From Proto-Italic *orjōr, from Proto-Indo-European *h₃er- (to stir, rise). Cognate with Ancient Greek ὄρνῡμι (órnūmi), Sanskrit ऋणोति (ṛṇóti).



orior (present infinitive orīrī, perfect active ortus sum); third conjugation iō-variant, deponent

  1. I rise, get up.
  2. I appear, become visible.
  3. I am born, come to exist, originate.

Usage notesEdit

  • Part of a small group of verbs, all with a short-vowel root, displaying both 3rd and 4th conjugation forms.
  • Present active infinitive only orīrī, other 4th conjugation forms occur, particularly in manuscripts.
  • Past participle exlusively ortus, future participle exclusively oritūrus, gerund almost exlusively oriundus.


   Conjugation of orior (third conjugation -variant, deponent)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present orior oreris, orere oritur orimur oriminī oriuntur
imperfect oriēbar oriēbāris, oriēbāre oriēbātur oriēbāmur oriēbāminī oriēbantur
future oriar oriēris, oriēre oriētur oriēmur oriēminī orientur
perfect ortus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect ortus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect ortus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present oriar oriāris, oriāre oriātur oriāmur oriāminī oriantur
imperfect orerer orerēris, orerēre orerētur orerēmur orerēminī orerentur
perfect ortus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect ortus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present orere oriminī
future oritor oritor oriuntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives orīrī ortum esse oritūrum esse
participles oriēns ortus oritūrus oriendus, oriundus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
oriendī oriendō oriendum oriendō ortum ortū

Derived termsEdit


  • Romanian: urca


  • orior in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • orior in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • orior in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • the Rhine rises in the Alps: Rhenus oritur or profluit ex Alpibus
    • the sun rises, sets: sol oritur, occidit
    • to begin with a long syllable: oriri a longa (De Or. 1. 55. 236)
    • war breaks out: bellum oritur, exardescit
  • Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 326