Japanese

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.[1] Appears in the Kojiki, completed 712 CE.

Pronunciation

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  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "散る"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
散る [chìrú]
Imperative (命令形) 散れ [chìré]
Key constructions
Passive 散られる られる [chìrárérú]
Causative 散らせる らせる [chìrásérú]
Potential - - -
Volitional 散ろう [chìróꜜò]
Negative 散らない らない [chìránáí]
Negative perfective 散らなかった らなかった [chìránáꜜkàttà]
Formal 散ります りま [chìrímáꜜsù]
Perfective 散った った [chìttá]
Conjunctive 散って って [chìtté]
Hypothetical conditional 散れば [chìréꜜbà]

Verb

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() (chiruintransitive godan (stem () (chiri), past ()った (chitta))

Japanese verb pair
active ()らす
mediopassive ()
  1. to become separated and scatter, such as leaves or blossoms
    • c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 5, poem 798:
      伊毛何美斯 阿布知乃波那波 知利奴倍斯 和何那久那美多 伊摩陀飛那久尓
      いもがみし あふちのはなは ちりぬべし わがなくなみた いまだひなくに
      imo ga mi shi afuchi no hana wa chirinu beshi wa ga naku namita ima da hi naku ni
Conjugation
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Synonyms
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Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
kun'yomi
Alternative spelling
離る

From Old Japanese.[1] Appears in the Kojiki, completed 712 CE. Currently obsolete.

Cognate with 荒い (arai, rough, harsh), 荒れる (areru, to become wild, rough, unkempt, dilapidated; to be violent, crazy, wild, disordered).

Pronunciation

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Verb

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() (aruintransitive nidan

  1. (obsolete) to become scattered
  2. (obsolete) to become distant, to fade away, to wane
Conjugation
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Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
あか
Grade: 4
kun'yomi
Alternative spelling
別る

From Old Japanese.[1] Appears in the Kagerō Nikki, dated 974 CE. Currently obsolete.

Plural counterpart to 分かる (wakaru, one thing separates from another), implying more a sense of scatter (as of many things). Intransitive counterpart to 散つ (akatsu, to separate or scatter multiple things), itself the plural counterpart to 分かつ (wakatsu, to separate one thing from another). Compare underlying root verbs aku (明く, 開く, 空く: "to open, to spread, to empty") and waku (分く, 別く: "to split, to divide").

Pronunciation

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Verb

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(あか) (akaruintransitive nidan

  1. (obsolete) to scatter, to become dispersed
Conjugation
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References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN