From Proto-Indo-Aryan *Hásti, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Hásti, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésti (“to be”), from *h₁es-. Cognate with Ancient Greek ἐστί (estí), Latin est, Old Persian 𐎠𐎿𐎫𐎡𐎹 (astiy), Hittite 𒂊𒌍𒍣 (ēszi), Old Church Slavonic єстъ (estŭ), Gothic 𐌹𐍃𐍄 (ist), English is.
अस्ति • (ásti) (root अस्, class 2P)
- to be
- to live
- to exist, be present
- to take place, happen
- to abide, dwell, stay
- to belong to (+ genitive or dative)
- to fall to the share of. happen to any one (+ genitive)
- to be equal to (+ dative)
c. 200 BCE – 200 CE
- तेषां वेदविदो ब्रूयुस्त्रयोऽप्येनः सुनिष्कृतिम् ।
सा तेषां पावनाय स्यात्पवित्रा विदुषां हि वाक् ॥
- teṣāṃ vedavido brūyustrayo’pyenaḥ suniṣkṛtim .
sā teṣāṃ pāvanāya syātpavitrā viduṣāṃ hi vāk .
- By his origin alone a Brahmana is a deity even for the gods
and (his teaching is) authoritative for men, because the Veda is the foundation for that.
- to turn out, tend towards any result, prove (with dative)
- to become
- to be (i.e. used as copula, but not only with adjective, but also with adverb)
- Ashokan Prakrit: 𑀅𑀲𑁆𑀢𑀺 (asti)
- Ardhamagadhi Prakrit: 𑀅𑀢𑁆𑀣𑀺 (atthi)
- Magadhi Prakrit: 𑀅𑀢𑁆𑀣𑀺 (atthi)
- Maharastri Prakrit: 𑀅𑀢𑁆𑀣𑀺 (atthi)
- Old Marathi: 𑘁𑘝𑘲 (ātī), 𑘁𑘞𑘲 (āthī)
- Marathi: आथि (āthi) (poetic)
- Sauraseni Prakrit: 𑀅𑀢𑁆𑀣𑀺 (atthi)
- Old Hindi: आथना (āthanā)
- Hindi: आथि (āthi) (poetic)
- Sindhi: اَٿَ / अथ (atha)
- Dardic: *ásti
- Northeast Pashayi: [Term?] (āsta)
- Northwest Pashayi: [script needed] (āsta)
- Southeast Pashayi: [script needed] (āsta)
- Southwest Pashayi: [script needed] (āsta)
- Monier Williams (1899), “अस्ति”, in A Sanskrit–English Dictionary, […], new edition, Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, OCLC 458052227, page 122/2.
- Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985), “ásti (977)”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press