Most likely for Proto-Italic *pro- + *prijos (own, dear), from Proto-Indo-European *priHós (dear). Since pro- can hardly be explained as a nominal prefix, Forssman (2004) explains it as having been extended to the adjective from the verb propriāre, once-attested as propriāssit. Cognate to Sanskrit प्रिय (priyá, dear), Russian прия́тель (prijátelʹ, buddy, mate) and Russian прия́тный (prijátnyj, pleasant), Welsh rhydd (free), English free.

Other suggestions include:



proprius (feminine propria, neuter proprium); first/second-declension adjective

  1. one's own (inalienable)
  2. belonging to oneself as property
  3. personal, private, exclusive (not shared with others)
  4. particular to one case, special
    Antonym: commūnis
  5. (of activities) proper to, characteristic of a given set of persons or things
  6. (of words) proper, literal, strict
    Antonyms: trā(ns)lāticius, trā(ns)lātus
    1. concrete, specific
    2. used of proper nouns


First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative proprius propria proprium propriī propriae propria
Genitive propriī propriae propriī propriōrum propriārum propriōrum
Dative propriō propriō propriīs
Accusative proprium propriam proprium propriōs propriās propria
Ablative propriō propriā propriō propriīs
Vocative proprie propria proprium propriī propriae propria

Derived termsEdit


  • Asturian: propiu, prupiu
  • Catalan: propi
  • English: proper
  • Esperanto: propra
  • French: propre
  • Istriot: pruoprio
  • Italian: proprio

See alsoEdit


Further readingEdit

  • proprius in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • proprius in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • proprius in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • proprius in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • the proper term; a word used strictly: vocabulum proprium
    • something is a characteristic of a man: aliquid est proprium alicuius