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EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

Mimetic (sound of hesitation)

PronunciationEdit

InterjectionEdit

er

  1. Said when hesitating in speech.

VerbEdit

er (third-person singular simple present ers, present participle erring, simple past and past participle erred)

  1. (informal) To utter the word "er" when hesitating in speech, found almost exclusively in the phrase um and er.
    He ummed and erred his way through the presentation.

See alsoEdit

AnagramsEdit


AfrikaansEdit

NounEdit

er (plural erre or ers, diminutive erretjie)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter R/r.

Alemannic GermanEdit

PronounEdit

er m

  1. (personal) he; it

DeclensionEdit


BretonEdit

ContractionEdit

er

  1. e (preposition "in") + ur (indefinite article "a(n)")
  2. e (preposition "in") + ar (definite article "the")

CornishEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Celtic *eriros (eagle) (compare Breton erer, Welsh eryr, Old Irish irar), from Proto-Indo-European *h₃érō (large bird).

 
er (an eagle)

NounEdit

er m (plural eryon or eres)

  1. eagle

Etymology 2Edit

  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

NounEdit

er m (plural erys)

  1. heir

Etymology 3Edit

Non-lemma forms.

NounEdit

er

  1. Soft mutation of ger.

Crimean TatarEdit

AdjectiveEdit

er

  1. every

CzechEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

er n

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter R/r.

Further readingEdit

  • er in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • er in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

DanishEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ɛr/, [æɐ̯], but often elided in spontaneous speech.

VerbEdit

er

  1. present tense of være

DutchEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ɛr/, /ər/, /dər/

Etymology 1Edit

Weak form of der, the unstressed form of daar ("there")

AdverbEdit

er

  1. there (unspecific to distance)
  2. (with a preposition) him, her, it, them.
    Ik heb ermee gewerkt.
    I have worked with it/them.
    Je kunt er de bergen boven zien.
    You can see the mountains above it/them.
Usage notesEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Dutch iro, genitive of the personal pronoun (3rd person plural).

AdverbEdit

er

  1. (partitive pronoun) of them, of those (often not translated in English)
    Mijn broer heeft drie kinderen en ik heb er twee.
    My brother has three children and I have two. (literally: two of those)
    Ik zie er geen meer.
    I don't see any more (of them).
SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit

See Category:Dutch pronominal adverbs

Related termsEdit
See alsoEdit

AnagramsEdit


FaroeseEdit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

er

  1. he, she, it is, 3rd person singular present form of vera (to be)

ConjugationEdit


GermanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old High German er, from Proto-Germanic *iz. Displaced the northern Old High German forms with h-, e.g. , her (see he).

PronunciationEdit

  • (standard) IPA(key): /ʔeːɐ̯/, /ʔɛʁ/
  • (colloquially in unstressed position) IPA(key): /ɐ/

PronounEdit

er

  1. (personal) he.
    (file)
    Wo ist Klaus? Wo ist er?
    Where is Klaus? Where is he?
    • Clemens Brentano, Geschichte vom braven Kasperl und dem schönen Annerl (edited). In: 1835, F. W. Gubitz (editor), Jahrbuch des Nützlichen und Unterhaltenden für 1835, p. 171:
      Da fuhr die Alte überraſcht auf und ſprach: Lieber Herr, gehe er doch nach Haus und bete er fein und lege er ſich ſchlafen.
  2. (personal) it (when the grammatical gender of the object/article/thing/animal etc., being referred to, is masculine (der)).
    (file)
    Dies ist mein Hund. Er heißt Waldi.
    This is my dog. His name is Waldi.
    (file)
    Dort steht ein Baum. Er ist über hundert Jahre alt.
    There stands a tree. It is more than 100 years old.

InflectionEdit

1Often capitalized, especially in letters

In contemporary German, the genitive forms of personal pronouns are restricted to formal style and are infrequent even then. They may be used

  • for the genitive object still found in a handful of verbs: Ich erbarmte mich seiner. – "I had mercy on him". (Colloquially one would either use the dative case, or a prepositional object, or replace the verb with another.)
  • after the preposition statt ("instead of, in place of"): Ich kam statt seiner in die Mannschaft. – I joined the team in his place. (This sounds antiquated, for which reason an seiner Statt or an seiner Stelle is preferable.)

Further readingEdit

  • er in Duden online

HunsrikEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • ëyer (Portuguese based orthography)

EtymologyEdit

From Old High German er, from Proto-Germanic *iz. Displaced the northern Old High German forms with h-, e.g. , her (see he).

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

er

  1. he

InflectionEdit

Further readingEdit


IcelandicEdit

VerbEdit

er

  1. First-person singular indicative present form of vera.
    Ég er skemmtilegur.
    I am fun (masculine)
    Hver er ég?
    Who am I?
  2. Third-person singular indicative present form of vera.
    Veit einhver hvar pabbi minn er?
    Does anybody know where my dad is?
    Hver er hann?
    Who is he?

PronounEdit

er

  1. (relative) which
    Maður er , er Jón heitir.
    There is a man who is named John.
    Konan, er hann vartala við.
    The woman to whom he was talking.
    Þetta er borgin, er hann kom frá.
    This is the city from which he originated.
    Bærinn, er hún ætlar til.
    The town to which she's heading.
  2. (archaic) in relations with a demonstrative pronoun (this, that, these) or personal pronoun (I, we, they), which represents the genitive of a relative pronoun.
    Það er bók, er menn þekkja eigi höfund hennar.
    There is a book whose author people don't know.

ConjunctionEdit

er

  1. (with an "indexical"; ábendingarorð) of a place, of a time
    • Judges 2:19
      En er dómarinn andaðist, breyttu þeir að nýju verr en feður þeirra, með því að elta aðra guði til þess að þjóna þeim og falla fram fyrir þeim. Þeir létu eigi af gjörðum sínum né þrjóskubreytni sinni.
      But when the judge died, the people returned to ways even more corrupt than those of their ancestors, following other gods and serving and worshiping them. They refused to give up their evil practices and stubborn ways.
    Þar er ég kom.
    There whence I came.
    Þá er myndin var búin.
    When the movie was finished.

Derived termsEdit


LatinEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Italic *hēr, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰḗr (hedgehog) (whence also Ancient Greek χήρ (khḗr, hedgehog)), a root noun from *ǵʰer- (to be excited, be bristly), whence also Ancient Greek χοῖρος (khoîros, young pig) and Albanian derr (pig) from *ǵʰór-yos.[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

ēr m (genitive ēris); third declension

  1. hedgehog
Usage notesEdit

There is some uncertainty as to the exact forms of this word, especially regarding whether the lemma form of this was ēr or ēris, as the forms attested in literature could point to either option. Another form, irim (acc. sing.; found in Plautus, Capt. 184), seems to be a spelling variant.

InflectionEdit

Third declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative ēr ērēs
genitive ēris ērum
dative ērī ēribus
accusative ērem ērēs
ablative ēre ēribus
vocative ēr ērēs
Related termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

er (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the letter R.
Usage notesEdit
  • Multiple Latin names for the letter R, r have been suggested. The most common is er or a syllabic r, although there is some evidence which also supports, as names for the letter, , rrr, ər, , and even (in the fourth- or fifth-century first Antinoë papyrus, which gives Greek transliterations of the Latin names of the Roman alphabet’s letters) ιρρε (irrhe).
Coordinate termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • ēr in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • er in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • ēr” in Félix Gaffiot’s Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette (1934)
  • Arthur E. Gordon, The Letter Names of the Latin Alphabet (University of California Press, 1973; volume 9 of University of California Publications: Classical Studies), especially pages 30–31, 42–44, and 63
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “ēr”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 193

LatvianEdit

PronunciationEdit

(file)

NounEdit

er m (invariable)

  1. The Latvian name of the Latin script letter R/r.

See alsoEdit


Low GermanEdit

PronounEdit

er

  1. Alternative spelling of ehr

MambaeEdit

NounEdit

er

  1. water

ReferencesEdit

  • Mambai Language Manual: Ainaro Dialect (2001)

MandarinEdit

RomanizationEdit

er

  1. Nonstandard spelling of ér.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of ěr.
  3. Nonstandard spelling of èr.

Usage notesEdit

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

ManxEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Irish for.

PrepositionEdit

er

  1. on
  2. onto
  3. during
  4. for4

InflectionEdit

Singular Plural
Person 1st 2nd 3rd m. 3rd f. 1st 2nd 3rd
Normal orrym ort er urree orrin erriu orroo
Emphatic orryms orts ersyn urreeish orrinyn erriuish orroosyn

PronounEdit

er

  1. 3rd person singular of er
    on him/it

Derived termsEdit


Middle DutchEdit

AdverbEdit

er

  1. unstressed form of dāer

Norwegian BokmålEdit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

er

  1. present tense of være (=to be)

Norwegian NynorskEdit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

er

  1. present tense of vera and vere

Old DutchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *airiz; see also ær. Cognate with Old Saxon ēr.

AdverbEdit

er (ēr)

  1. previously, in an earlier period, in a bygone time
  2. earlier, before a certain time or period

PrepositionEdit

er (ēr)

  1. (temporal) before, earlier than

ConjunctionEdit

er (ēr)

  1. ere, afore

ReferencesEdit

er in the INL database


Old FrisianEdit

PronounEdit

er

  1. he

Old High GermanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Germanic *airiz, whence also Old English ær.

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

ēr

  1. early

AdverbEdit

ēr

  1. ere, before
  2. formerly

ConjunctionEdit

ēr

  1. before, until

PrepositionEdit

ēr (+ dative)

  1. before

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Germanic *aiz, akin to Old English ār, Old Norse eir.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

ēr n

  1. ore
  2. brass

Etymology 3Edit

From Proto-Germanic *iz (he), akin to Gothic 𐌹𐍃 (is, he), Latin is (he).

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

er

  1. he
DescendantsEdit
  • Middle High German: er
    • German: er

ReferencesEdit

  • Joseph Wright, An Old High German Primer

Old NorseEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Norse es. The final -s was replaced by -r due to analogy to the plural forms of vera.

PronounEdit

er

  1. who, which, that

ConjunctionEdit

er

  1. where
  2. when

VerbEdit

er

  1. third-person singular indicative present tense of vera

DescendantsEdit

  • Faroese: er
  • Icelandic: er

ReferencesEdit


Old SaxonEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Germanic *airiz, whence also Old English ær.

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

ēr

  1. early
DeclensionEdit


AdverbEdit

ēr

  1. before, ere
  2. formerly

ConjunctionEdit

ēr

  1. before

PrepositionEdit

ēr (+ dative)

  1. before

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Germanic *aiz, whence also Old English ār.

PronunciationEdit

  This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

NounEdit

ēr ?

  1. copper, bronze
  2. ore

PolishEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

er

  1. genitive plural of era

ScotsEdit

VerbEdit

er

  1. (South Scots) Second-person simple present form of ti be
  2. (South Scots) Plural simple present form of ti be
  3. (South Scots) First-person singular simple present form of an obscure form of ti be
    A'm er so!

Usage notesEdit

Used emphatically. See ir.


SwedishEdit

EtymologyEdit

Contraction of earlier eder, from Old Norse yðr, from Proto-Germanic *izwiz, dative/accusative of *jūz, from Proto-Indo-European *yū́.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

er c (neuter possessive only ert, plural era)

  1. you (plural, object)
  2. (possessive) your, yours; (speaking to more than one person, about one object)
  3. (reflexive) of ni; compare yourselves
    Skulle ni vilja lära er jonglera?
    Would you guys like to learn how to juggle?

Usage notesEdit

  • See ni for a note on its use as a courteous 2nd person singular.
  • Even though er (2) and its archaic form eder is the possessive pronoun, it does have a genitive form ers and eders, which is only used in expressions like ers majestät (your majesty) and ers höghet (your highness).

DeclensionEdit


TurkishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Turkic er, from Proto-Turkic *ẹ̄r (early), which, according to the controversial Altaic hypothesis, is possibly derived from Proto-Altaic *ḗre (early).

AdjectiveEdit

er

  1. early

ReferencesEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Turkic er, from Proto-Turkic *ēr (man), which, according to the controversial Altaic hypothesis, is possibly derived from Proto-Altaic *ā́ri (~ *ḗra) (man). Related to noun-forming suffix -er.

NounEdit

er (definite accusative eri, plural erler)

  1. brave
  2. man, male
  3. noble
  4. conscript, private (soldier of the lowest rank of the army)
  5. tribesman
  6. warrior
DeclensionEdit

VerbEdit

er

  1. reach (imperative)

ReferencesEdit


West FrisianEdit

PronounEdit

er

  1. he

Usage notesEdit

  • (he): Er is used before the object of the sentence or after the verb, if there is one. It is never the first word of a sentence.
    • Doe't er in swolch naam -- "When he took a swallow", (literally "When he a swallow took")

Especially in narrative, er is used in the past tense. In other cases, hy is used.