ihr

GermanEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (standard) IPA(key): /ʔiːɐ̯/
  • (colloquially in unstressed position) IPA(key): /ɐ/

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle High German ir, from Old High German ir, from West Germanic *jīz, variant of Proto-Germanic *jūz, from Proto-Indo-European *yū́. Cognate with Low German ji, jie, Dutch jij, gij, je, English ye, Gothic 𐌾𐌿𐍃 ‎(jūs).

PronounEdit

ihr pl

  1. you (plural, familiar)
InflectionEdit

1Often capitalized in letters

Usage notesEdit

  • This form is the plural of du, which is used chiefly towards people with whom one is privately acquainted (see there). One uses ihr towards a group of people if one would address every individual in that group with du. However, the plural ihr is somewhat less familiar than the singular du, meaning that it can sometimes be used in semi-formal situations where du towards an individual would not be appropriate. Learners should still, in any case of doubt, use Sie in order to be on the safe side.
  • The form Ihr (capitalized in writing) was formerly the polite second-person form for both singular and plural (compare French vous and Early Modern English you) and was used instead of contemporary Sie. Such usage still survives dialectally in some areas, and is encountered in historical contexts (e.g. fiction taking place in the distant past), but is otherwise rarely heard in standard German.
  • As with all personal pronouns, the genitive case is very rare. It is used only in literary and formal style with verbs such as entbehren and gedenken that take a genitive object.

Etymology 2Edit

From Old High German iru, iro

PronounEdit

ihr

  1. dative of sie
    Hast du ihr das Buch gegeben?
    Did you give her the book?

Etymology 3Edit

From Old High German ira

DeterminerEdit

ihr

  1. her (possessive)
  2. its (when the owning object/article/thing/animal etc., referred to, is feminine)
InflectionEdit
Declension of ihr
masculine feminine neuter plural
nominative ihr ihre ihr ihre
genitive ihres ihrer ihres ihrer
dative ihrem ihrer ihrem ihren
accusative ihren ihre ihr ihre

Etymology 4Edit

From Old High German iro.

DeterminerEdit

ihr

  1. their
InflectionEdit
Declension of ihr
masculine feminine neuter plural
nominative ihr ihre ihr ihre
genitive ihres ihrer ihres ihrer
dative ihrem ihrer ihrem ihren
accusative ihren ihre ihr ihre
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