a U+0061, a
LATIN SMALL LETTER A
`
[U+0060]
Basic Latin b
[U+0062]
U+1D43, ᵃ
MODIFIER LETTER SMALL A

[U+1D42]
Phonetic Extensions
[U+1D44]
U+FF41, a
FULLWIDTH LATIN SMALL LETTER A

[U+FF40]
Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms
[U+FF42]

Translingual edit

Etymology 1 edit

  Modification of capital A.

Pronunciation edit

  • (letter, most languages): IPA(key): /ɑː/, /a/ Big Nambas
  • (file)

Letter edit

a (upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the basic modern Latin alphabet.
    (superscript) See ª.

Symbol edit

a

  1. (IPA, phonetics) an open front or central unrounded vowel.
    (IPA, superscript ⟨ᵃ⟩) [a]-coloring or a weak, fleeting, epenthetic or echo [a].
  2. (international standards) transliterates Indic (or equivalent).

See also edit

Further reading edit

Etymology 2 edit

Abbreviation of atto-, from Danish atten (eighteen).

Symbol edit

a

  1. atto-, prefix for 10-18 in the International System of Units.

Etymology 3 edit

From Latin annum or annus.

Symbol edit

a

  1. Year as a unit of time, specifically a Julian year or 365.25 days.

Etymology 4 edit

Abbreviation of are, from French are.

Symbol edit

a

  1. An are, a unit of area one hundredth of a hectare; ares.

Etymology 5 edit

Abbreviation of English acceleration.

Symbol edit

a

  1. (physics) acceleration

Etymology 6 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “from annuity?”)

Symbol edit

a

  1. (actuarial notation) Annuity; (specifically) annuity-immediate.
    ax:n̅|n-year annuity-immediate to a person currently age x
    axlife annuity-immediate to a person currently age x

Other representations of A:

Gallery edit

English edit

Etymology 1 edit

 
Runic letter (a, ansuz), source for Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letters replaced by a

From Middle English and Old English lower case letter a and split of Middle English and Old English lower case letter æ.

  •   Old English lower case letter a from 7th century replacement by Latin lower case letter a of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter (a, āc), derived from Runic letter (a, Ansuz).
  •   Old English lower case letter æ from 7th century replacement by Latin lower case ligature æ of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter (æ, æsc), also derived from Runic letter (a, Ansuz).

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

a (lowercase, uppercase A, plural as or a's)

  1. The first letter of the English alphabet, written in the Latin script.
Usage notes edit
Derived terms edit
See also edit

Numeral edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The ordinal number first, derived from this letter of the English alphabet, called a and written in the Latin script.

Noun edit

a (plural aes)[1]

  1. The name of the Latin script letter A / a.
Alternative forms edit
Derived terms edit
Translations edit
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle English a, an, from Old English ān (one; a; lone; sole). More at one. The "n" was gradually lost before consonants in almost all dialects by the 15th century. Cognate with Alemannic German a (a, an), East Franconian a (a, an).

Pronunciation edit

Article edit

a (indefinite)

  1. One; any indefinite example of. [from before 1150][2]
    There was a man here looking for you yesterday.
    • 1992, Rudolf M[athias] Schuster, The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America: East of the Hundredth Meridian, volume V, New York, N.Y.: Columbia University Press, →ISBN, page vii:
      With fresh material, taxonomic conclusions are leavened by recognition that the material examined reflects the site it occupied; a herbarium packet gives one only a small fraction of the data desirable for sound conclusions. Herbarium material does not, indeed, allow one to extrapolate safely: what you see is what you get []
    • 2005, Emily Kingsley (lyricist), Kevin Clash (voice actor), “A Cookie is a Sometime Food”, Sesame Street, season 36, Sesame Workshop:
      Hoots the Owl: Yes a, fruit, is a [sic], any, time, food!
    • 2016, VOA Learning English (public domain)
      Anna, do you have a pen? — Yes. I have a pen in my bag. I have a (stressed) …
      (file)
  2. One; used before score, dozen, hundred, thousand, million, etc.
    I've seen it happen a hundred times.
  3. Used in some phrases denoting quantity, such as a few, a good many, a couple, a little (for an uncountable noun), etc.
    They asked me a few questions.
  4. Used in some adverbial phrases denoting degree or extent, such as a little, a bit, a lot, etc.
    The door was opened a little.
  5. The same; one and the same. Used in phrases such as of a kind, birds of a feather, etc.
    We are of a mind on matters of morals.
    They're two of a kind.
  6. Any; every; used before a noun which has become modified to limit its scope.[1]
    A man who dies intestate leaves his children troubles and difficulties.
  7. Any; used with a negative to indicate not a single one.[3]
    It was so dark that we couldn't see a thing.
    He fell all that way, and hasn't a bump on his head?
  8. Used before an adjective that modifies a noun (singular or plural) delimited by a numeral.
    a staggering three million dollars
    The holidays are a mere one week away.
  9. One; someone named; used before a person's name, suggesting that the speaker knows little about the person other than the name.[4]
    We've received an interesting letter from a Mrs. Miggins of London.
  10. Used before an adjective modifying a person's name.
    • 2018, “Rwandan court drops all charges against opposition figure”, in Associated Press:
      "I will continue my campaign to fight for the rights of all Rwandans," a surprised but happy Rwigara told reporters after celebrating.
  11. Someone or something like; similar to;[3] Used before a proper noun to create an example out of it.
    The center of the village was becoming a Times Square.
    The man is a regular Romeo.
Usage notes edit
  • In standard English, the article a is used before consonant sounds, while an is used before vowel sounds; for more, see the usage notes about an.
Derived terms edit
Translations edit
See also edit

Etymology 3 edit

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

a

  1. To do with separation; In, into. [from before 1150][2]
    Torn a pieces.
  2. To do with time; Each, per, in, on, by. Often occurs between two nouns, where the first noun occurs at the end of a verbal phrase.[from before 1150][2]
    I brush my teeth twice a day.
  3. To do with status; In. [from before 1150][2]
  4. (archaic) To do with position or direction; In, on, at, by, towards, onto. [from before 1150][2]
    Stand a tiptoe.
  5. (archaic) To do with process, with a passive verb; In the course of, experiencing. [from before 1150][2]
  6. (archaic) To do with an action, an active verb; Engaged in. [16th c.][2]
  7. (archaic) To do with an action/movement; To, into. [16th c.][2]
  8. (obsolete) To do with method; In, with. [from before 1150][2]
  9. (obsolete) To do with role or capacity; In. [from before 1150][2]
Usage notes edit
  • (position, direction): Can also be attached without a hyphen, as aback, ahorse, afoot. See a-
  • (separation): Can also be attached without hyphen, as asunder. See a-
  • (status): Can also be attached without hyphen, as afloat, awake. See a-.
  • (process): Can also be attached with or without hyphen, as a-changing
See also edit

Etymology 4 edit

From Middle English a, ha contraction of have, or haven.

