See also: Mund and mund'

EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old English mund, from Proto-Germanic *mundō (hand, protection, security).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

mund (countable and uncountable, plural munds)

  1. (obsolete) A hand.
  2. (obsolete) Security, granted by a king or earl, the violation of which was punished by a fine (a mundbyrd).
  3. (obsolete) Protection; guardianship.

Derived termsEdit

AnagramsEdit


AlbanianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Probably from Proto-Indo-European *mendh (to pay attention to, be vivacious). Compare Old Norse munda (aim, strive), Gothic 𐌼𐌿𐌽𐌳𐍉𐌽 (mundōn, look up), Old High German muntar (keen, eager), Ancient Greek μανθάνω (manthánō, learn), Lithuanian mañdras (alert, awake, smart, minxish).

Standard/Tosk variant of Gheg Albanian mûn(d); [d]-sound lost among majority Gheg dialects due to nasal vowels (which do not exist in Tosk).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

  • mund m (indefinite plural -, definite singular mundi) (Standard)
  • mûn(d) m (indefinite plural -, definite singular mûn(d)i) (Gheg)
  1. agony, toil, great effort
  2. arduous and hard work (that pays off)
  3. tribulation, cause of trouble or suffer

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Cognate to Arvanitic / Arbëresh Albanian múndënj[1] and Gheg Albanian mûj. Lost [nd]-cluster among majority Gheg dialects (due to nasal vowels), while the [d]-sound in Tosk participle mundur shifted to a [t] in Gheg mûjt. Either from Proto-Indo-European *meHndʰ- (to pay attention, wisdom) or Proto-Indo-European *magʰ- (can, to be able (to do)). Alternatively from Proto-Indo-European *men(s)-dʰ(e)h₂ (to learn).

PronunciationEdit

Verb 1Edit

  • (active) mund (first-person singular past tense munda, participle mundur)[9]
  • (active) mûj (first-person singular past tense mûjta, participle mûjt(un)) (Gheg)
  1. (active, intransitive) I can, I am able; I have the opportunity, power or ability
  2. (active) I beat, I win over, I conquer
  3. (active) (grammatical particle used for conjunctive forms + )
    A mund të më tregoni shtëpinë?
    Could you show me the house?
  4. (active, 3rd person) could be possible; possibly, maybe, perhaps (used as a semi-auxiliary verb + )
  5. (active, 3rd person, negatory) unable/impossible + to (in combination with negatory s, s', nuk (but not with mos) + (to))
  • (passive) múndem (first-person singular past tense u munda, participle mundur)[10]
  • (passive) mûjhna (first-person singular past tense u mûjta, participle mûjt(un)) (Gheg)
  1. (passive, reflexive) I can no longer, I can't; I am not able, impossible for me
  2. (passive) maybe, perhaps, it could, so it be (as a particle)
    Synonyms: mbase, ndoshta, vaki

Verb 2Edit

  • (active) mund (first-person singular past tense munda, participle mundur)[11]
  • (active) mûj (first-person singular past tense u mûjta, participle mûjt(un)) (Gheg)
  1. (active, transitive) I defeat, beat (someone); I emerge victorious (in a match, battle)
  2. (active) I survive, get over, beat (a fear, illness, disease)
  3. (active, figurative, 3rd person) (+ short pronoun forms) put down, take away/over (force, power, ability, etc.)
    Më mundi gjumi.
    The sleep took over me
  • (passive) múndem (first-person singular past tense u munda, participle mundur)[12]
  • (passive) mûjhna (first-person singular past tense u mûjta, participle mûjt(un)) (Gheg)
  1. (passive, reflexive) wrestle, fight or encounter with someone
    Synonyms: luftoj, rrok, kap
  2. (passive) I try to get over (it) (ache, pain, heartbreak, grief, hard work, etc.)
    Synonyms: mundoj, provoj

ConjugationEdit

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit

  • [6] noun mund (definite/sg. form mundi) • Fjalor Shqip (Albanian Dictionary)
  • Oda Buchholz, Wilfried Fiedler, Gerda Uhlisch (2000) Langenscheidt Handwörterbuch Albanisch, Langenscheidt Verlag, →ISBN, page 335 (noun mund / verb mund (14))

