Possibly from Malay kampong, kampung (“group of buildings, village”), via Dutch or Portuguese, altered under the influence of Etymology 2. Doublet of kampung.
compound (plural compounds)
- An enclosure within which workers, prisoners, or soldiers are confined.
- Synonyms: gaol, jail, pen, pound, prison; see also Thesaurus:prison
- An enclosure for secure storage.
2020 December 2, “Network News: News in brief: More cycle spaces”, in Rail, page 27:
A total of 75 cycle spaces are being installed at three Greater Anglia stations - [...]. And a secure compound for bicycles is being built at Cambridge North.
- A group of buildings situated close together, e.g. for a school or block of offices.
2019 March 7, Masayuki, Yuda, “Thai court: pro-Thaksin party must disband for nominating princess”, in Nikkei Asian Review, Nikkei Inc, retrieved 2019-03-07:
Some 20 supporters managed to get inside the court compounds. About half an hour after the verdict was delivered, they gathered near the Constitutional Court entrance and shouted: "On March 24, use your pen to oust the dictator."
enclosure within which workers, prisoners, or soldiers are confined
group of buildings for the same purpose
From Middle English compounen, from Middle French componre, compondre (“to put together”), from Latin componō, from Latin com- (“together”) + ponō (“to put”).
compound (not comparable)
- Composed of elements; not simple.
- Synonym: composite
- Antonym: simple
a compound word
1725, Isaac Watts, Logick, or The Right Use of Reason in the Enquiry After Truth With a Variety of Rules to Guard:
Compound substances are made up of two or more simple substances.
- (mathematics) Dealing with numbers of various denominations of quantity, or with processes more complex than the simple process.
- (music) An octave higher than originally (i.e. a compound major second is equivalent to a major ninth).
compound (plural compounds)
- Anything made by combining several things.
- Synonyms: amalgam, blend, combination, composite, mix, mixture
- (chemistry) A substance formed by chemical bonding of two or more elements in definite proportions by weight.
- Coordinate terms: substance, element, mixture, composite
- (chemistry, dated) A substance made from any combination of ingredients.
- (linguistics) A lexeme that consists of more than one stem.
- Synonym: compound word
- Hyponyms: closed compound, open compound
2018, Clarence Green; James Lambert, “Position vectors, homologous chromosomes and gamma rays: Promoting disciplinary literacy through Secondary Phrase Lists”, in English for Specific Purposes, DOI:10.1016/j.esp.2018.08.004, page 8:
Compositionally there is no great distinction between cell wall and cell surface, both are relatively transparent compounds, but both parts of the cell are of high significance in Biology due to their central role in cell functioning.
- (rail transport) A compound locomotive, a steam locomotive with both high-pressure and low-pressure cylinders.
1961 March, ""Balmore"", “Driving and firing modern French steam locomotives”, in Trains Illustrated, page 148:
From a dead stand, with regulator full open and the lever at about 50 per cent we got up to about 60 m.p.h. by the top of the bank. The big compound was making plenty of noise - but what musical and wonderful noise!
anything made by combining several things
- Bulgarian: съчета́ние (bg) n (sǎčetánie)
- Catalan: compost (ca) m
- Finnish: yhdistelmä (fi), seos (fi)
- French: composé (fr)
- German: Mischung (de) f, Verbindung (de) f, Verbung m, Kompositum (de) n, Zusammensetzung (de) f, Präparat (de) n, Masse (de) f
- Greek: μίγμα (el) n (mígma), κράμα (el) n (kráma), αμάλγαμα (el) n (amálgama)
- Ancient: μίγμα n (mígma)
- Hungarian: keverék (hu)
- Irish: cumasc m, meascán m
- Italian: composto (it) m, miscuglio (it) m, amalgama (it) m
chemistry: substance made by chemical combination of elements
linguistics: word formed by combining other words — see compound word
compound (third-person singular simple present compounds, present participle compounding, simple past and past participle compounded)
- (transitive) To form (a resulting mixture) by combining different elements, ingredients, or parts; to mingle with something else.
