Contents

LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

Derived from the verb stipt(to become rigid, to harden), from the same stem as stiept(to stretch) (q.v.); the (adjectivizing?) r (< *-ro) follows the pattern of stingt(to harden, to stiffen), stingrs(firm, strong, strict). Cognates include Lithuanian stiprùs, dialectal stìpras, Old Prussian postippin(all) (acc.), postippan(all, entirely, completely).[1]

PronunciationEdit

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AdjectiveEdit

stiprs (def. stiprais, comp. stiprāks, sup. visstiprākais; adv. stipri)

  1. strong (person, animal with great strength, who is physically well developed)
    stiprs puisis, vīrs‎ ― strong guy, man
    stiprs kā lācis, kā lauva‎ ― strong as a bear, as a lion
    stiprais dzimums‎ ― the strong sex (i.e., men)
    stiprs zirgs‎ ― strong horse
  2. (of body parts) strong (big, well developed)
    stiprs organisms‎ ― strong organism
    stipri zobi‎ ― strong teeth
    kas cilvēkam ir stiprāks: rokas vai kājas?‎ ― what is stronger on a person: the arms or the legs?
  3. (of plants, their parts) strong, firm, hard, well developed, not weak, not brittle
    stiprs ozols‎ ― strong, big oak
    stiprs zars‎ ― strong, firm, big branch
    stipras saknes‎ ― strong roots
    stiprs rieksts‎ ― strong, hard nut
  4. (of actions, physiological processes) strong, extreme (which is done or happens with strength, energy, intensity)
    stiprs sitiens, tvēriens‎ ― strong blow, grip
    stiprs kājas spēriens‎ ― strong (leg) kick
    stipra piepūle‎ ― strong effort
    stipras sāpes, graizes‎ ― strong pain, colic
    stiprs nogurums‎ ― extreme fatigue
  5. (of events) strong (of higher intensity than usual, when compared to other similar events)
    stiprs vējš, sals‎ ― strong, heavy wind, frost
    stipri nokrišņi‎ ― strong precipitation, rainfall
    stipra straume‎ ― strong current, stream
  6. (of sounds, light) strong, intense
    stipras skaņas‎ ― intense sounds
    stiprs troksnis‎ ― intense noise
    lasīt stiprā balsī‎ ― to read in a strong, loud voice
    stipra saules gaisma‎ ― intense sunlight
  7. (of objects) strong, heavy, resistant, powerful, well built
    stiprs cirvis‎ ― heavy ax
    stiprs žogs‎ ― strong fence
    stipra celtne‎ ― strong building
    stipri apavi‎ ― strong shoes
    stipra klints‎ ― strong rock
    stipra audums‎ ― strong fabric
  8. (of equipment, machines, parts) strong (with great capacity, strength, intensity of effects)
    stiprs motors‎ ― strong motor
    stipra spuldze‎ ― strong light bulb
  9. (of activities) strong (well developed, organized)
    stipra zemkopība‎ ― strong agriculture
  10. (of smells, substances, medicine) strong, irritating, having strong effect, influence on the organism
    stipra sveķu smarža‎ ― strong smell of resin
    stiprs medikaments‎ ― strong medicine
    stipra tabaka‎ ― strong tobacco
    stipra inde‎ ― strong poison
  11. (of solutions, broths) strong, thick (containing a relatively large proportion of ingredients, substances)
    stiprs šķīdums‎ ― strong solution
    stiprs buljons‎ ― strong, thick broth
    stiprs alkoholisks dzēriens‎ ― strong alcoholic beverage
    stiprs vīns‎ ― strong wine
  12. (of food, air) strong, hearty, healthy (which gives strength, energy, freshness)
    stipras brokastis‎ ― strong, hearty breakfast
    stiprs pavasara gaiss‎ ― strong, healthy spring air
  13. (of psychological and emotional states) strong (expressed intensively)
    stipra draudzība‎ ― strong friendship
    stipras dusmas‎ ― strong, intense anger
    stipras ilgas‎ ― strong desire
    stiprs uztraukums‎ ― intense excitement
  14. (of people, their personality) strong (capable of taking decisive action under difficult circumstances)
    stipra personība‎ ― strong personality
    stiprs raksturs‎ ― strong character
  15. (of people) strong (having deep knowledge of, skilled, experienced)
    matemātikā viņš bija stiprs‎ ― in mathematics he is strong
    neesmu stiprs astronomijā‎ ― I am not strong in astronomy
  16. (of ideas, viewpoints) strong (steady, unchanging)
    stipra pārliecība‎ ― strong conviction
    stipra ticība‎ ― strong belief, faith
  17. (of power, words) strong, powerful, influential, convincing
    stipra valsts vara‎ ― strong state power
    stiprs arguments‎ ― strong argument
    stiprs iebildums‎ ― strong opposition
  18. (of words, expressions) strong, open, rude
    ezermalā sanāca vīru kompānijas, dzēra degvīnu, un neskopojās ar stipriem izteicieniem‎ ― a group of men came by the lakeshore, drank voda, and didn't spare the strong words (lit. expressions)

DeclensionEdit

SynonymsEdit

AntonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “stiprs”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7