四段活用

JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
だん
Grade: 6
かつ
Grade: 2
よう
Grade: 2
kun’yomi goon kan’on
 
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EtymologyEdit

Compound of 四段 (yodan, quadrigrade, four-grade) +‎ 活用 (katsuyō, conjugation).

PronunciationEdit

  • (Tokyo) だんかつよー [yòdáń káꜜtsùyòò] (Nakadaka – [4])[1]
  • IPA(key): [jo̞dã̠ŋ ka̠t͡sɨᵝjo̞ː]

NounEdit

()(だん)(かつ)(よう) (yodan katsuyō (historical kana よだんくわつよう)

  1. (Classical Japanese grammar) a verbal conjugation class consisting of four alternating bases: -a, -i, -u, and -e
未然形
Irrealis
連用形
Adverbial
終止形
Conclusive
連体形
Attributive
已然形
Realis
命令形
Imperative
書く (kak-, to write) 書か (kaka) 書き (kaki1 → kaki) 書く (kaku) 書く (kaku) 書け (kake2 → kake) 書け (kake1 → kake)
立つ (tat-, to stand) 立た (tata) 立ち (tati → tachi) 立つ (tatu → tatsu) 立つ (tatu → tatsu) 立て (tate) 立て (tate)
笑ふ (warap- → waraf-, to laugh) 笑は (warapa → warawa) 笑ひ (warapi1 → warai) 笑ふ (warapu → warau) 笑ふ (warapu → warau) 笑へ (warape2 → warae) 笑へ (warape1 → warae)

The subscripts in the table above indicate differences in vowel class that were already being lost in Old Japanese. It remains unclear what those different vowel classes may have meant. See the Syllables section in the Wikipedia article on Old Japanese for more details.

Usage notesEdit

Verbs in this class are superseded in modern Japanese as 五段活用 (godan katsuyō) verbs, with additional variations in the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete) and 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem) forms.

Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN