English edit

Pronunciation edit

  • enPR: ûr, IPA(key): /ɜː/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɜː
  • Used in non-rhotic dialects. Compare uh.

Etymology 1 edit

Mimetic (sound of hesitation)

Interjection edit

er

  1. Said when hesitating in speech.
    • 2012, Linda Miller, Desire and Destiny:
      If he—er—disappears—well, it seems to me that we'd both benefit.
    • 2019 December 10, Yacht Club Games, "Story" (Mona), in Shovel Knight Showdown (version 4.1), Nintendo Switch:
      Liquid Samurai: 'FORMLESS AND INFINITE ARE WE, THE LIQUID SAMURAI. I SERVE MY QUEEN, AS WE HAVE FOR COUNTLESS--' / Mona: 'HEY, I DON'T MEAN TO INTERRUPT, BUT YOU SEEM LIKE YOU'RE MADE OF POWERFUL STUFF. CAN I, ER, STUDY YOU?'

Verb edit

er (third-person singular simple present ers, present participle erring, simple past and past participle erred)

  1. (informal) To utter the word "er" when hesitating in speech, found in the phrase um and er.
    He ummed and erred his way through the presentation.

See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Noun edit

er (plural ers)

  1. The name of the Cyrillic script letter Р / р.

Anagrams edit

Afrikaans edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

er (plural erre or ers, diminutive erretjie)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter R.

Alemannic German edit

Etymology edit

From Old High German er, from Proto-Germanic *iz. Cognate with German er.

Pronoun edit

er m

  1. (personal) he; it

Declension edit

Bavarian edit

Alternative forms edit

  • ea (phonetic spelling)
  • a (unstressed form)

Etymology edit

From Middle High German er, from Old High German er (he). Cognate with German er.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

er

  1. he

See also edit

Breton edit

Contraction edit

er

  1. Contraction of e ur (in a(n)).
  2. Contraction of e ar (in the).

Cimbrian edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Middle High German ër, from Old High German er, from Proto-West Germanic *iʀ (he, it), from Proto-Germanic *iz (he, she, it, they). Cognate with German er.

Pronoun edit

er

  1. (Luserna) he, it

Inflection edit

Personal pronouns
singular plural
1st person i biar
2nd person du iar
3rd person er, si, 'z se

References edit

Cornish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Cornish er, from Proto-Celtic *eriros (eagle) (compare Breton erer, Welsh eryr, Old Irish *irar), from Proto-Indo-European *h₃érō (large bird).

 
er (an eagle)

Noun edit

er m (plural eryon or eres)

  1. eagle

Etymology 2 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun edit

er m (plural erys)

  1. heir

Etymology 3 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Noun edit

er

  1. Soft mutation of ger.

Crimean Tatar edit

Adjective edit

er

  1. every

Czech edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

er n (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter R.

Further reading edit

  • er in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • er in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Danish edit

Etymology edit

From Old Danish ær, Proto-Germanic *izum, *izud, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁es- (to be). The infinitive of the verb (være) is from a different PIE root; the present tense is suppletive.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ɛr/, [ɛɐ̯], [ɛɒ̯̽], but often elided in spontaneous speech.

Verb edit

er

  1. present of være

Dutch edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ɛr/, /ər/, /dər/

Etymology 1 edit

Weak form of der, the unstressed form of daar ("there")

Adverb edit

er

  1. there (unspecific to distance)
  2. (with a preposition) it; him, her, them.
    Ik heb ermee gewerkt.
    I have worked with it/them.
    Je kunt er de bergen boven zien.
    You can see the mountains above it/them.
Usage notes edit
Descendants edit
  • Petjo: d'r

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Dutch iro, genitive of the personal pronoun (3rd person plural).

Adverb edit

er

  1. (partitive pronoun) of them, of those (often not translated in English)
    Mijn broer heeft drie kinderen en ik heb er twee.
    My brother has three children and I have two. (literally: two of those)
    Ik zie er geen meer.
    I don't see any more (of them).
Synonyms edit
Derived terms edit

See Category:Dutch pronominal adverbs

Related terms edit
See also edit

Anagrams edit

Faroese edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

er

  1. third-person singular indicative present of vera
    Hann er skipari.
    He is a captain/skipper.
    Hon er úr Føroyum.
    She is from the Faroe Islands.
    Tað er í ordan.
    It's all right.

German edit

Etymology edit

From Middle High German ër, from Old High German er, from Proto-West Germanic *iʀ, from Proto-Germanic *iz. In northern Middle High German and Old High German there also existed forms with initial h-, namely Middle High German her, Old High German her, from Proto-Germanic *hiz, whence Central Franconian and (from the accusative) Luxembourgish hien. Compare English he. The unusual spelling ih- in the forms ihm, ihn is not related to this. It was introduced in early modern German to distinguish these forms from im, in (when *iem, *ien could have been read as *jem, *jen).

Pronunciation edit

  • (standard) IPA(key): /eːr/, [ʔeːɐ̯], [ʔɛɐ̯]
  • (colloquially in unstressed position) IPA(key): /ɐ/

Pronoun edit

er

  1. (personal) he.
    (file)
    Wo ist Klaus? Wo ist er?Where is Klaus? Where is he?
    (file)
    Dies ist mein Hund. Er heißt Waldi.This is my dog. His name is Waldi.
  2. (personal) it (when the grammatical gender of the object/article/thing/animal etc., being referred to, is masculine (der)).
    (file)
    Dort steht ein Baum. Er ist über hundert Jahre alt.There stands a tree. It is more than 100 years old.
  3. (personal) she (when the grammatical gender of the noun being referred to and designating a female person, is masculine (der)).
    Im Frauengefängnis versuchte ein Häftling zu flüchten, aber er kam nicht weit.In the women’s prison, an inmate tried to escape, but she didn’t get very far.
  4. (personal, archaic) Alternative spelling of Er (you (polite))
    • (Can we date this quote?), Clemens Brentano, Geschichte vom braven Kasperl und dem schönen Annerl (edited). In: 1835, F. W. Gubitz (editor), Jahrbuch des Nützlichen und Unterhaltenden für 1835, p. 171:
      Da fuhr die Alte überraſcht auf und ſprach: Lieber Herr, gehe er doch nach Haus und bete er fein und lege er ſich ſchlafen.
      Then the old woman sprang up, surprised, and said: Dear gentleman, do go home and say your prayers and go to bed.
    • 1837, Brothers Grimm, “Der junge Riese”, in Kinder- und Haus-Märchen, Band 2[1], page 27:
      Da sprach er „Vater, ich sehe wohl, bei ihm werd ich nicht satt, will er mir einen Stab von Eisen verschaffen, der stark ist, und den ich vor meinen Knien nicht zerbrechen kann, so will ich wieder fort gehen.“ Da war der Bauer froh, und spannte seine zwei Pferde vor den Wagen, fuhr zum Schmied, und holte einen Stab so groß und dick, als ihn die zwei Pferde nur fahren konnten.
      Then he said: "Father, I can see that I shall not be able to eat my fill here. If you bring me a strong rod of iron that I cannot break, I shall go away again." Then the farmer was glad, and he harnessed his horses to the wagon, drove to the smithy, and fetched a rod so long and thick that his two horses could barely pull it.

Declension edit

  • In contemporary German, the genitive forms of personal pronouns are restricted to formal style and are infrequent even then. They may be used:
    • for the genitive object still found in a handful of verbs: Ich erbarmte mich seiner. – "I had mercy on him". (Colloquially one would either use the dative case, or a prepositional object, or replace the verb with another.)
    • with certain adjectives or prepositions that govern the genitive, such as statt ("instead of, in place of"): Ich kam statt seiner in die Mannschaft. – I joined the team in his place. (This sounds antiquated, for which reason an seiner Statt or an seiner Stelle is preferable.)
  • Older forms/spellings include:
    • jm (dative; 16th century), jn (accusative; 16th century) – distinguished from im (in the, into the) and in (in, into)
    • ihme (dative)

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

Hunsrik edit

Alternative forms edit

  • ëyer (Wiesemann spelling system)

Etymology edit

From Old High German er, from Proto-Germanic *iz. Displaced the northern Old High German forms with h-, e.g. , her (see he).

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

er

  1. he

Inflection edit

Further reading edit

Icelandic edit

Pronunciation edit

  This entry needs an audio pronunciation. If you are a native speaker with a microphone, please record this word. The recorded pronunciation will appear here when it's ready.

Etymology 1 edit

Old Norse er (is, 3rd person singular), analogical leveling of earlier es, from Proto-Germanic *isti, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésti.

Use with the 1st person singular is also by analogy with other forms in er-; the Old Norse 1st person singular form was em.

Verb edit

er

  1. first-person singular indicative present of vera
    Ég er skemmtilegur.
    I am fun (masculine)
    Hver er ég?
    Who am I?
  2. third-person singular indicative present of vera
    Hver er hann?
    Who is he?

Etymology 2 edit

Old Norse er, from Proto-Germanic *iz (he), from Proto-Indo-European *ís (he, that).

Pronoun edit

er

  1. (relative) which
    Maður er , er Jón heitir.
    There is a man who is named John.
    Konan, er hann vartala við.
    The woman to whom he was talking.
    Þetta er borgin, er hann kom frá.
    This is the city from which he originated.
    Bærinn, er hún ætlar til.
    The town to which she's heading.
  2. (archaic) in relations with a demonstrative pronoun (this, that, these) or personal pronoun (I, we, they), which represents the genitive of a relative pronoun.
    Það er bók, er menn þekkja eigi höfund hennar.
    There is a book whose author people don't know.

Conjunction edit

er

  1. (with an "indexical"; ábendingarorð) of a place, of a time
    • Judges 2:19
      En er dómarinn andaðist, breyttu þeir að nýju verr en feður þeirra, með því að elta aðra guði til þess að þjóna þeim og falla fram fyrir þeim. Þeir létu eigi af gjörðum sínum né þrjóskubreytni sinni.
      But when the judge died, the people returned to ways even more corrupt than those of their ancestors, following other gods and serving and worshiping them. They refused to give up their evil practices and stubborn ways.
    Þar er ég kom.
    There whence I came.
    Þá er myndin var búin.
    When the movie was finished.
Derived terms edit

References edit

  • "er", in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Indonesian edit

Etymology edit

From Dutch er.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

èr

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter R/r.

Synonyms edit

  • ar (Standard Malay)

See also edit

Further reading edit

Italian edit

Alternative forms edit

  • 'r (after vowels)

Article edit

er m sg

  1. (Roman) Dialectal form of el, whence modern il

Jamtish edit

Verb edit

er

  1. present indicative of vara

Japanese edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From English -er, forming novel pseudo-Anglicisms.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

er(アー) (

  1. (slang) Suffix used for people, especially fans.

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

Further reading edit

  • 難波功士 [Koji Nanba] (2006), “〈研究ノート〉“-er”の系譜:サブカルチュラル・アイデンティティの現在 [The History of Neology Using the Suffix ‘-er’ in Japanese: In terms of sub-cultural identities of youths]”, in 関西学院大学社会学部紀要[2], issue 100, pages 181–189

Kembra edit

Noun edit

er

  1. water

Latin edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Italic *hēr, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰḗr (hedgehog) (whence also Ancient Greek χήρ (khḗr, hedgehog)), a root noun from *ǵʰer- (to be excited, be bristly), whence also Ancient Greek χοῖρος (khoîros, young pig) and Albanian derr (pig) from *ǵʰór-yos.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ēr m (genitive ēris); third declension

  1. hedgehog
Usage notes edit

There is some uncertainty as to the exact forms of this word, especially regarding whether the lemma form of this was ēr or ēris, as the forms attested in literature could point to either option. Another form, irim (acc. sing.; found in Plautus, Capt. 184), seems to be a spelling variant.

Declension edit

Third-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative ēr ērēs
Genitive ēris ērum
Dative ērī ēribus
Accusative ērem ērēs
Ablative ēre ēribus
Vocative ēr ērēs
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

er f (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the letter R.
Usage notes edit
  • Multiple Latin names for the letter R, r have been suggested. The most common is er or a syllabic r, although there is some evidence which also supports, as names for the letter, , rrr, ər, , and even (in the fourth- or fifth-century first Antinoë papyrus, which gives Greek transliterations of the Latin names of the Roman alphabet’s letters) ιρρε (irrhe).
Coordinate terms edit

References edit

  • "ēr", in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • ēr in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Arthur E. Gordon, The Letter Names of the Latin Alphabet (University of California Press, 1973; volume 9 of University of California Publications: Classical Studies), especially pages 30–31, 42–44, and 63
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “ēr”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 193

Latvian edit

Pronunciation edit

(file)

Noun edit

er m (invariable)

  1. The Latvian name of the Latin script letter R/r.

See also edit

Low German edit

Pronoun edit

er

  1. Alternative spelling of ehr

Lower Sorbian edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

er m inan

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter r.

See also edit

Mambae edit

Noun edit

er

  1. water

References edit

  • Mambai Language Manual: Ainaro Dialect (2001)

Mandarin edit

Romanization edit

er

  1. Nonstandard spelling of ēr.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of ér.
  3. Nonstandard spelling of ěr.
  4. Nonstandard spelling of èr.

Usage notes edit

  • Transcriptions of Mandarin into the Latin script often do not distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without indication of tone.

Manx edit

Etymology edit

From Old Irish for.

Preposition edit

er

  1. on
  2. onto
  3. during
  4. for

Inflection edit

Singular Plural
Person 1st 2nd 3rd m. 3rd f. 1st 2nd 3rd
Normal orrym ort er urree orrin erriu orroo
Emphatic orryms orts ersyn urreeish orrinyn erriuish orroosyn

Pronoun edit

er

  1. third-person singular of er
    on him/it

Derived terms edit

Middle Dutch edit

Adverb edit

er

  1. unstressed form of dāer

Middle English edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old English ǣr, from Proto-West Germanic *airi, from Proto-Germanic *airi.

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

er

  1. early
  2. earlier
  3. formerly
  4. rather
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
References edit

Etymology 2 edit

Determiner edit

er

  1. Alternative form of hire (her, genitive)

Pronoun edit

er

  1. Alternative form of hire (hers)

Etymology 3 edit

Pronoun edit

er

  1. Alternative form of hire (her, object)

Etymology 4 edit

Noun edit

er

  1. Alternative form of eere (ear of grain)

Etymology 5 edit

Determiner edit

er

  1. Alternative form of here (their)

Middle High German edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old High German er, from Proto-Germanic *iz (he).

Pronoun edit

ër

  1. (personal) he

Inflection edit

Middle High German personal pronouns
Number Person Gender Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative
Singular First ich mîn mir mich
Second du, dîn dir dich
Third Masculine ër sîn im(e) in
Feminine siu (, si) ir(e) ir(e) sie (, si)
Neuter ëȥ es im(e) ëȥ
Plural First wir unser uns unsich, uns
Second ir iuwer iu iuch
Third Masculine sie (, si) ir(e) in sie (, si)
Feminine
Neuter siu, (, si) siu (, si)

Descendants edit

  • Alemannic German:
    Low Alemannic:
    Alsatian: ar, er, ër
    Badisch: er
    High Alemannic: er, är
    Bernese: är
    Lucerne: aer
    Northeastern: ar
    Walser: är
  • Swabian: er, ear
    Swabian Jura: ear
  • Bavarian: er
  • Central Franconian:
    Moselle Franconian: er
  • East Central German:
    High Prussian: er
    Silesian East Central German:
    Lower Silesian East Central German: a
    Upper Silesian East Central German: a
    North Moravian: ar
    Thuringian: er
    Central Thuringian: er
    West Thuringian: aa
    Upper Saxon German: är
    Meißnisch: är
    Osterländisch: är
    Erzgebirgisch: aorr
    Lusatian: ar
  • German: er
    Berlinerisch: er/ea
  • East Franconian: er, ea
    Unterfränkisch: ar
    Hohenlohisch: er
  • Rhine Franconian:
    Upper Hessian: er
    Lorraine Franconian: ér, éa
    Palatine German: er
    • Pennsylvania German: er
  • Yiddish: ⁧ער(er)

References edit

  • Benecke, Georg Friedrich; Müller, Wilhelm; Zarncke, Friedrich (1863), “ër”, in Mittelhochdeutsches Wörterbuch: mit Benutzung des Nachlasses von Benecke, Stuttgart: S. Hirzel

Mòcheno edit

Etymology edit

From Middle High German ër, from Old High German er, from Proto-West Germanic *iʀ (he, it), from Proto-Germanic *iz (he, she, it, they). Cognate with German er.

Pronoun edit

er

  1. he, it

Inflection edit

Personal pronouns
singular plural
1st person i biar
2nd person du ir
3rd person er, si, s sei

References edit

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

er

  1. present of være (=to be)

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /æː(r)/, /eː(r)/

Verb edit

er

  1. is, are, am (present of to be) present of vera
    Eg er framand.I am a stranger.
  2. (auxiliary) be
    Boka er skriven.The book is written
    Bøkene er skrivne.The books are written.

References edit

  • “vera” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.
  • “er på engelsk”, in DinOrdbok, Nynorsk-engelsk oversettelse[3], accessed 2018-10-15

Old Dutch edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-West Germanic *airi, from Proto-Germanic *airiz.

Preposition edit

ēr

  1. before, earlier than

Descendants edit

Further reading edit

  • ēr (II)”, in Oudnederlands Woordenboek, 2012

Conjunction edit

ēr

  1. ere, afore

Descendants edit

Further reading edit

  • ēr (III)”, in Oudnederlands Woordenboek, 2012

Adverb edit

ēr

  1. previously, in an earlier period, in a bygone time
  2. earlier, before a certain time or period

Descendants edit

Further reading edit

  • ēr (I)”, in Oudnederlands Woordenboek, 2012

Old Frisian edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-West Germanic *airi, from Proto-Germanic *airiz. Cognates include Old English ǣr, Old Saxon ēr and Old Dutch ēr.

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

ēr

  1. earlier, previously

Preposition edit

ēr (+ dative)

  1. before (of time)

Descendants edit

  • Saterland Frisian: eer
  • West Frisian: ear't

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ēr f

  1. Alternative form of ēre

References edit

  • Bremmer, Rolf H. (2009) An Introduction to Old Frisian: History, Grammar, Reader, Glossary, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →ISBN

Old High German edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-West Germanic *airi, from Proto-Germanic *airiz, whence also Old English ær.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

ēr

  1. early

Adverb edit

ēr

  1. ere, before
  2. formerly

Conjunction edit

ēr

  1. before, until

Preposition edit

ēr (+ dative)

  1. before

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Germanic *aiz, akin to Old English ār, Old Norse eir.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ēr n

  1. ore
  2. brass
Descendants edit
  • Middle High German: er
    • Alemannic German: Eer
      • Alemannic German: eerig
  • Old High German: ērīn

Etymology 3 edit

From Proto-Germanic *iz (he), akin to Gothic 𐌹𐍃 (is, he), Latin is (he).

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

er

  1. he
Inflection edit
Old High German personal pronouns
Number Person Gender Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative
Singular First ih
(ihha, ihcha)
mīn mir mih
Second dīn dir dih
Third Masculine er (her) (sīn) imu, imo inan, in
Feminine siu; , si ira (iru, iro) iru, iro sia
Neuter iz es, is imu, imo iz
Plural First wir unsēr uns unsih
Second ir iuwēr iu iuwih
Third Masculine sie iro im, in sie
Feminine sio iro im, in sio
Neuter siu iro im, in siu
Polite form Second   ir iuwēr iu iuwih
Descendants edit
  • Middle High German: ër (see there for further descendants)

References edit

  • Joseph Wright, An Old High German Primer

Old Norse edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology 1 edit

From earlier es, from Proto-Germanic *iz (he; 3rd person personal pronoun). Cognate with Gothic 𐌹𐍃 (is), Old High German ēr (German er).

Pronoun edit

er

  1. who, which, that
    • verse 76 of the Hávamál (1996 translation by Carolyne Larrington)
      en orðstírr / deyr aldregi / hveim er sér góðan getr
      but the glory of reputation never dies, / for the man who can get himself a good one

Conjunction edit

er

  1. where
  2. when
    En er hann dó, grét ǫll verǫldin
    and when he died, the whole world cried.
Descendants edit
  • Icelandic: er
  • Faroese: er
  • Old Swedish: ær

Usage notes edit

  • The oldest Icelandic manuscripts from the 12th century still have the older form es, and many poems metrically require the contracted form -s (which is also sporadically present in later manuscripts like the late 13th century Codex Regius). In spite of this, most editors chose never to restore er to es, Finnur Jónsson and the editors of the Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages series being important exceptions.

Etymology 2 edit

From earlier es, from Proto-Norse ᛁᛊᛏ (ist), from Proto-Germanic *isti, first/third-person singular indicative present of *wesaną. The final -s was replaced by -r due to analogy to the plural forms of the verb.

Verb edit

er

  1. third-person singular indicative present of vera
Usage notes edit
  • See above; the same rules apply.
Descendants edit
  • Icelandic: er
  • Faroese: er
  • Norwegian:
    • Norwegian Bokmål: er
    • Norwegian Nynorsk: er
  • Jamtish: er
  • Elfdalian: ir
  • Old Swedish: ær
  • Danish: er
  • Old Gutnish: ier

References edit

  • "er", in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Old Saxon edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-West Germanic *airi, whence also Old English ær.

Adjective edit

ēr

  1. early
Declension edit


Adverb edit

ēr

  1. before, ere
  2. formerly

Conjunction edit

ēr

  1. before

Preposition edit

ēr (+ dative)

  1. before

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Germanic *aiz, whence also Old English ār.

Noun edit

ēr ?

  1. copper, bronze
  2. ore
Descendants edit
  • Middle Low German: ēr

Etymology 3 edit

From Proto-Germanic *airuz. Cognate with Old English ār, Old Norse árr, Gothic 𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌿𐍃 (airus).

Noun edit

ēr m

  1. messenger, herald

Old Tupi edit

Etymology edit

Back-formation from era (name).[1]

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

er (IIa class pluriform, R1 rer, R2 ser)

  1. named; having a name

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Eduardo de Almeida Navarro (2013), “era”, in Dicionário de tupi antigo: a língua indígena clássica do Brasil (in Portuguese), 1 edition, São Paulo: Global, →ISBN, page 109, column 1

Palauan edit

Preposition edit

er

  1. Used to indicate a specific object noun phrase.
    el mo er a medadin the future.
    er a elecha el tutauthis morning.
    rakket er a tenistennis racket.

References edit

  • er in Palauan Language Online: Palauan-English Dictionary, at tekinged.com.
  • er in Palauan-English Dictionary, at trussel2.com.
  • er in Lewis S. Josephs; Edwin G. McManus; Masa-aki Emesiochel (1977) Palauan-English Dictionary, University Press of Hawaii, →ISBN, page 88.

Pennsylvania German edit

Etymology edit

Compare German er.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

er

  1. he

Declension edit

Polish edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

er f

  1. genitive plural of era

Salar edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Turkic erür.

Verb edit

er

  1. is, are

Etymology 2 edit

Noun edit

er

  1. man

Etymology 3 edit

Adjective edit

er

  1. (Mengda, Ejia) early

Adverb edit

er

  1. morning
  2. (Jiezi, Gaizi) long time ago
Derived terms edit

References edit

  • Tenishev, Edhem (1976), “eř, er”, in Stroj salárskovo jazyká [Grammar of Salar], Moscow, page 326
  • 马伟 (Ma Wei), 朝克 (Chao Ke) (2014), “er”, in 撒拉语366条会话读本 [Salar 366 Conversation Reader], 1st edition, 社会科学文献出版社 (Social Science Literature Press), →ISBN, page 105
  • 马伟 (Ma Wei), 朝克 (Chao Ke) (2016), “er, erğine”, in 濒危语言——撒拉语研究 [Endangered Languages ​​- Salar Language Studies], 青海 (Qinghai): 国家社会科学基金项目 (National Social Science Foundation Project), page 108, 262
  • 林 (Lin), 莲云 (Lianyun) (1985), “er”, in 撒拉语简志 [A Brief History of Salar], Beijing: 民族出版社: 琴書店, →OCLC, page 33
  • Ma, Chengjun; Han, Lianye; Ma, Weisheng (December 2010), “er”, in 米娜瓦尔 艾比布拉 (Minavar Abibra), editor, 撒维汉词典 (Sāwéihàncídiǎn) [Salar-Uyghur-Chinese dictionary], 1st edition, Beijing, →ISBN, page 103

Saterland Frisian edit

Etymology edit

From Old Frisian -er, from Proto-West Germanic *iʀ. Cognates include West Frisian er and German er.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

er

  1. unstressed form of hie (he)

See also edit

References edit

  • Marron C. Fort (2015), “er”, in Saterfriesisches Wörterbuch mit einer phonologischen und grammatischen Übersicht, Buske, →ISBN

Scots edit

Etymology 1 edit

Verb edit

er

  1. (South Scots) Second-person simple present form of ti be
  2. (South Scots) Plural simple present form of ti be
  3. (South Scots) First-person singular simple present form of an obscure form of ti be
    A'm er so!
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)
Usage notes edit

Used emphatically. See ir.

Etymology 2 edit

Noun edit

er (plural ers)

  1. Shetland form of air (beach)

References edit

Swedish edit

Etymology edit

Contraction of earlier eder, from Old Swedish iþer, idher, from Old Norse iðʀ, from Proto-Germanic *izwiz, dative/accusative of *jūz, from Proto-Indo-European *yū́.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

er c (neuter possessive only ert, plural era)

  1. you (plural, object)
    Synonym: (formal, archaic) eder
  2. (possessive) your, yours; (speaking to more than one person, about one object)
    Synonyms: (informal) eran, (formal, archaic) eder
  3. (reflexive) reflexive of ni; compare yourselves
    Skulle ni vilja lära er jonglera?
    Would you guys like to learn how to juggle?

Usage notes edit

  • See ni for a note on its use as a courteous 2nd person singular.
  • Even though er (2) and its archaic form eder is the possessive pronoun, it does have a genitive form ers and eders, which is only used in expressions like Ers Majestät (Your Majesty) and Ers Höghet (Your Highness).

Declension edit

Anagrams edit

Turkish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Ottoman Turkishایر⁩, ⁧ار⁩, from Proto-Turkic *ẹ̄r (early). Related to Old Turkic𐰼(er).

Adjective edit

er

  1. (regionalism) early
    Synonym: erken

Etymology 2 edit

From Ottoman Turkishار⁩, from Proto-Turkic *ēr (man). Related to noun-forming suffix -er and Old Turkic𐰼(er).

Noun edit

er (definite accusative eri, plural erler)

  1. brave
  2. man, male
  3. noble
  4. conscript, private (soldier of the lowest rank of the army)
  5. tribesman
  6. warrior
Declension edit
Inflection
Nominative er
Definite accusative eri
Singular Plural
Nominative er erler
Definite accusative eri erleri
Dative ere erlere
Locative erde erlerde
Ablative erden erlerden
Genitive erin erlerin
Possessive forms
Nominative
Singular Plural
1st singular erim erlerim
2nd singular erin erlerin
3rd singular eri erleri
1st plural erimiz erlerimiz
2nd plural eriniz erleriniz
3rd plural erleri erleri
Definite accusative
Singular Plural
1st singular erimi erlerimi
2nd singular erini erlerini
3rd singular erini erlerini
1st plural erimizi erlerimizi
2nd plural erinizi erlerinizi
3rd plural erlerini erlerini
Dative
Singular Plural
1st singular erime erlerime
2nd singular erine erlerine
3rd singular erine erlerine
1st plural erimize erlerimize
2nd plural erinize erlerinize
3rd plural erlerine erlerine
Locative
Singular Plural
1st singular erimde erlerimde
2nd singular erinde erlerinde
3rd singular erinde erlerinde
1st plural erimizde erlerimizde
2nd plural erinizde erlerinizde
3rd plural erlerinde erlerinde
Ablative
Singular Plural
1st singular erimden erlerimden
2nd singular erinden erlerinden
3rd singular erinden erlerinden
1st plural erimizden erlerimizden
2nd plural erinizden erlerinizden
3rd plural erlerinden erlerinden
Genitive
Singular Plural
1st singular erimin erlerimin
2nd singular erinin erlerinin
3rd singular erinin erlerinin
1st plural erimizin erlerimizin
2nd plural erinizin erlerinizin
3rd plural erlerinin erlerinin
Predicative forms
Singular Plural
1st singular erim erlerim
2nd singular ersin erlersin
3rd singular er
erdir
erler
erlerdir
1st plural eriz erleriz
2nd plural ersiniz erlersiniz
3rd plural erler erlerdir

Etymology 3 edit

Verb edit

er

  1. second-person singular imperative of ermek

Uzbek edit

Other scripts
Cyrillic эр (er)
Latin
Perso-Arabic

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Turkic *ēr.

Noun edit

er (plural erlar)

  1. man
    Synonym: erkak
  2. husband
    Synonym: zavj
    Antonym: xotin

Derived terms edit

Welsh edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *per- (in front). Compare Cornish er (for, by), Ancient Greek περί (perí, about, peri-), Latin per (through).[1]

Conjunction edit

er

  1. although
    • 2018 September 28, “Cymraeg y Wladfa a Chymraeg Cymru - beth yw'r gwahaniaethau?”, in BBC Cymru Fyw:
      Nid y Sbaeneg (er y byddai hynny'n syniad da hefyd) ond Cymraeg arbennig y Wladfa.
      Not Spanish (although that would also be a good idea) but the particular Welsh of Y Wladfa.
    • 2019 June 13, Llinos Lee, “Y Barri: Mwy na dim ond 'Gavin & Stacey'”, in BBC Cymru Fyw:
      Ges i fy magu yn Y Barri, ac er mod i wedi symud i ffwrdd i'r brifysgol, …
      I was brought up in Barry, and although I moved away for university, …

Preposition edit

er (triggers soft mutation)

  1. (literary) since
    Synonym: ers
  2. (archaic) in spite of, despite
    Synonym: er gwaethaf
  3. (archaic) in order to
    Synonyms: er mwyn, i
  4. (archaic) for the sake of
    Synonym: er mwyn
  5. (obsolete) because of
    Synonyms: achos, o achos, oherwydd, oblegid
  6. (obsolete) for, in exchange for
    Synonym: am
  7. (obsolete) resulting in
  8. (obsolete) through
    Synonyms: trwy, drwy

Usage notes edit

  • In very formal or literary language, er is used when a specific start time is mentioned.
Saif y castell yma er 1284.
The castle has stood here since 1284.
Y mae’r castell yn adfail er pan fu farw’r brenin olaf.
The castle has been a ruin since the last king died.
Ers is used when the beginning of the time period is not mentioned.
Mae’r castell yma ers canrifoedd.
The castle has been here for centuries.
In less formal registers, ers is used in all instances.

Derived terms edit

Inflection edit

Etymology 2 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Noun edit

er f (plural eriau)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter R.

See also edit

Mutation edit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
er unchanged unchanged her
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References edit

  1. ^ R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “er”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

West Frisian edit

Pronoun edit

er

  1. clitic form of hy used before the object or after the verb.