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

a

  1. (archaic or slang) Have. [between 1150 and 1350, continued in some use until 1650; used again after 1950]
    I'd a come, if you'd a asked.
    • 1884, Robert Holland, M.R.A.C., A Glossary of Words Used in the County of Chester, volume Part I--A to F., London: English Dialect Society, page 1:
      Oi'd a gen im a clout, if oi'd been theer.
    • c. 1599–1602 (date written), William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies [] (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, (please specify the act number in uppercase Roman numerals, and the scene number in lowercase Roman numerals):
      So would I a done by yonder ſunne
      ?And thou hadſt not come to my bed.
Usage notes edit
  • Now often attached to preceding auxiliary verb. See -a.
Derived terms edit

Etymology 5 edit

From Middle English a, a reduced form of he (he)/ha (he), heo (she)/ha (she), ha (it), and hie, hie (they).

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

a

  1. (obsolete outside England and Scotland dialects) He, she, they: the third-person singular or plural nominative.[4]
    • 1855, Kingsley, W. Ho!, page 120 (edition of 1889):
      He've a got a great venture on hand, but what a [it] be he tell'th no man.
    • 1864, Tennyson, N. Farmer, Old Style, st. 2:
      Doctors, they knaws nowt, fur a [they] says what's nawways true.
    1. (obsolete outside England and Scotland dialects) He, the third-person singular nominative.
      • 1598–1599 (first performance), William Shakespeare, “Much Adoe about Nothing”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies [] (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, [Act III, scene ii]:
        a’ brushes his hat o’ mornings.
      • 1795, Peter Pindar, The Royal Visit to Exeter, a Political Epistle: by John Ploughshare ... published by Peter Pindar, Esq, page 5:
        Well! in a come [in he came]—KING GEORGE to town, / With doust and zweat az netmeg brown, / The hosses all in smoke;
      • 1860, Kite, Sng. Sol., ii, 16:
        A do veed amang th' lilies.
      • 1864, Tennyson, N. Farmer, Old Style, st. 7, version of 1917, Raymond Macdonald Alden, Alfred Tennyson, how to Know Him, page 226:
        "The amoighty's a taakin' o' you to 'issén, my friend," a said, []
    2. (obsolete outside England and Scotland dialects) She, the third-person singular nominative.
      • 1790, Grose, MS. add. (M.):
        A wanted me to go with her.
      • 1876, Bound, Prov.:
        Did a do it!
      • 1883, Hardy, Tover, page 124 (edition of 1895):
        A's getting wambling on her pins [shaky on her legs].

Etymology 6 edit

From Middle English of, with apocope of the final f and vowel reduction.

Alternative forms edit

  • o', o (preposition)

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

a

  1. (archaic or slang) Of.
    The name of John a Gaunt.
Usage notes edit
  • Often attached without a hyphen to preceding word.

Etymology 7 edit

From Northern Middle English aw, alteration of all.

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

a (not comparable)

  1. (chiefly Scotland) All. [from ca. 1350—1470]

Adjective edit

a (not comparable)

  1. (chiefly Scotland) All. [from ca. 1350—1470]

Etymology 8 edit

Symbols

Symbol edit

a

  1. Distance from leading edge to aerodynamic center.
  2. specific absorption coefficient
  3. specific rotation
  4. allele (recessive)

Etymology 9 edit

Adverb edit

a

  1. (crosswords) across
    Do you have the answer for 23a?
  2. (chiefly US) Alternative spelling of a.m. (ante meridiem) or am

Etymology 10 edit

Particle edit

a

  1. Alternative form of -a (empty syllable added to songs, poetry, verse and other speech)
    • 2001, Louis F. Newcomb, Car Salesman: A Legacy, iUniverse (→ISBN), page 91:
      “I show a you right a here I can fuck a you.” “Is she crazy?” I asked Wyman.

Etymology 11 edit

Borrowed from Russian а (a).

Noun edit

a

  1. The name of the Cyrillic script letter А / а.

Translations edit

Etymology 12 edit

Interjection edit

a

  1. ah; er (sound of hesitation)
    • 1847 January – 1848 July, William Makepeace Thackeray, Vanity Fair [], London: Bradbury and Evans [], published 1848, →OCLC:
      "We will resume yesterday's discourse, young ladies," said he, "and you shall each read a page by turns; so that Miss a—Miss Short may have an opportunity of hearing you"; and the poor girls began to spell a long dismal sermon delivered at Bethesda Chapel, Liverpool, on behalf of the mission for the Chickasaw Indians.

Etymology 13 edit

Abbreviations.

  1. (stenoscript) a word-initial letter ⟨a⟩.
  2. (stenoscript) the long vowel /eɪ/ at the end of a word, or before a final consonant that is not /dʒ, v, z/. (Note: the final consonant is not written; [ɛə˞] counts as /eɪr/.)
    Thus the word a, plus its inflection an.
  3. (stenoscript) the word a.m.
  4. (stenoscript) the prefix ad-.

Quotations edit

Additional quotations for any terms on this page may be found at Citations:a.

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Gove, Philip Babcock, (1976)
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 Brown, Lesley, (2003)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Lindberg, Christine A. (2007)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Oxford University Press, (2023)

Further reading edit

Abau edit

Pronunciation edit

IPA(key): /a/

Noun edit

a

  1. house

Afar edit

Pronunciation edit

Determiner edit

á

  1. this, these (masculine)

Derived terms edit

See also edit

See Template:aa-demonstrative determiners.

References edit

  • E. M. Parker; R. J. Hayward (1985), “a”, in An Afar-English-French dictionary (with Grammatical Notes in English), University of London, →ISBN
  • Mohamed Hassan Kamil (2015) L’afar: description grammaticale d’une langue couchitique (Djibouti, Erythrée et Ethiopie)[4], Paris: Université Sorbonne Paris Cité (doctoral thesis)

Albanian edit

Etymology 1 edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

a

  1. or
  2. there

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Albanian *(h)an, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂en (there). Cognate with Latin an (yes, perhaps). Interrogative particle, usually used proclitically in simple sentences.

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

a

  1. probably, perhaps
  2. whether

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Standard Albanian Latin-script alphabet.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (1998), “a part. ('whether'), conj. ('or')”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden; Boston; Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 1
  2. ^ Mann, S. E. (1948), “a”, in An Historical Albanian–English Dictionary, London: Longmans, Green & Co., page 1

Further reading edit

  • “a”, in FGJSSH: Fjalor i gjuhës së sotme shqipe [Dictionary of the modern Albanian language]‎[5] (in Albanian), 1980
  • a”, in FGJSH: Fjalor i gjuhës shqipe [Dictionary of the Albanian language] (in Albanian), 2006

Ama edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

a

  1. tree

Anguthimri edit

Verb edit

a

  1. (transitive, Mpakwithi) to pull

References edit

  • Terry Crowley, The Mpakwithi dialect of Anguthimri (1981), page 184

Aragonese edit

Etymology edit

From Latin illa.

Article edit

a f sg

  1. the
    a luenga aragonesathe Aragonese language

Asturian edit

Etymology edit

From Latin ad.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

a

  1. to, towards

Derived terms edit

Noun edit

a f

  1. a (the name of the letter A, a)

Azerbaijani edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Azerbaijani alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Bambara edit

Article edit

a

  1. the (definite article).

Interjection edit

a

  1. ah (expression of surprise)
  2. eh (expression of reluctance)

Pronoun edit

a

  1. they, them (plural)
  2. he, she, they (singular)

Synonyms edit

  • (they): u

Basque edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Basque alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Noun edit

a (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter A.

See also edit

Bavarian edit

Etymology 1 edit

Cognate with German ein and eine.

Pronunciation edit

Article edit

a

  1. a
See also edit
  • oa (one, determiner)

Etymology 2 edit

Unstressed form of ea

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

a

  1. he
See also edit

Etymology 3 edit

Cognate with German auch.

Adverb edit

a

  1. Alternative form of aa: also, too, as well

Belizean Creole edit

Preposition edit

a

  1. of

References edit

  • Crosbie, Paul, ed. (2007), Kriol-Inglish Dikshineri: English-Kriol Dictionary. Belize City: Belize Kriol Project, p. 19.

Big Nambas edit

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

a

  1. in

References edit

Breton edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Brythonic *o, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂pó.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

a (triggers soft mutation)

  1. from (expresses origin)
    tud a Vrestpeople from Brest
  2. of (indicates an amount)
    un tamm brav a giga nice piece of meat
  3. of (expresses a quality)
    ur plac’h a enora girl of honour
  4. after certain adjectives or adverbs expressing quantity
    ur voutailh leun a sistra bottle full of cider
  5. after ordinal numbers with a plural noun
    tri a vugalethree children
  6. used in negative sentences with the grammatical object
    nʼem eus ket ken a vutunI donʼt have any more tobacco
  7. before the infinitive after certain verbs like paouez, mirout, diwall, c'hwitañ
    paouezet eo ar glav a gouezhañit has stopped raining [lit. the rain has stopped falling]
  8. after substantivized adjectives used as nouns
    ur vrav a blacʼha pretty girl
  9. combined with a personal pronoun
    gwelet em boa acʼhanoutI saw you
    an den a gomzan anezhañthe man Iʼm talking about
Inflection edit

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

a (triggers soft mutation)

  1. preverbal particle used when
    1. the subject precedes the verb
      ar mor a zo glasthe sea is blue
    2. the object precedes the verb
      an den-se a glevanI hear that man

Pronoun edit

a (triggers soft mutation)

  1. (relative) that, which, who (used in 'direct' relative clauses, i.e. where the pronoun refers to the subject or the direct object of an inflected verb)
    an hini a garanthe one whom I love

Cameroon Pidgin edit

Pronoun edit

a

  1. Alternative spelling of I (1st person singular subject personal pronoun)

Catalan edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Catalan alphabet, written in the Latin script.
Derived terms edit
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Latin ad.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

a

  1. in, at; indicating a particular time or place
    Sóc a Barcelona.
    I am in Barcelona.
  2. to; indicating movement towards a particular place
    Vaig a Barcelona.
    I'm going to Barcelona.
  3. to; indicating a target or indirect object
    Escric una carta a la meva àvia.
    I'm writing my grandmother a letter.
  4. per
  5. by
    dia a dia.
    day by day.
Usage notes edit
  • When the preposition a is followed by a masculine definite article, el or els, it is contracted with it to the forms al and als respectively. If el would be elided to the form l’ because it is before a word beginning with a vowel, the elision to a l’ takes precedence over contracting to al.

The same occurs with the salat article es, to form as except where es would be elided to s’.

Derived terms edit

Chayuco Mixtec edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Conjunction edit

a

  1. or

References edit

  • Pensinger, Brenda J. (1974) Diccionario mixteco-español, español-mixteco (Serie de vocabularios y diccionarios indígenas “Mariano Silva y Aceves”; 18)‎[6] (in Spanish), México, D.F.: El Instituto Lingüístico de Verano en coordinación con la Secretaría de Educación Pública a través de la Dirección General de Educación Extraescolar en el Medio Indígena, pages 3, 110

Chibcha edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

a

  1. open mouth
  2. smell, taste

References edit

  • Gómez Aldana D. F., Análisis morfológico del Vocabulario 158 de la Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia. Grupo de Investigación Muysccubun. 2013.

Choctaw edit

Conjunction edit

a

  1. yes

Chuukese edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

a

  1. he
  2. she
  3. it

Adjective edit

a

  1. he is
  2. she is
  3. it is

Related terms edit

Present and past tense Negative tense Future Negative future Distant future Negative determinate
Singular First person ua use upwe usap upwap ute
Second person ka, ke kose, kese kopwe, kepwe kosap, kesap kopwap, kepwap kote, kete
Third person a ese epwe esap epwap ete
Plural First person aua (exclusive)
sia (inclusive)
ause (exclusive)
sise (inclusive)
aupwe (exclusive)
sipwe (inclusive)
ausap (exclusive)
sisap (inclusive)
aupwap (exclusive)
sipwap (inclusive)
aute (exclusive)
site (inclusive)
Second person oua ouse oupwe ousap oupwap oute
Third person ra, re rese repwe resap repwap rete


Cimbrian edit

Alternative forms edit

  • an (Sette Comuni)

Etymology edit

From Middle High German ein, from Old High German ein, from Proto-West Germanic *ain.

Article edit

a (oblique masculine an)

  1. (Luserna) a, an
    Maria iz a lavròunaren.Maria is a Lavaronese.

References edit

Coatepec Nahuatl edit

Noun edit

a

  1. water

Cora edit

Particle edit

a

  1. outside
  2. out of view (from the speaker)
  3. entering a shallow domain; entering a domain in a shallow or restricted manner
    atyásuuna káasu hece
    The water is pouring into the (shallow) pan.

Antonyms edit

  • u (inside; within view)

References edit

  • Eugene Casad; Ronald Langacker (1985), “'Inside' and 'outside' in Cora grammar”, in International Journal of American Linguistics

Cornish edit

Etymology 1 edit

Onomatopoeic

Pronunciation edit

Interjection edit

a

  1. ah

Etymology 2 edit

Compare Welsh a

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

a (triggers soft mutation)

  1. Inserted before the verb when a subject or direct object precedes the verb

Etymology 3 edit

From Proto-Brythonic *o, from Proto-Celtic *ɸo, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂pó.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

a (triggers soft mutation)

  1. of (expressing separation, origin, composition/substance or a quality)
  2. of (between a preceding large number and a following plural noun to express quantity)
  3. from (indicating provenance)

Inflection edit

Corsican edit

Etymology edit

From the earlier la.

Pronunciation edit

Article edit

a f (masculine u, masculine plural i, feminine plural e)

  1. the (feminine)

Usage notes edit

  • Before a vowel, a turns into l'

Pronoun edit

a f

  1. her, it (direct object)

Usage notes edit

  • Before a vowel, a turns into l'

See also edit

References edit

  • a” in INFCOR: Banca di dati di a lingua corsa

Czech edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Czech a, from Proto-Slavic *a, from Proto-Balto-Slavic .

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

a

  1. and

Further reading edit

  • a in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • a in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Dakota edit

Pronunciation edit

IPA(key): /a/

Letter edit

a (uppercase A)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

See also edit

Dalmatian edit

Etymology edit

From Latin ad.

Preposition edit

a

  1. to
  2. at

Danish edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Danish alphabet, written in the Latin script.
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

a n (singular definite a'et, plural indefinite a'er)

  1. The name of the letter A or a.
Inflection edit

Etymology 3 edit

Alternative forms edit

  • à (unofficial but common)

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

a

  1. of, of...each, each containing
  2. at
  3. to, or

Etymology 4 edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

a

  1. imperative of ae

Dutch edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Dutch alphabet, written in the Latin script.
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle Dutch â, from Old Dutch ā, from Proto-Germanic *ahwō.

Alternative forms edit

  • aa (especially in names)
  • ie

Noun edit

a f (plural a's, diminutive aatje)

  1. (archaic) a stream or water
Related terms edit

Further reading edit

Etymology 3 edit

From Middle Dutch jou, from Old Dutch *jū, a northern (Frisian?) variant of *iu, from Proto-Germanic *iwwiz, a West Germanic variant of *izwiz. Doublet of u.

Pronoun edit

a

  1. (Brabant) you
Synonyms edit

Egyptian edit

Romanization edit

a

  1. Manuel de Codage transliteration of .

Emilian edit

Etymology edit

From Latin ego (I).

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

a (personal, nominative case)

  1. I
  2. we
  3. you (plural)

Alternative forms edit

  • Becomes aj- before a vowel (proclitic).
  • Becomes -ja when acting as an enclitic.

Related terms edit

Esperanto edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Esperanto alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Noun edit

a (accusative singular a-on, plural a-oj, accusative plural a-ojn)

  1. The name of the Latin script letter A/a.

See also edit

Estonian edit

Etymology 1 edit

 a on Estonian Wikipedia

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Estonian alphabet, called aa and written in the Latin script.
See also edit

Noun edit

a (genitive a or a', partitive a-d or a'd)

  1. The letter a (the first letter of the Estonian alphabet)
  2. (music) A (note)
    Synonym: la
Declension edit
Declension of a (ÕS type 26i/idee, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative a- a-d
accusative nom.
gen. a-
genitive a-de
partitive a-d a-id
a-sid
illative a-sse a-desse
a-isse
inessive a-s a-des
a-is
elative a-st a-dest
a-ist
allative a-le a-dele
a-ile
adessive a-l a-del
a-il
ablative a-lt a-delt
a-ilt
translative a-ks a-deks
a-iks
terminative a-ni a-deni
essive a-na a-dena
abessive a-ta a-deta
comitative a-ga a-dega

(music):

Declension of a (ÕS type 26i/idee, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative a' a'd
accusative nom.
gen. a'
genitive a'de
partitive a'd a'id
a'sid
illative a'sse a'desse
a'isse
inessive a's a'des
a'is
elative a'st a'dest
a'ist
allative a'le a'dele
a'ile
adessive a'l a'del
a'il
ablative a'lt a'delt
a'ilt
translative a'ks a'deks
a'iks
terminative a'ni a'deni
essive a'na a'dena
abessive a'ta a'deta
comitative a'ga a'dega

Etymology 2 edit

Clipping of aga. Probably influenced by Russian а.

Conjunction edit

a

  1. (colloquial, in fast speech) but

Etymology 3 edit

Noun edit

a

  1. Abbreviation of aasta.
  2. Abbreviation of aar.

References edit

  • a in Sõnaveeb
  • M. Langemets, M. Tiits, T. Valdre, L. Veskis, Ü. Viks, P. Voll, editors (2009), “a”, in [EKSS] Eesti keele seletav sõnaraamat [Descriptive Dictionary of the Estonian Language]‎[7] (online dictionary, in Estonian), 2nd edition, Tallinn: Eesti Keele Sihtasutus (Estonian Language Foundation)

Fala edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese á, from Latin illa (that).

Article edit

a f sg (plural as, masculine u or o, masculine plural us or os)

  1. Feminine singular definite article; the
    • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Chapter 1: Lengua Española:
      A grandeda da lengua española é indiscotibli, i sei estudio, utilización defensa debin sel algo consostancial a nos, []
      The greatness of the Spanish language is unquestionable, and its study, use and defense must be something consubstantial to us, []

Pronoun edit

a

  1. Third person singular feminine accusative pronoun; her
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese a, from Latin ad (to).

Preposition edit

a

  1. to
    • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Chapter 1: Lengua Española:
      A grandeda da lengua española é indiscotibli, i sei estudio, utilización defensa debin sel algo consostancial a nos, []
      The greatness of the Spanish language is unquestionable, and its study, use and defense must be something consubstantial to us, []

References edit

  • Valeš, Miroslav (2021) Diccionariu de A Fala: lagarteiru, mañegu, valverdeñu (web)[8], 2nd edition, Minde, Portugal: CIDLeS, published 2022, →ISBN

Faroese edit

Etymology edit

From Latin a.

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

a (upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Faroese alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Finnish edit

Etymology 1 edit

The Finnish orthography using the Latin script was based on those of Swedish, German and Latin, and was first used in the mid-16th century. No earlier script is known. See the Wikipedia article on Finnish for more information, and a for information on the development of the glyph itself.

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Finnish alphabet, written in the Latin script.
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

German musical notation.

Noun edit

a

  1. (music) A (note)
Usage notes edit

Capitalized for the great octave or any octave below that, or in names of major keys; not capitalized for the small octave or any octave above that, or in names of minor keys.

Declension edit

Franco-Provençal edit

Etymology edit

From Latin ad.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

a

  1. to
  2. at

French edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the French alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Noun edit

a m or f (plural as)

  1. a, the name of the Latin-script letter A

Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Quebec eye-dialect spelling of elle.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

a f

  1. (Quebec, colloquial) alternative form of elle (she)
    C’te fille-là, a’a l’air cute.
    That girl, she looks cute.

Etymology 3 edit

From Old French a, at from Vulgar Latin *at, from Latin habet.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

a

  1. third-person singular present indicative of avoir
    Elle a un chat.
    She has a cat.

See also edit

Further reading edit

Fula edit

Etymology 1 edit

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Fula alphabet, written in the Latin script.
Usage notes edit
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Pronoun edit

a

  1. you (second person singular subject pronoun; short form)
Usage notes edit
  • Common to all varieties of Fula (Fulfulde / Pulaar / Pular).
  • Used in all conjugations except the affirmative non-accomplished, where the long form is used instead.
See also edit
  • aɗa (second person singular subject pronoun; long form), hiɗa (variant used in the Pular dialect of Futa Jalon)
  • aan (emphatic form) (Maasina)
  • an (emphatic form) (Pular)
  • maaɗa (second person singular possessive pronoun (Adamawa))
  • -maa (second person singular dependent pronoun (Adamawa))

Galician edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Latin ad (to, toward).

Pronunciation edit

IPA(key): /a̝/

Preposition edit

a

  1. to, toward; indicating direction of motion
  2. introducing an indirect object
  3. used to indicate the time of an action
  4. (with de) to, until; used to indicate the end of a range
    de cinco a oitofrom five to eight
  5. by, on, by means of; expresses a mode of action
    aon foot
  6. for; indicates price or cost
Usage notes edit

The preposition a regularly forms contractions when it precedes the definite article o, a, os, and as. For example, a o ("to the") contracts to ao or ó, and a a ("to the") contracts to á.

Derived terms edit
at/to + the table
- Singular Plural
Masculine ao (ó) aos (ós)
Feminine á ás

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese a, from Latin illa, feminine of ille (that).

Pronunciation edit

IPA(key): /a̝/

Article edit

a f (masculine singular o, feminine plural as, masculine plural os)

  1. (definite) the
Usage notes edit

The definite article o (in all its forms) regularly forms contractions when it follows the prepositions a (to), con (with), de (of, from), and en (in). For example, con a (with the) contracts to coa, and en a (in the) contracts to na.

Also, the definite article presents a second form that could be represented as <-lo/-la/-los/-las>, or either lack any specific representation. Its origin is in the assimilation of the last consonant of words ended in -s or -r, due to sandhi, with the /l/ present in the article in pre-Galician-Portuguese period. So Vou comer o caldo or Vou come-lo caldo are representations of /ˈβowˈkomelo̝ˈkaldo̝/ ("I'm going to have my soup"). This phenomenon, rare in Portuguese, is already documented in 13th century Medieval Galician texts, as the Cantigas de Santa Maria.[1]

Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Pronunciation edit

IPA(key): /ˈa/

Noun edit

a m (plural as)

  1. a (name of the letter A, a)

Etymology 4 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronoun edit

a

  1. accusative of ela
Usage notes edit

Due to sandhi, the accusative form o (in all its forms) regularly changes to -lo after verbal forms ended in r or s, and to -no after verbal forms ended in a semivowel:

  • Eu apagueina 'I quenched it' < apaguei‿a
  • Ti apagáchela 'You quenched it' < apagaches‿a
  • El apagouna 'He quenched it' < apagou‿a
  • Nós apagámola 'We quenched it' < apagamos‿a
  • Temos de apagala 'We must quench it' < apagar‿a

References edit

  1. ^ Vaz Leão, Ângela (2000), “Questões de linguagem nas Cantigas de Santa Maria, de Afonso X”, in Scripta[1], volume 4, issue 7, →DOI, retrieved 16 November 2017, pages 11-24

German edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the German alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Noun edit

a n (strong, genitive a or as, plural a or as)

  1. Alternative form of A

Etymology 2 edit

Noun edit

a

  1. Abbreviation of a-Moll.
  2. Abbreviation of Ar.

Gilbertese edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Oceanic *pat, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əpat, from Proto-Austronesian *Səpat.

Pronunciation edit

Numeral edit

a

  1. four

Gothic edit

Romanization edit

a

  1. Romanization of 𐌰

Grass Koiari edit

Pronoun edit

a

  1. you (singular)

References edit

  • 2010, Terry Crowley & Claire Bowern, An Introduction to Historical Linguistics, fourth edition, Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 142.

Gun edit

Etymology edit

Cognates include Fon à.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

à

  1. you (second-person singular subject pronoun)

See also edit

Gungbe personal pronouns
Number Person Emphatic Pronoun Subject Pronoun Object Pronoun Possessive Determiner
Singular First nyɛ́, yẹ́n ùn, n mi , ṣié
Second jɛ̀, jẹ̀, yẹ̀, hiẹ̀ à tòwè
Third éɔ̀, úɔ̀, éwọ̀ é è étɔ̀n, étọ̀n
Plural First mílɛ́, mílẹ́ mítɔ̀n, mítọ̀n
Second mìlɛ́, mìlẹ́ mìtɔ̀n, mìtọ̀n
Third yélɛ́, yélẹ́ yétɔ̀n, yétọ̀n

Haitian Creole edit

Pronunciation edit

IPA(key): /a/

Article edit

a

  1. the, definite article

Usage notes edit

This term only follows words that end with an oral (non-nasal) consonant and an oral vowel in that order, and can only modify singular nouns.

See also edit

Hawaiian edit

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

a

  1. and (used between sentences)
  2. until, up to

Preposition edit

a

  1. of, belonging to

Usage notes edit

  • Used for acquired possessions, while o is used for possessions that are inherited, out of personal control, and for things that can be got into (houses, clothes, cars).

Hungarian edit

Etymology 1 edit

See az.

Pronunciation edit

Article edit

a (definite)

  1. the
    a hölgythe lady
  2. (before some time phrases) this
    a héten(during) this week
    a télen(in) this winter
Usage notes edit

Used before words starting with a consonant.

Related terms edit
  • az (for words starting with a vowel sound)

Pronoun edit

a (demonstrative)

  1. (in reduplicated constructions formed with postpositions) that
    A mellett a ház mellett vártam rá.I waited for him/her next to that house.

Determiner edit

a (demonstrative)

  1. (rare, only in consonant-initial fixed phrases, with zero article) Alternative form of az (that).
    Foglalja össze, miről szóltak az a heti beszédek és leckék.[1]Summarize what that week’s sermons and lessons were about.
    November 12-én, az a havi frissítőkedden jelenhet meg.It may be released on November 12th, on the Patch Tuesday of that month.
    Kérjük szíves tájékoztatásukat a tekintetben, hogy… (abban a tekintetben, see az)We kindly request your information in that [= the] aspect…
    amondó vagyok, hogy…I am of the opinion that…, what/all I can / want to say is that… (literally, “I am that-sayer/-saying…”)

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (letter or phoneme itself): IPA(key): [ˈɒː][2]
  • (identifier or musical note): IPA(key): [ˈaː] (in the names of minor scales; see also A)

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Hungarian alphabet, written in the Latin script.
  2. (music) designation of the sixth note from C and the corresponding tone
Derived terms edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a heti at e-nyelv.hu
  2. ^ Siptár, Péter and Miklós Törkenczy. The Phonology of Hungarian. The Phonology of the World’s Languages. Oxford University Press, 2007. →ISBN, p. 280

Further reading edit

Icelandic edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

a (upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Icelandic alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Noun edit

a ?

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter A.

See also edit

Ido edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (context pronunciation, letter name) IPA(key): /a/

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Ido alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Noun edit

a (plural a-i)

  1. The name of the Latin script letter A/a.

See also edit

Preposition edit

a

  1. Apocopic form of ad

Related terms edit

  • e (and)
  • o (or)

Igbo edit

Letter edit

a (upper case A, lower case a)

  1. The first letter of the Igbo alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Etymology 1 edit

Alternative forms edit

  • e (neutral tongue position)

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

a

  1. (indefinite) somebody, one, they, people (an unspecified individual).
    A gwara ya ka ọ bịa.
    He/she was told to come.
Usage notes edit
  • Often gets translated into English with the passive voice.
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

Determiner edit

a

  1. this.
Related terms edit

Indo-Portuguese edit

Etymology edit

From Portuguese a.

Pronunciation edit

  • (Sri Lankan Creole) IPA(key): /a/, /ə/

Preposition edit

a

  1. to
    • 1883, Hugo Schuchardt, Kreolische Studien, volume 3 (overall work in German):
      [] , que da-cá su quião que ta pertencê a êll.
      [] , to give him his share which belongs to him.

Indonesian edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (letter name): IPA(key): /ˈa/, [ˈa]
  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /a/

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Indonesian alphabet, called id and written in the Latin script.
  2. The name of the Latin-script letter A/a.

See also edit

Further reading edit

Ingrian edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Russian а (a).

Pronunciation edit

Conjunction edit

a

  1. and, but
    • 1936, N. A. Iljin and V. I. Junus, Bukvari iƶoroin șkouluja vart, Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 17:
      A siä Jaakko, kuhu määt?
      And you Jaakko, where are you going?
    • 1936, L. G. Terehova, V. G. Erdeli, translated by Mihailov and P. I. Maksimov, Geografia: oppikirja iƶoroin alkușkoulun kolmatta klaassaa vart (ensimäine osa), Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-Pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 7:
      keskipäivääl hää [päivyt] on kaikkiin ylemmääl, a siis alkaa laskiissa.
      on midday it [the Sun] is highest, and then it starts to descend.

References edit

  • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 1

Interlingua edit

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

a

  1. to, at
  2. to, for (indicating purpose)
    sala a attenderwaiting room

Derived terms edit

Inupiaq edit

Pronunciation edit

Interjection edit

a

  1. listen, hark
  2. oops (used to acknowledge an error)
  3. oh (used to express surprise)

Irish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Irish a, from Proto-Celtic *esyo (the final vowel triggering lenition), feminine Proto-Celtic *esyās (the final -s triggering h-prothesis), plural Proto-Celtic *ēsom (the final nasal triggering eclipsis), all from the genitive forms of Proto-Indo-European *éy. Cognate with Welsh ei.

Determiner edit

a (triggers lenition)

  1. his, its
    a athair agus a mháthairhis father and mother
    Chaill an t-éan a chleití.
    The bird lost its feathers.

Determiner edit

a (triggers h-prothesis)

  1. her, its
    a hathair agus a máthairher father and mother
    Bhris an mheaig a heiteog.
    The magpie broke its wing.

Determiner edit

a (triggers eclipsis)

  1. their
    a n-athair agus a máthairtheir father and mother
    a dtithetheir houses
    a n-ainmneachatheir names
  2. (Connacht) our
  3. (Connacht) your (plural)
See also edit

Determiner edit

a (triggers lenition)

  1. how (used with an abstract noun)
    A ghéire a labhair sí!
    How sharply she spoke!
    A fheabhas atá sé!
    How good it is!

Etymology 2 edit

A reduced form of older do (itself a reanalysis of do used in past tenses, and also present in early modern verbs like do-bheirim (I give), do-chím (I see)), or from the preverb a- in early modern verbs like a-tú (I am), a-deirim (I say) in relative clauses.

Particle edit

a (triggers lenition except of d’ and of past autonomous forms)

  1. introduces a direct relative clause, takes the independent form of an irregular verb
    an fear a chuireann síolthe man who sows seed
    an síol a chuireann an fearthe seed that the man sows
    an síol a cuireadhthe seed that was sown
    nuair a bhí mé ógwhen I was young
    an cat a d'ól an bainnethe cat that drank the milk

References edit

  • Gerald O’Nolan (1920) Studies in Modern Irish[9], volume 1, pages 89, 93–94

Etymology 3 edit

From Old Irish a (that, which the relative particle used after prepositions), reanalyzed as an independent indirect relative particle from forms like ar a (on which, on whom), (to which, to whom), or early modern le a (with which, with whom), agá (at which, at whom) when prepositional pronouns started to be repeated in such clauses (eg. don té agá mbíon cloidheamh (…) aige, daoine agá mbíonn grádh aco do Dhia). Compare the forms used in Munster instead: go (from agá (at which)) and na (from i n-a (in which), go n-a (with which), ria n-a (before which) and later lena (with which), tréna (through which)).

Particle edit

a (triggers eclipsis, takes the dependent form of an irregular verb; not used in the past tense except with some irregular verbs)

  1. introduces an indirect relative clause
    an bord a raibh leabhar airthe table on which there was a book
    an fear a bhfuil a mhac ag imeachtthe man whose son is going away
Related terms edit
  • ar (used with the past tense of regular and some irregular verbs)

Pronoun edit

a (triggers eclipsis, takes the dependent form of an irregular verb; not used in the past tense except with some irregular verbs)

  1. all that, whatever
    Sin a bhfuil ann.
    That's all that is there.
    An bhfuair tú a raibh uait?
    Did you get all that you wanted?
    Íocfaidh mé as a gceannóidh tú.
    I will pay for whatever you buy.
Related terms edit
  • ar (used with the past tense of regular and some irregular verbs)

References edit

  • Nicholas Williams (1994), “Na Canúintí a Theacht chun Solais”, in K. McCone, D. McManus, C. Ó Háinle, N. Williams, L. Breatnach, editors, Stair na Gaeilge: in ómós do P[h]ádraig Ó Fiannachta (in Irish), Maynooth: Roinn na Sean-Ghaeilge, Coláiste Phádraig, →ISBN, page 464: “Tháinig nós chun cinn sa 17ú haois freisin an réamhfhocal a dhúbláil: don té agá mbíonn cloidheamh..aige; daoine agá mbíonn grádh aco do Dhia (Ó Cuív, 1952b, 177), an tí ag a bhfuil a bheag do chuntabhairt aige (Williams, 1986, 155).”
  • Gerald O’Nolan (1934) The New Era Grammar of Modern Irish, The Educational Company of Ireland Ltd., page 56

Etymology 4 edit

Particle edit

a (triggers lenition)

  1. introduces a vocative
    A Dhia!
    O God!
    A dhuine uasail!
    Sir!
    Tar isteach, a Sheáin.
    Come in, Seán.
    A amadáin!
    You fool!

Etymology 5 edit

Particle edit

a (triggers h-prothesis)

  1. introduces a numeral
    a haon, a dó, a trí...one, two, three...
    Séamas aJames the Second
    bus a seachtbus seven

Etymology 6 edit

Originally a reduced form of do.

Preposition edit

a (plus dative, triggers lenition)

  1. to (used with verbal nouns)
    síol a churto sow seed
    uisce a ólto drink water
    an rud atá sé a scríobhwhat he is writing
    D’éirigh sé a chaint.
    He rose to speak.
    Téigh a chodladh.
    Go to sleep.

Mutation edit

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
a n-a ha not applicable
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading edit

Istriot edit

Etymology edit

From Latin ad.

Preposition edit

a

  1. at
    • 1877, Antonio Ive, Canti popolari istriani: raccolti a Rovigno, volume 5, Ermanno Loescher, page 99:
      A poûpa, a prùa a xì doûto bandere,
      At the stern, at the bow everything is flags,

Particle edit

a

  1. emphasises a verb; mandatory with impersonal verbs
    • 1877, Antonio Ive, Canti popolari istriani: raccolti a Rovigno, volume 5, Ermanno Loescher, page 99:
      A poûpa, a prùa a xì doûto bandere,
      At the stern, at the bow everything is flags,

Italian edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Latin ā (the name of the letter A).