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Bardhyl Demiraj, Peter Dayan (1997) Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz (Albanian Etymologies: Studies on the Albanian hereditary vocabulary), Editions Rodopi B.V., Amsterdam - Atlanta GA, →ISBN, page 281, 460, 452
  2. ^ Gustav Meyer (1892) Albanesische Studien III. Lautlehre des indogermanischen Bestandteile des Albanesischen, Carl Gerold's Sohn, page 64, 80
  3. ^ Gustav Meyer (1891) Etymologisches Wörterbuch der albanesischen Sprache, Trübner, page 291
  4. ^ Jokl, Norbert (1911) Studien zur albanesischen Etymologie und Wortbildung (Sitzungsberichte der Philosophisch-Historischen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften; 168) (in German), Vienna: A. Hölder, page 58
  5. ^ Eqrem Çabej (1976/1982) Studime etimologjike në fushë të shqipes, Tiranë Akad. e Shkencave e RP të Shqipërisë, Inst. i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë, →ISBN Invalid ISBN, page 357-358
  6. ^ Demiraj, Bardhyl (1997) Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz [Albanian Etymologies: Investigations into the Albanian Inherited Lexicon] (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 7)‎[1] (in German), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, page 281-283
  7. ^ Werner Winter (1965) Evidence for Laryngeals, The Hague, Mouton, page 138
  8. ^ Orel, Vladimir (1998) , “mund”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Cologne: Brill, →ISBN, page 277-278
  9. ^ [2] active verb mund (I - intransitive) (aorist munda; participle mundur) • Fjalor Shqip (Albanian Dictionary)
  10. ^ [3] passive verb mundem (múndem) (I - reflexive) (aorist u munda; participle mundur) • Fjalor Shqip (Albanian Dictionary)
  11. ^ [4] active verb mund (II - transitive) (aorist munda; participle mundur) • Fjalor Shqip (Albanian Dictionary)
  12. ^ [5] passive verb mundem (múndem) (II - reflexive) (aorist u munda; participle mundur) • Fjalor Shqip (Albanian Dictionary)

DanishEdit

 
mund

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse muðr, munnr, from Proto-Germanic *munþaz, cognate with English mouth, German Mund.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

mund c (singular definite munden, plural indefinite munde)

  1. mouth (the opening of an animal through which food is ingested)

InflectionEdit

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

VerbEdit

mund

  1. imperative of munde

IcelandicEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Norse mund, from Proto-Germanic *mundō.

NounEdit

mund f (genitive singular mundar, nominative plural mundir)

  1. (poetic) hand
DeclensionEdit
SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Related to Old Norse munda (to aim, to strive), Old High German muntar (keen, eager).

NounEdit

mund f (genitive singular mundar, nominative plural mundir) or mund n (genitive singular munds, nominative plural mund)

  1. Used only in set phrases.
DeclensionEdit

or

Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit

Middle EnglishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old English mund, from Proto-Germanic *mundō.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

mund (plural moundes or munden)

  1. Might, ability, or skill.
  2. Magnitude, greatness, utility, or usefulness.
  3. (rare) Protection, guarding, defence
  4. (rare) A hand, especially as a measurement.
  5. (rare) A band of warriors or fighters.

DescendantsEdit

  • English: mound, mund
  • Scots: moond

ReferencesEdit


Norwegian BokmålEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse muðr, munnr, from Proto-Germanic *munþaz.

NounEdit

 
Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia no

mund

  1. mouth

InflectionEdit

singular plural
indefinite mund munder
definite munden mundene

Old EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *mundō.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

mund f (nominative plural munda or munde)

  1. (poetic) hand
  2. trust, security. protection
  3. protector, guardian

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit


Old FrenchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin mundus.

NounEdit

mund m (oblique plural munz or muntz, nominative singular munz or muntz, nominative plural mund)

  1. the world

Old High GermanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *munþaz.

NounEdit

mund m

  1. (anatomy) mouth

DeclensionEdit


Old NorseEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *mundō (hand). Further cognates see there.

NounEdit

mund f

  1. hand

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • mund in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

RomanschEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin mundus.

NounEdit

mund m (plural munds)

  1. (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan, Sutsilvan) world