- Synonyms: see Thesaurus:mix
to compound a medicine
c. 1596–1599, William Shakespeare, “The Second Part of Henry the Fourth, […]”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act IV, scene v]:
Only compound me with forgotten dust.
1712 July 2 (Gregorian calendar), Joseph Addison; Richard Steele, “SATURDAY, June 21, 1712”, in The Spectator, number 411; republished in Alexander Chalmers, editor, The Spectator; a New Edition, […], volume V, New York, N.Y.: D[aniel] Appleton & Company, 1853, OCLC 191120697:
We have the power of altering […] and compounding those images […] into all the varieties of picture.
- (transitive, law) To settle by agreeing on less than the claim, or on different terms than those stipulated.
- Synonym: settle
to compound a debt
- (transitive) To settle amicably; to adjust by agreement.
- Synonym: compromise
1591, William Shakespeare, “The Second Part of Henry the Sixt, […]”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act II, scene i]:
I pray, my lords, let me compound this strife.
- 1777, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, The School for Scandal, II.iii:
- No! no—if Charles has done nothing false or mean, I shall compound for his extravagance
- (intransitive) To come to terms of agreement; to settle by a compromise.
- Synonyms: agree; see also Thesaurus:agree
to compound with someone / for something
c. 1603–1604, William Shakespeare, “Measvre for Measure”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act IV, scene ii]:
Here's a fellow will help you to-morrow; […] compound with him by the year.
1602, Richard Carew, Survey of Cornwall:
[Cornwall] compounded to furnish ten oxen after Michaelmas for thirty pounds.
1662, [Samuel Butler], “[The First Part of Hudibras]”, in Hudibras. The First and Second Parts. […], London: […] John Martyn and Henry Herringman, […], published 1678; republished in A[lfred] R[ayney] Waller, editor, Hudibras: Written in the Time of the Late Wars, Cambridge: University Press, 1905, OCLC 963614346:
Compound for sins they are inclined to / By damning those they have no mind to.
- (transitive, obsolete) To compose; to constitute.
- Synonyms: see Thesaurus:compose
c. 1605–1608, William Shakespeare, “The Life of Tymon of Athens”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies […] (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act IV, scene ii]:
his pomp and all what state compounds
- (intransitive, finance) To increase in value with interest, where the interest is earned on both the principal sum and prior earned interest.
- (transitive, see usage notes) To worsen a situation.
- Synonyms: see Thesaurus:make matters worse
2020 April 12, Simon Tisdall, “US's global reputation hits rock-bottom over Trump's coronavirus response”, in The Guardian:
[…] This latest example of nationalistic self-interest compounded anger across the EU over Trump’s travel ban, imposed last month without consultation or scientific justification.
- (horse racing, intransitive) Of a horse: to fail to maintain speed.
- 1855, The Sporting Review (volume 34, page 240)
- At the hill, the Warrior must have been at least ten lengths in front of Wild Dayrell; but he compounded about 200 yards on the T. Y. C. side of the Red House.
The usage in sense 7 above, “to worsen a situation” is widespread but not wholly accepted. The original meaning of the word (see senses 2–4) implies resolution of a problem, not worsening. It has been suggested (Fraser 1973) that the reverse usage arose by confusion with phrases such as compound interest.
to put together
- Bulgarian: смесвам (bg) (smesvam), съединявам (bg) (sǎedinjavam)
- Finnish: yhdistää (fi), liittää (fi)
- French: composer (fr)
- German: zusammenstellen (de), mischen (de), zusammensetzen (de), verbinden (de), zusammenmischen (de), zusammenreiben
- Greek: αναμιγνύω (el) (anamignýo), μιγνύω (el) (mignýo), συνθέτω (el) (synthéto), παρασκευάζω (el) (paraskevázo)
- Hebrew: לשלב
law: to settle by agreeing less than the claim
to come to terms of agreement
finance: to increase in value with interest