See also: af, AF, aF, A.F., and äf

DanishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse af-. Compare German ab-, Swedish av-.

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

af-

  1. de-, to cause to cease to be
    tabuisere (to taboo) -> aftabuisere (to detaboo)
    klassificere (classify, make classified (secret)) -> afklassificere (declassify, make unclassified)
    militarisere (militarize) -> afmilitarisere (demilitarize)
    mystificere (mystify) -> afmystificere (demystify)
  2. off, from (signifies removal)
    rive (rip) -> afrive (rip off)
    skrælle (peel) -> afskrælle

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit


DutchEdit

EtymologyEdit

Ultimately from Proto-Germanic *ab.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ɑf/
  • (file)

PrefixEdit

af-

  1. (prefix) de-, en-
  2. down
  3. off

Derived termsEdit


GothicEdit

RomanizationEdit

af-

  1. Romanization of 𐌰𐍆-

IcelandicEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse af-, from Proto-Germanic *aba-.

PrefixEdit

af-

  1. de-

Derived termsEdit


Old EnglishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *aba-.

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

af-

  1. away, off, from, away from
    ofcuman, afcumanto come from, originate from

Usage notesEdit

  • This is a verbal prefix. The noun counterpart of this prefix is æf-.

Old NorseEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *aba-.

PrefixEdit

af-

  1. Combining form of af.

Derived termsEdit


Old SaxonEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *aba-, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (off, away).

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

af-

  1. Forming verbs and adjectives with the sense of "off", "away", "from", "out of", "away from"
    afgevan/afgeƀan (to give up, surrender)
  2. down
    afbrekan (break down, pluck)
    afheldian (go down, end)

SwedishEdit

PrefixEdit

af-

  1. Obsolete spelling of av-

WelshEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Brythonic *aβ̃-, from Proto-Celtic *am-, allophonic variant of *an- before *b and .

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

af-

  1. not, un-, non-, an-, dis-, negative prefix
    af- + ‎glân (clean; honest) → ‎aflan (corrupt, evil)
    af- + ‎llwyddiannus (successful) → ‎aflwyddiannus (unsuccessful)
    af- + ‎rhwydd (easy) → ‎afrwydd (difficult)
    af- + ‎iechyd (health) → ‎afiechyd (sickness, illness)
    Synonym: an-

Usage notesEdit

The prefix af- triggers the soft mutation. It is used only before gl, ll, rh, and consonantal i, with an- used elsewhere.

Derived termsEdit

MutationEdit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
af- unchanged unchanged haf-
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

ReferencesEdit

R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “af-”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies