See also: , , , and
U+6B63, 正
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6B63

[U+6B62]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6B64]
𝍶 U+1D376, 𝍶
IDEOGRAPHIC TALLY MARK FIVE
𝍵
[U+1D375]
Counting Rod Numerals 𝍷
[U+1D377]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative formsEdit

As a component of some complex characters, is often written as 𤴓 with its last two strokes different. Compare and .

Han characterEdit

(radical 77, +1, 5 strokes, cangjie input 一卜中一 (MYLM), four-corner 10101, composition)

Usage notesEdit

  • (tally marks, 5): The successive strokes of ( ) are used in China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea and other areas where Chinese characters are prominent to designate tallies in votes, scores, points, sushi orders, and the like, much as   is used in Africa, the Americas, Australia, and Europe. Tallies beyond five are written with a for each group of five, followed by the remainder. For example, a tally of twelve   is written as 正正丅.

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 574, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16255
  • Dae Jaweon: page 962, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1436, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6B63

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *tjeŋ, *tjeŋs): phonetic (OC *rteːŋ, *teːŋ) + semantic (foot) – to go on a long journey. Original form of (OC *tjeŋ, “to go on long campaign”).

EtymologyEdit

Sino-Tibetan or area word: “centre; target; first (month); straight; correct”.

Compare Mizo dîng (to go straight or direct (as person, arrow etc.); to go straight through without breaking the journey; straight; direct). Matisoff sets up Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-tjak/ŋ ~ tik/ŋ (good; very; real; straight) for this, which includes , (OC *dɯɡ, “straight; right”) and (OC *ɦliɡ, “solid; true”).

Additionally, Matisoff has Proto-Sino-Tibetan *t(r)waŋ (straight; straighten), whence Chepang धेङ्‌सा (dʰeŋ-, straight), Jingpho ding (straight), Tibetan དྲང་པོ (drang po, straight; correct; upright; just; fair), Burmese တန်း (tan:, straight; to head straight for). Also compare Khmer ទៀង (tiəng, accurate; correct; exact; precise; honest).

Derivatives:

  • (OC *tjeŋ, “to go straight > to go on a journey”)
  • (OC *tjeŋs, “correct; to govern; government; to determine”)
  • (OC *tjeŋʔ, “orderly; to arrange; to dispose”)

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • zeng3 - vernacular;
  • zing3 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Note:
    • chang/zang4 - vernacular;
    • chṳn/zen4 - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • ciáng - vernacular;
    • céng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chiàⁿ - vernacular;
    • chèng - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (23)
    Final () (121)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ɕiᴇŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡ɕiɛŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ɕiæŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ciajŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ɕiɛŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ɕĭɛŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡ɕi̯ɛŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhèng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    zing3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhèng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsyengH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*teŋ-s/
    English correct (adj., v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 17178
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tjeŋs/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. straight; upright; central; in proper position
      Antonym: (wāi)
    2. right; proper; correct
    3. exact; standardized; just so
    4. precisely; directly; perfectly
    5. regular-shaped; regular; square
    6. primary; chief; main
    7. pure; unmixed; authentic; true
    8. pretty; attractive; beautiful
    9. honest; upright; honourable
    10. (Cantonese) awesome; fantastic
    11. just now; right now; in the process of
    12. to straighten; to make straight; to adjust
    13. to make right; to rectify; to correct
    14. (tally marks) 5
    15. (numismatics) obverse
    16. (numeral) ten duodecillion(1040)
    17. (mathematics) positive; plus
    18. (physics) positive
    19. (time) sharp; on the dot
      而家五點 [Cantonese, trad.]
      而家五点 [Cantonese, simp.]
      ji4 gaa1 hai6 ng5 dim2 zing3. [Jyutping]
      It is precisely 5 o'clock.
    20. (Teochew) only; merely
    21. (Teochew) just; just now
    22. (Teochew) only then; only after
    23. (Teochew) Used to emphasize that something is/is not.
    24. (Min Nan) right (direction)
    25. A surname​.
    26. Individual strokes are added in writing sequence to tally a count of five per character.

    SynonymsEdit

    AntonymsEdit

    • (right): (Min Nan) (, “left”)

    CompoundsEdit

    See 正/derived terms § Chinese pronunciation 1.

    See alsoEdit

    Chinese numerals
    104 108 1012 1016 1020 1024 1028 1032 1036 1040 1044 1048
    (wàn) 亿 () (zhào) (Taiwan) (jīng) (Taiwan) (gāi) () (ráng) (gōu) (jiàn) (zhèng) (zài) ()
    萬億万亿 (wànyì)
    (Mainland China)
    /亿亿
    (Mainland China)

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Note:
    • ciăng - vernacular;
    • cĭng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (23)
    Final () (121)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ɕiᴇŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡ɕiɛŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ɕiæŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ciajŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ɕiɛŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ɕĭɛŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡ɕi̯ɛŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhēng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    zing1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhēng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsyeng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.teŋ/
    English 1st (month)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 17171
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tjeŋ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. first (month of the lunar year)
    2. bull's eye; centre of target
    3. target; goal
    4. Original form of (zhēng, “to levy”).
    5. Original form of (zhēng, “to go on a punitive expedition”).

    CompoundsEdit

    See 正/derived terms § Chinese pronunciation 2.

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (しょう) (shō); (せい) (sei)
    • Korean: (, jeong)
    • Vietnamese: chính (), chánh ()

    Others:

    • Lao: ຈຽງ (chīang, first month of the lunar year)
    • Lü: ᦵᦈᧂ (ṫseng, first month in Dai lunar calendar, starting in November)
    • Northern Thai: ᨠ᩠ᨿᨦ (first month of the lunar year)
    • Shan: ၸဵင် (tsěng, first month of the Shan year, starting December-January)
    • Ahom: 𑜋𑜢𑜂𑜫 (chiṅ, first month of the lunar year)
    • Vietnamese: giêng (first month of the Vietnamese lunar year, starting January-February)

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    See 正/derived terms § Japanese.

    NumeralEdit

    Kanji in this term
    せい
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    (せい) (sei

    1. A number of ten-duodecillion(1040) in modern Japanese since 17th century.
    2. 5, as tally marks. Similar to four vertical lines followed by a slanted horizontal line crossing through them, this character is used to count to 5 stroke by stroke. Thus this kanji written up to the third stroke represents 3. After the fifth and final stroke, when this character is completed, one starts writing this character again to count to higher numbers.

    Derived termsEdit

    PrefixEdit

    Kanji in this term
    しょう
    Grade: 1
    goon

    (しょう) (shō-

    1. (historical) "senior" ranking for (-i, Japanese courtier rank)
      Antonym: (ju-)
      (しょう)(いち)()
      shōichii
      senior rank 1
      (しょう)(さん)()
      shōsanmi
      senior rank 3
      (しょう)()()
      shōkui
      senior rank 9
    2. : exactly (of a number)

    AdjectiveEdit

    (しょう) (shō-na (adnominal (しょう) (shō na), adverbial (しょう) (shō ni))

    1. proper; straight, direct; genuine, true

    Proper nounEdit

    Kanji in this term
    ただし
    Grade: 1
    nanori

    (ただし) (Tadashi

    Kanji in this term
    まさし
    Grade: 1
    nanori

    (まさし) (Masashi

    1. A male given name

    NumeralEdit

    Kanji in this term
    しょう
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    (しょう) (shō

    1. ten-duodecillion(1040)

    KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕiᴇŋH).

    Historical readings

    PronunciationEdit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕʌ̹(ː)ŋ]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 바를 (bareul jeong))

    1. Hanja form? of (straight; upright; erect).

    CompoundsEdit

    See 正/derived terms § Korean etymology 1.

    Etymology 2Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕiᴇŋ).

    Historical readings

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 정월(正月) (jeong'wol jeong))

    1. Hanja form? of (first (month of the lunar year)).
    2. Hanja form? of (target).

    CompoundsEdit

    See 正/derived terms § Korean etymology 2.

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: chinh ((chi)(thịnh)(thiết)), chánh[1][2], chính[3][4][1][2][5]
    : Nôm readings: chánh[3][4][1][2][5], chênh[1], chính[3][4][1][2][6], chếnh[1][7][2][5][6], chiếng[3], chỉnh[1], giêng[1]

    1. Hán tự form of chánh (chief; head).
    2. Hán tự form of chính (main; major, chief; just, righteous).
    3. Nôm form of chếnh.

    Derived termsEdit

    See 正/derived terms § Vietnamese.

    ReferencesEdit