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JapaneseEdit

EtymologyEdit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
だん
Grade: 6
かつ
Grade: 2
よう
Grade: 2

A compound of 四段 (yodan, four grades) and 活用 (katsuyō, conjugation).

PronunciationEdit

  • (Tokyo) だんかつよー [yòdáń káꜜtsùyòò] (Nakadaka – [4])[1]
  • IPA(key): [jo̞dã̠ŋ ka̠t͡sɨᵝjo̞ː]

NounEdit

四段活用 (hiragana よだんかつよう, rōmaji yodan katsuyō, historical hiragana よだんくわつよう)

  1. (grammar) quadrigrade conjugation; a verbal conjugation class consisting of four alternating bases: /-a/, /-i/, /-u/, /-e/. Examples:
Irrealis Adverbial Conclusive Attributive Realis Imperative
sak- sak-a sak-i1 sak-u sak-u sak-e2 sak-e1
kak- kak-a kak-i1 kak-u kak-u kak-e2 kak-e1
yom- yom-a yom-i1 yom-u yom-u yom-e2 yom-e1

The subscripts in the table above indicate differences in vowel class that were already being lost in Old Japanese. It remains unclear what those different vowel classes may have meant. See the Syllables section in the Wikipedia article on Old Japanese for more details.

Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN