HungarianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From a Proto-Uralic *-l suffix.[1]

SuffixEdit

-l

  1. (verb-forming suffix) Appended to a noun, an adjective or less frequently to an adverb to form a verb.
    csoda (miracle)csodál (to admire)
    hátra (backwards)hátrál (to step backward)
    csere (exchange)cserél (to change)
    fésű (comb)fésül (to comb)
Usage notesEdit
  • (verb-forming suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -l is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-. Final long vowels may shorten, e.g. űü.
    -ol is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -al is added to other back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -el is added to unrounded (and some rounded) front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -öl is added to most rounded front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ál is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant

Note: Certain words take another, synonymous suffix, -z/-oz/-az/-ez/-öz/-áz or -zik/-ozik/-azik/-ezik/-özik.

Derived termsEdit


Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Finno-Ugric *-lᴕ/*-lᴕ̈ place name suffix.

SuffixEdit

-l

  1. (ablative suffix, obsolete) It is of ancient origin answering the question from where? It is no longer productive and is no longer an independent suffix in modern Hungarian. However, it can still be found in suffixes such as -ból/-ből, -nál/-nél, -ról/-ről, -tól/-től, -ul/-ül, in postpositions such as alól, mellől and in several adverbs, e.g. kívül, belül, hátul. In the Old Hungarian era it could express not only direction but also more abstract adverbs.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Zaicz, Gábor. Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (’Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN

RomanianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • -ul (for masculine and neuter nouns that do not end in a vowel other than -i)
  • -le (for masculine and neuter nouns that end in -e)

EtymologyEdit

From Vulgar Latin *illu, from Latin ille. Originally followed the noun and became attached to it as an inflection, unlike the definite articles in the other major Romance languages, which go before the noun.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-l m/n

  1. (definite article) the (masculine/neuter singular, nominative and accusative)

Usage notesEdit

This form of the definite article is used for both masculine and neuter nouns in the nominative and accusative cases which end in a vowel other than -e or -i:

The suffix is also used with masculine and neuter singular adjectives in the nominative and accusative cases to make the articulated definite form, often for emphasis, and it is used before the noun it modifies.

Related termsEdit

  • -a (feminine singular nominative and accusative)
  • -i (masculine/neuter plural nominative and accusative)
  • -le (feminine plural nominative and accusative)
  • -lui (masculine/neuter singular genitive and dative)
  • -ei (feminine singular genitive and dative)
  • -lor (plural genitive and dative)

See alsoEdit