
  • esserli (third-person plural masculine accusative form)/esserlo (third-person masculine singular accusative form)
  • esserne (third-person/impersonal relative form)

TriviaEdit

  • The verb essere is officially considered, together with the verb avere, a verb of proper conjugation because it is an auxiliary verb, and, analitically, it is a second-conjugation irregular verb (one of the most irregular ones), furthermore it is a suppletive verb, having the tenses past historic indicative, past subjunctive, their compound forms, and the past participle derived from other roots than the one from which derives the present infinitive form.
  • The verb essere the verb riessere and the forms derived applying a non-nominative pronoun, exceptionally with respect to other verbs, use the third-person plural present indicative forms (sono and its derived) and the third-person plural present/near-past perfect indicative forms (sono stato and its derivated) also to supply, respectively, the first-person singular present indicative forms and the first-person singular present/near-past perfect indicative forms.
  • The past historic indicative and past subjunctive forms and their compound forms (respectively the past historic perfect/past anterior indicative and past perfect subjunctive forms) do not use the thematic vowels of any of the three regular conjugations (first-conjugation thematic vowel -a-, second-conjugation thematic vowel -e-, third-conjugation thematic vowel -i-), in their place the vowels -o- and -u- are used.
  • The imperfect indicative, future indicative and present conditional forms, their compound forms (respectively pluperfect indicative, future perfect indicative and perfect conditional), and the second-person plural present imperative form, use the thematic vowel -a- of the first conjugation instead of the thematic vowel -e- of the second-conjugation; in the imperfect indicative and pluperfect indicative forms, moreover, the -ss- contained in the root it is replaced by a -r-.
  • To the second-person plural present indicative, first-/second-/third-person singular and third-person plural present subjunctive forms, to their compound forms, and to the present imperative forms, except the first-person plural present imperative form, it is added an -i- at the end of the root before the tematic vowel (if used) and the conjugational suffix, while to the second-person singular present indicative form sei and to its compound form sei stato, it is added an -e- at the end of the root before the second-person singular present indicative suffix.
  • To the present indicative, future indicative, present conditional and present subjunctive forms, to their compound forms (present/near-past perfect, future perfect, perfect conditional and present perfect subjunctive), and to the present imperative forms, it is dropped the initial es- from the root, leaving only s-, in particular, to the third-person singular present indicative and to its compound form, it is dropped the entire root, moving the implied stress from the initial e- of the root to the -e of the conjugational suffix and, to avoid ambiguity with the unstressed conjunction e (and), the accent is made explicit added an grave accent (è).

NounEdit

essere m (plural esseri) (diminutive esserino, meliorative esseruccio)[3]

  1. (uncountable, substantival use of the verbal voice, the condition of have life, reality, existence, the act of be living) being, living
    Synonyms: essenza, esistere, esistenza
    l’essere ed il nullabeing and nothingness
  2. (countable, substantival use of the verbal voice, the condition of have life, reality, existence, the act of be living) being, living
    Synonym: vivere (more common)
    passare dall’essere al non essereto pass from the living to the non-living
    scienza/problema dell’esserescience/problem of being
    L’essere semplicissimo/Il semplicissimo essereThe very simple being
    L’essere stesso/Il semplicissimo essereThe being itself
    la totalità dell’esserethe totality of being
  3. (uncountable, substantival use of the verbal voice, the act/fact of exist, existence, life) being
    Synonyms: esistenza (countable), vita (countable)
    • 14–19 May 1835, Leopardi, Giacomo, “Dialogo di un fisico e di un metafisico [Dialogue of a physicist and a metaphysician]”, in Operette morali [Moral operettas] (collection of phylosophical novellas and dialogues), page 66:
      […] Nel qual modo, accrescerai propriamente la vita umana, ed empiendo quegli smisurati intervalli di tempo nei quali il nostro essere è piuttosto durare che vivere, ti potrai dar vanto di prolungarla. […]
      […] In this way, you will properly increase human life, and by filling up those immense intervals of time in which our being is rather lasting than living, you can boast of prolonging it. […]
  4. (uncountable, way of being, condition, state, in relation to intrinsic qualities and properties, usually accompanied by a determination) being
    Synonyms: modo di essere, condizione, stato, essenza
    conoscere una persona/una cosa/un fatto nel suo vero essereto know a person/a thing/a fact in its true being
    (lui/lei/egli/ella/esso/essa/uno/una) gli domandò/chiese dell’esser suohe/she/it/one asked him about his being.
    • 1802–1874, Tommaseo, Niccolò, (Please provide the book title or journal name):
      […] l’essere dell’uomo dista grandemente da quel delle bestie […]
      […] the being of the man is very far from that of the beasts […]
  5. (uncountable, in ancient phrases) being; living; existence; condition
    trovarsi in essereto be in being/to be living (literally, “to found oneself/oneselves in being”)
    • 1626–1697, Redi, Francesco, (Please provide the book title or journal name):
      […] le sue lettere son tutte in essere […]
      […] his letters are all in existence […]
  6. (uncountable, in ancient phrases) being, condition
    Synonym: condizione (countable)
    in buon/cattivo esserein good/bad being/conditions
    mobili/casa in cattivo esserefurniture/house/home in bad conditions
  7. (uncountable, in ancient phrases) being, in good conditions
    Synonym: buone condizioni
    mio nonno è sempre in esseremy grandad/grandfather is always in good conditions/healty/in prosperity
  8. (uncountable, in ancient phrases) ready
    Synonym: pronto (countable)
    avere in essereto have ready
    • 1507–1566, Caro, Annibale, (Please provide the book title or journal name):
      […] fate che al mio ritorno la scena sia in essere […]
      […] let the scene be ready at my return […]
  9. (uncountable, in ancient phrases) place, operation
    Synonym: esercizio (uncountable)
    porre in essereto put in place/into operation
  10. (uncountable, concrete) being
    • 1321 (volume and full book), Alighieri, Dante, “I”, in Divina Commedia [Divine Commedy], volume Paradiso [Paradise] (allegorical-didactic poem, epic poetry), lines 110, 112–113:
      […] Tutte nature […] si muovono a diversi porti / per lo gran mar de l’essere […]
      […] All natures […] move to different ports / via the great sea of being/god […]
      (literally, “[…] All natures […] move themselves to different ports / via the great sea of being […]”)
  11. (countable, concrete) being, creature
    È un essere spregevole.it is a despicable being/creature.
  12. (countable, concrete, by extension) living being, creature
    Synonyms: essere vivente, creatura
    Lo stesso essere (vivente)The same (living) being/creature
  13. (uncountable, philosophy, followed by ci) existence
    Synonym: esistenza
    l’essercithe existence
    [3]

Derivated termsEdit

Related termsEdit

TriviaEdit

  • The stress pattern of the verb essere is ⟨èssere[1][3].

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Treccani, editor ((Can we date this quote?))“èssere¹ [to be]”, in treccani.it (in Italian)
  2. ^ [1]
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Treccani, editor ((Can we date this quote?))“èssere² [being]”, in treccani.it (in Italian)

AnagramsEdit


SardinianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin sum, from Proto-Italic *ezom, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésti (I am, I exist).

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

essere

  1. (intransitive) to be (to exist)
    Eo so su chi soI am who I am (literally, “I am that which I am”)
  2. (intransitive) to be (to occupy a place)
    Est in Tatari[He] is in Sassari

NounEdit

essere ? (please provide plural)

  1. being
    sos esseres umanos[the] human beings

TarantinoEdit

VerbEdit

essere

  1. (intransitive) to be

Usage notesEdit

  • Not used as an auxiliary verb.

ConjugationEdit