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From Proto-Italic *-kʷe (and), from Proto-Indo-European *-kʷe (and). Cognates include Sanskrit (ca), Ancient Greek τε (te), Proto-Germanic *-hw ( → English (thou)gh).


  • (Classical) IPA(key): /kʷe/, [kᶣɛ]
  • (file)


-que (enclitic)

  1. and, a copulative particle affixed to the word it annexes
    29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid I.1:
    Arma virumque cano.
    I sing of arms and the man...
    Senatus Populusque Romanus.
    The Senate and the People of Rome
    (literally, “The Roman Senate and People”)
  2. (when repeated) "both... and", "whether... or"
    29 bc. Vergil. Georgics, III
    ...hominvmqve ferarvmqve...
    ...both of man and of beast...
  3. introducing an explanatory clause
  4. (rare) used in an answer

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