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LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From an earlier adjective *raupus (yielding two parallel forms, a yo-stem form that became standard raupjš and an o-stem form that yielded the archaic noun raups), from the o-grade form *roup- of Proto-Indo-European *reup-, *rūp-, *rup-(to pull, to tear, to break) (from the *rup- form comes the adjective rupjš, q.v.), from the stem *reu-(to peel, to pluck, to dig). The semantic evolution was probably “to pluck, to tear (e.g., wool, feathers)” > (adj.) “uneven, harsh” (skin, after removing wool, feathers) > “harsh, rugged.”.[1]

PronunciationEdit

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AdjectiveEdit

raupjš (def. raupjais, comp. raupjāks, sup. visraupjākais; adv. raupji)

  1. rough, harsh, uneven, rugged (having an irregular, not smooth, harsh surface)
    raupjas rokas‎ ― harsh, rough, hardened hands
    raupja miza‎ ― rough, harsh bark
  2. (of fabric, cloth) rough (not soft)
    raupja sega‎ ― rough blanket
    šis raupjais kokvilnas palags‎ ― these rough cotton sheets
  3. (of hair, fur, plants) hard, coarse, not soft
    raupji mati‎ ― hard, coarse hair
  4. (of people, their behavior, appearance) simple, not subtle, not refined, not sophisticated
    mūsu tautas zemnieciski raupjajās un naivajās pasakās visur ir daiļi cilvēki‎ ― in our people's rustic, rough and naive tales, there are beautiful people everywhere
  5. (of people, their behavior, appearances) harsh, rugged, impolite (without empathy or affection; expressing lack of empathy or affection)
    stringrs un raupjš gan arī esot priekšsēdētājs‎ ― the chairman was apparently also strict and harsh
    raupji vaibsti‎ ― harsh (facial) features
  6. (of words, speech) rough, offensive, indecent
    karstu dusmu šļākumam raupji vārdi seko‎ ― (after) the gushing of hot anger, rough, offensive words followed
  7. (rare, of raindrops, hail) big, large
    tik negants vējš, un nakts, un tumsa, un raupjām lāsēm lietus līst‎ ― such furious wind, and night, and darkness, and the rain is falling in big (rain)drops

DeclensionEdit

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ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “raupjš”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7