PIE root

From Middle High German tougen, tugen, tügen, from Old High German tugan (attested since the 9th century); from Proto-Germanic *duganą, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewgʰ- ‎(to produce, to give milk)[1]. Semantic evolution: "to produce, to give milk" > "to be useful, to be fitting, to avail".

Germanic Cognates include Old Saxon dugan, Dutch deugen (> Afrikaans deug), Old English dugan (obsolete Modern English dow), Old Norse duga (> Icelandic duga, Faroese duga, Norwegian duge, Swedish duga, Danish du) and Gothic 𐌳𐌿𐌲𐌰𐌽 ‎(dugan). Related to German Tugend and tüchtig.

Non-Germanic-Cognates include Ancient Greek τύχη ‎(túkhē, fate, chance, luck), Irish dual ‎(proper, fitting), Scottish Gaelic duan ‎(song, poem, harmonious sounds), Sanskrit दोग्धि ‎(dṓgdhi, to milk, to extract), Lithuanian daũg ‎(much), Latvian daudz ‎(much, a lot)[2].


  • IPA(key): [ˈtaʊ̯ɡn̩]
  • Hyphenation: tau‧gen


taugen ‎(third-person singular simple present taugt, past tense taugte, past participle getaugt, auxiliary haben)

  1. to be fit


Related termsEdit


  1. ^ Don Ringe, From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press, 2006
  2. ^ Pfeifer, Wolfgang. 1995, 2005. Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Deutschen. München: dtv. ISBN 3423325119.

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