Letter edit

a f or m (invariable, lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Italian alphabet, called a and written in the Latin script.

Noun edit

a f (invariable)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter A.; a
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Latin ad. In a few phrases, a stems from Latin ā, ab.

Preposition edit

a

  1. Indicates the indirect object. to
    Porta questo cesto alla nonna.
    Bring this basket to grandma.
    Ai gatti piacciono i pesci.
    Cats like fish.
    (literally, “Fish are pleasable to cats.”)
    E lo chiedi a me?
    You're asking that to me?
  2. Indicates the place, used in some contexts, in others in is used. in, to
    Andiamo a casa?
    Can we go home?
    (literally, “Can we go to home?”)
    Ora sto a Palermo, a Roma ci torno domani.
    I'm in Palermo now, I'll go back to Rome tomorrow.
  3. Denotes the manner. with
    appena, a nuoto, a piedi, a casoalmost, swimming, by foot, randomly
  4. Forms adverbs meaning in a manner related or resembling ~.
    a cappella, a bestia, a braccio, a pennello, etc.(please add an English translation of this usage example)
  5. Forms goodbye formulas from the time the persons will meet again. see you...
    A domani!See you tomorrow!
    A dopo!See you later!
    Al prossimo Natale!See you next Christmas!
  6. Introduces the ingredients of a dish, perfume, etc. with
    pasta all'uovopasta with eggs
    cornetto al cioccolatochocolate croissant
    shampoo al limonelemon shampoo
    patatine alla pizzapizza-flavoured crisps
  7. (central-southern Italy) Denotes the direct object, but only if it's not preceded by articles
    Chiama a Paolo.
    Call Paolo.
    E non ci avevi visto a noi?
    And you didn't see us?
    the "us" here is repeated twice for emphasis
    Ascolti a me, signó!
    Listen to me, ma'am!
  8. (followed by the definite article) Forms an interjection that gives an instruction or calls attention to something.
    Al ladro!Thief!
    Al fuoco!Fire!
    Al lupo!Wolf!
    All'attacco!Attack!
    All'arrembaggio!Assault! (yelled by pirates)
  9. (regional) Forms continuous tense when preceded by stare and followed by verb infinitives. -ing. The standard language for this scope uses gerunds.
    che stai a dì?what are you saying?
    stavo a dormìI was sleeping
  10. Repeated indicates the amount by which something grows. by
    a due a duetwo by two; in pairs
    a poco a pocolittle by little
  11. Indicates the agent of a verb in some contexts. by. Sometimes interchangable with da.
    L'ho sentito dire a Livia.
    I heard Livia say it.
    (literally, “I heard it said by Livia.”)
    • c. 1909, Luigi Pirandello, chapter 2.3, in I vecchi e i giovani:
      Mi duole, creda, sinceramente, veder fare a un uomo come lei, per cui ho tanta stima, una figura... non bella, via! non bella.
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
Usage notes edit
  • When followed by a word that begins with a vowel sound, the form ad is used instead.
  • When followed by the definite article, a combines with the article to produce the following combined forms:
a + article Combined form
a + il al
a + lo allo
a + l' all'
a + i ai
a + gli agli
a + la alla
a + le alle
Descendants edit
  • Norwegian Bokmål: a (learned)

Etymology 3 edit

Verb edit

a

  1. Misspelling of ha.

References edit


Further reading edit

Japanese edit

Romanization edit

a

  1. Rōmaji transcription of
  2. Rōmaji transcription of

Jersey Dutch edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /ʊ/, /ɑ/

Letter edit

a

  1. A letter of the Jersey Dutch alphabet, written in the Latin script.

K'iche' edit

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

a

  1. masculine youth indicator

Adverb edit

a

  1. (interrogatory) indicator of a question

Pronoun edit

a

  1. your

References edit

Kabuverdianu edit

Letter edit

a (uppercase A)

  1. The first letter of the Kabuverdianu alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Kabyle edit

Alternative forms edit

Determiner edit

a

  1. this
    a rgaz a
    this man

Kalasha edit

Etymology edit

From Sanskrit अहम् (ahám).

Pronoun edit

a (Arabicآ⁩)

  1. I (1st-person personal pronoun)

See also edit

Kapampangan edit

Ligature edit

a

  1. Connects adjectives to nouns.
    Romantiku a bengi.
    A romantic night.
    Pinakapalsintan a tau.
    The person I love the most.
    Mayap a abak.
    Good morning.
    Mayap a bengi.
    Good night.
    Dakal a salamat.
    Thank you very much.

See also edit

Kari'na edit

Pronunciation edit

Interjection edit

a

  1. ah, aah

References edit

  • Courtz, Hendrik (2008) A Carib grammar and dictionary[10], Toronto: Magoria Books, →ISBN, page 213
  • Yamada, Racquel-María (2010), “a”, in Speech community-based documentation, description, and revitalization: Kari’nja in Konomerume, University of Oregon, page 707

Kashubian edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈa/
  • Syllabification: a

Etymology 1 edit

The Kashubian orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the Kashubian alphabet article on Wikipedia for more, and a for development of the glyph itself.

Letter edit

a (lowercase, uppercase A)

  1. The first letter of the Kashubian alphabet, called a and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *a.

Conjunction edit

a

  1. and (used to continue a previous statement or to add to it)

Noun edit

a n (indeclinable)

  1. (music) a (note)

Etymology 3 edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *a.

Interjection edit

a

  1. interjection that expresses various emotions; ah!

Further reading edit

  • Stefan Ramułt (1893), “a”, in Słownik języka pomorskiego czyli kaszubskiego, page 1
  • Bernard Sychta (1967-1973), “a, a!”, in Słownik gwar kaszubskich, volume 1, page 1
  • Eùgeniusz Gòłąbk (2011), “a”, in Słownik Polsko-Kaszubski / Słowôrz Pòlskò-Kaszëbsczi, volume 1, page 9
  • A, a”, in Internetowi Słowôrz Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka [Internet Dictionary of the Kashubian Language], Fundacja Kaszuby, 2022
  • a!”, in Internetowi Słowôrz Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka [Internet Dictionary of the Kashubian Language], Fundacja Kaszuby, 2022

Kayan edit

Letter edit

a

  1. a the first letter of Kayan alphabet.

Pronoun edit

a

  1. used for he, she, third person.

Koitabu edit

Pronoun edit

a

  1. you (singular)

References edit

  • Terry Crowley, Claire Bowern, An Introduction to Historical Linguistics

Krisa edit

Pronunciation edit

IPA(key): /a/

Noun edit

a m

  1. pig
    Nana a doma.
    I shot your pig.

References edit

  • Donohue, Mark and San Roque, Lila. I'saka: a sketch grammar of a language of north-central New Guinea. (Pacific Linguistics, 554.) (2004).

Ladin edit

Etymology edit

From Latin a.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

a

  1. in
  2. at
  3. to

Derived terms edit

Lashi edit

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

a

  1. not

References edit

  • Hkaw Luk (2017) A grammatical sketch of Lacid[11], Chiang Mai: Payap University (master thesis)

Latgalian edit

Etymology edit

Ultimately from Proto-Balto-Slavic . The source is not clear:

  • Probably borrowed from a Slavic language (compare Russian а (a) and Belarusian а (a)).
  • Alternatively, irregularly shortened from *ā, inherited from .

Compare Lithuanian o.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ˈa]
  • Hyphenation: a

Conjunction edit

a f

  1. and, but

References edit

  • A. Andronov; L. Leikuma (2008) Latgalīšu-Latvīšu-Krīvu sarunu vuordineica, Lvava, →ISBN

Latin edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Ancient Greek Α (A, alpha), likely through Etruscan.

Pronunciation edit

(letter name):

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. (sometimes with littera) the first letter of the Latin alphabet.
    littera athe letter a

Etymology 2 edit

From Etruscan.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

ā f (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the letter A.
Coordinate terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Alternative form of ab by apocope (not used before a vowel or h).

Alternative forms edit

  • à (earlier in New Latin)
  • ab

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

ā (+ ablative)

  1. (indicating ablation) from, away from, out of
    • c. 52 BCE, Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 1.1:
      Gallōs ab Aquītānīs Garumna flūmen, ā Belgīs Matrona et Sēquana dīvidit.
      The river Garonne separates the Gauls from the Aquitani; the Marne and the Seine (separate them) from the Belgae.
  2. (indicating ablation) down from
  3. (indicating agency: source of action or event) by, by means of
    • 45 BCE, Cicero, De finibus bonorum et malorum 1.2:
      Quamquam philosophiae quidem vituperātōribus satis respōnsum est eō librō, quō ā nōbīs philosophia dēfēnsa et collaudāta est, cum esset accūsāta et vituperāta ab Hortēnsiō.
      Although indeed to the vituperators of philosophy an adequate response is in that book, in which philosophy has been defended and highly praised by us [me], when it had been accused and vituperated by Hortensius.
  4. (indicating instrumentality: source of action or event) by, by means of, with
  5. (indicating association) to, with
  6. (indicating location) at, on, in
  7. (time) after, since
Usage notes edit

Used in conjunction with passive verbs to mark the agent.

  • Liber ā discipulō aperītur.
    The book is opened by the student.
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Italian: a
  • Norwegian Bokmål: a (learned)
  • Norwegian Bokmål: a (learned)

Etymology 4 edit

Expressive.

Pronunciation edit

Interjection edit

ā

  1. ah

Latvian edit

Etymology edit

Proposed in 1908 as part of the new Latvian spelling by the scientific commission headed by K. Mīlenbahs, which was accepted and began to be taught in schools in 1909. Prior to that, Latvian had been written in German Fraktur, and sporadically in Cyrillic.

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

 
A

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Latvian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Noun edit

a m (invariable)

  1. The name of the Latin script letter A/a.

See also edit

Further reading edit

Laz edit

Determiner edit

a

  1. Latin spelling of (a)

Letter edit

a

  1. The first letter of the Laz alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Numeral edit

a

  1. Latin spelling of (a)

Ligurian edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Ligurian Definite Articles
singular plural
masculine o i
feminine  a e

Article edit

a f sg (plural e)

  1. the

Etymology 2 edit

From Latin ad.

Preposition edit

a

  1. in
  2. at
  3. to
    Vàddo a câza.I'm going home. (literally, “I go to home.”)
  4. indicates the direct object, mainly to avoid confusion when it, the subject, or both are displaced, or for emphasis
    A mæ seu ghe fa mâ 'n bràsso.My sister's arm hurts. (literally, “To my sister an arm hurts.”)
a + article Combined form
a + o a-o
a + a a-a
a + i a-i
a + e a-e

Livonian edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

a (upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Livonian alphabet, written in the Latin script.


Louisiana Creole edit

Etymology edit

From French avoir (to have).

Verb edit

a

  1. to have

Lower Sorbian edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

a (upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Lower Sorbian alphabet, called a and written in the Latin script.
  2. The name of the Latin-script letter a.

Conjunction edit

a

  1. and

See also edit

Further reading edit

  • Muka, Arnošt (1921, 1928), “a”, in Słownik dolnoserbskeje rěcy a jeje narěcow (in German), St. Petersburg, Prague: ОРЯС РАН, ČAVU; Reprinted Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag, 2008
  • Starosta, Manfred (1999), “a”, in Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch (in German), Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag

Lushootseed edit

Letter edit

a

  1. The second letter of the Lushootseed alphabet, pronounced as an open back unrounded vowel.

Malay edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Malay alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Interjection edit

a (Jawi spellingا⁩)

  1. Used to show excitement or to show agreement.
    A, macam itulah sepatutnya kaujawab!
    Yes, that's how you should answer!
  2. Used to show that you have forgotten or are attempting to remember something.
    Dia ni, a, salah seorang Perdana Menteri Britain dulu.
    This guy is, uh, one of Britain's Prime Ministers in the past.

Further reading edit

Maltese edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /a/ (short phoneme)
  • IPA(key): /aː/ (long phoneme)

Letter edit

a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the Maltese alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Mandarin edit

Romanization edit

a (a5a0, Zhuyin ˙ㄚ)

  1. Hanyu Pinyin reading of
  2. Hanyu Pinyin reading of
  3. Hanyu Pinyin reading of

a

  1. Nonstandard spelling of ā.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of á.
  3. Nonstandard spelling of ǎ.
  4. Nonstandard spelling of à.

Usage notes edit

  • Transcriptions of Mandarin into the Latin script often do not distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without indication of tone.

Mandinka edit

Pronoun edit

a

  1. he, him (personal pronoun)
    A m busaHe/she struck me.
    Y a busaThey struck him/her.
  2. she, her (personal pronoun)
  3. it (personal pronoun)

See also edit

Maori edit

Particle edit

a

  1. of
  2. (determinative particle for names)
  3. (particle for pronouns when succeeding ki, i, kei, and hei)

Usage notes edit

  • When used in the sense of of, suggests that the possessor has control of the relationship (alienable possession).

Masurian edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ˈa]
  • Syllabification: a

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Old Polish a.

Conjunction edit

a

  1. (contrastive) and, but, whereas
  2. (coordinating) and; at that

Particle edit

a

  1. sometimes neutral or emphatic, used to start a sentence or question

Etymology 2 edit

Inherited from Old Polish a, from Proto-Slavic *a.

Interjection edit

a

  1. ah! used when the speaker has remembered or noticed something

Further reading edit

  • Zofia Stamirowska (1987-2021), “a”, in Anna Basara, editor, Słownik gwar Ostródzkiego, Warmii i Mazur, volume 1, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, →ISBN, page 107-109

Mezquital Otomi edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

Interjection edit

a

  1. expresses satisfaction, pity, fright, or admiration

Etymology 2 edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

a

  1. (transitive) wake, awaken

Etymology 3 edit

From Proto-Otomi *ʔɔ, from Proto-Otomian *ʔɔ.

Alternative forms