- Marks the adessive case: at
- Marks the inessive case: in
- Marks the temporal case: for
- Marks the instrumental case: using; by means of
- Marks the testimonial case: by; ... is my witness
- Mohamed Hassan Kamil (2015) L’afar: description grammaticale d’une langue couchitique (Djibouti, Erythrée et Ethiopie), Paris: Université Sorbonne Paris Cité (doctoral thesis), page 363
- (verb-forming suffix) Appended to a noun, an adjective or less frequently to an adverb to form a verb.
- (verb-forming suffix) Harmonic variants:
- -l is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-. Final long vowels may shorten, e.g. ű → ü.
- -ol is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant
- -al is added to other back-vowel words ending in a consonant
- -el is added to unrounded (and some rounded) front-vowel words ending in a consonant
- -öl is added to most rounded front-vowel words ending in a consonant
- -ál is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant
- (ablative suffix, obsolete) It is of ancient origin answering the question from where? It is no longer productive and is no longer an independent suffix in modern Hungarian. However, it can still be found in suffixes such as -ból/-ből, -nál/-nél, -ról/-ről, -tól/-től, -ul/-ül, in postpositions such as alól, mellől and in several adverbs, e.g. kívül, belül, hátul. In the Old Hungarian era it could express not only direction but also more abstract adverbs.
- ^ Zaicz, Gábor. Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (’Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN (See also its second, revised, expanded edition published in 2021: →ISBN)
- -ul (for masculine and neuter nouns that do not end in a vowel other than -i)
- -le (for masculine and neuter nouns that end in -e)
From Vulgar Latin *illu, from Latin ille. Originally followed the noun and became attached to it as an inflection, unlike the definite articles in the other major Romance languages, which go before the noun.
This form of the definite article is used for both masculine and neuter nouns in the nominative and accusative cases which end in a vowel other than -e or -i:
- tatăl (the father), from tată, masc.
- fiul (the son), from fiu, masc.
- agrul (the field), from agru, neut.
- leul (the lion), from leu, masc.
The suffix is also used with masculine and neuter singular adjectives in the nominative and accusative cases to make the articulated definite form, often for emphasis, and it is used before the noun it modifies.
- -a (feminine singular nominative and accusative)
- -i (masculine/neuter plural nominative and accusative)
- -le (feminine plural nominative and accusative)