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LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

A nominalized version of an earlier adjective biedrs “bound, linked”, from Proto-Baltic *bend- with an extra (adjectivizing) -ro (cf. stipt (to become rigid, to harden) : stiprs (strong), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰendʰ- (to join, to bind, to tie), whence also Gothic 𐌱𐌹𐌽𐌳𐌰𐌽 (bindan), Old High German bintan, German binden, English bind. Cognates include Lithuanian beñdras (comrade, participant; (adj.) common, shared).[1]

PronunciationEdit

(file)

NounEdit

biedrs m (1st declension, feminine form: biedre or biedrene)

  1. (male) colleague, mate, comrade (a person with whom one works, studies, together, e.g. as part of a group or team)
    darba biedrsworkmate
    cīņu biedrscomrade-in-arms (lit. fight, struggle mate)
    klases biedrs, skolas biedrsclassmate, schoolmate
  2. (male) companion, mate, fellow (a person with whom one spends time, travels, plays, lives)
    istabas biedrsroommate
    ceļa biedrs, ceļabiedrsfellow traveller
    sarunu biedrsinterlocutor (lit. conversation mate)
    dzīves biedrs, dzīvesbiedrshusband, spouse (lit. life mate)
    laika biedrs, laikabiedrscontemporary (lit. time mate)
    satikt bērnu dienu rotaļu biedruto meet a childhood playmate
    Ceplis uzmeta zīmīgu skatienu pārējiem galda biedriemCeplis cast a significant look at (his) other table mates
  3. (of organizations) (male) member, fellow
    (komunistiskās) partijas biedrs(communist) party member
    arodbiedrības biedriunion members
    biedra kartemember(ship) card
    uzņemt jaunus biedrus organizācijāto receive new members into the organization
    maksāt biedru nauduto pay a membership fee
    goda biedrs, godabiedrshonorary member
  4. (dated, during Soviet occupation) (male) comrade (generic form of address to people with whom the speaker is not personally acquainted)
    godājamie biedri!honorable comrades!
    sanāksmē piedalījās biedrs Alksniscomrade Alksnis participated in the meeting
    biedrs profesors izteica interesantu priekšlikumucomrade professor made an interesting proposal

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “biedrs”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7