正しい

JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
ただ
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Derived from (tada, straight; direct; straightforward) +‎ (-shi, adjective-forming suffix, origin of and superseded by modern しい (shii)).[1]

First appears in 858 C.E. in the 大智度論 (Daichido-ron), the Japanese rendering of the Chinese text Da zhidu lun. Used primarily in 漢文訓読 (kanbun kundoku, Japanese-language readings of Classical Chinese texts, literally Chinese text, meaning (Japanese) reading) contexts, with almost no usage in 和文 (wabun, Japanese texts) or kana contexts until after the Heian Period.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

  • Tokyo pitch accent of inflected forms of "正しい"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Continuative (連用形) 正しく しく
だし
[tàdáꜜshìkù]
[tàdáshíꜜkù]
Terminal (終止形) 正しい だし [tàdáshíꜜì]
Attributive (連体形) 正しい だし [tàdáshíꜜì]
Key constructions
Informal negative 正しくない しくない
だしくない
[tàdáꜜshìkùnàì]
[tàdáshíꜜkùnàì]
Informal past 正しかった しかった
だしかった
[tàdáꜜshìkàttà]
[tàdáshíꜜkàttà]
Informal negative past 正しくなかった しくなかった
だしくなかった
[tàdáꜜshìkùnàkàttà]
[tàdáshíꜜkùnàkàttà]
Formal 正しいです だしいです [tàdáshíꜜìdèsù]
Conjunctive 正しくて しくて
だしくて
[tàdáꜜshìkùtè]
[tàdáshíꜜkùtè]
Conditional 正しければ しければ
だしければ
[tàdáꜜshìkèrèbà]
[tàdáshíꜜkèrèbà]

AdjectiveEdit

(ただ)しい (tadashii-i (adverbial (ただ)しく (tadashiku))

  1. (physically) true, straight, unwarped, unskewed, proper
  2. (abstractly) correct, right, true
InflectionEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
まさ
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Derived from (masa, right, proper; just, fair; straight-grained (as of wood); straight) +‎ (-shi, adjective-forming suffix, superseded in modern usage by しい (shii)).[1][2]

First appears in an 830 C.E. copy of the 金光明最勝王経 (Konkōmyō Saishō Ō Kyō, Golden Light Sutra) in a 漢文訓読 (kanbun kundoku, Japanese-language readings of Classical Chinese texts, literally Chinese text, meaning (Japanese) reading) context,[1] and later phonetically in the 905 C.E. work 古今和歌集 (Kokin Wakashū, Collection of Japanese Poems of Ancient and Modern Times).[1][2][5]

Still in use in the early 1600s,[6] then apparently falling into partial disuse. The full adjective form masashii is no longer included in some dictionaries.[2][4][5] Persists in dialect in the modern language, and as adverbial form 正しく (masashiku).

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

(まさ)しい (masashii-i (adverbial (まさ)しく (masashiku))

  1. (uncommon, dialect) factual, true, correct, accurate
  2. (uncommon, dialect) genuine, real
  3. (uncommon, dialect) actual, real, certain
InflectionEdit
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  6. ^ 1603, 日葡辞書: パリ本 / Vocabulario da Lingoa Iapam (Nippo Jisho: Paris edition / Vocabulary of the Language of Japan) (in Japanese and Portuguese), 1976 reprint, Tōkyō: Bensei Publishing, text here, see the Masaxij entry to the left of the highlighted term (in Portuguese)