See also: [U+3058 HIRAGANA LETTER ZI], [U+30EC KATAKANA LETTER RE], [U+4E5A CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E5A], and [U+1602 CANADIAN SYLLABICS CARRIER NU]

U+3057, し
HIRAGANA LETTER SI

[U+3056]
Hiragana
[U+3058]

Japanese

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Stroke order
 

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ɕi]
  • Audio:(file)

Etymology 1

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Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.

Syllable

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(shi

  1. The hiragana syllable (shi). Its equivalent in katakana is (shi). It is the twelfth syllable in the gojūon order; its position is (sa-gyō i-dan, row sa, section i).
Derived terms
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See also
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Etymology 2

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Particle

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(shi

  1. conjunctive particle, separates items in a list of reasons
    • 1937, Yumeno Kyūsaku, Osoroshii Tōkyō [Terrifying Tokyo]‎[1]:
      ()(わた)(かぎ)(ひゃっ)()(てん)みたいで、何処(どこ)(きっ)()()っているのかわからない、プラットフォームらしいものもないので、(まち)()ったのかなと(おも)って(また)(いし)(だん)(のぼ)って()ると、(まる)キリ()らない(はん)()(まち)である。
      Miwatasu kagiri hyakkaten mitai de, doko de kippu o utteiru no ka wakaranai shi, purattofōmu rashii mono mo nai no de, machigatta no ka na to omotte mata ishidan o nobottemiruto, marukiri shiranai hanka na machi de aru.
      What I could see looked like a department store, I had no idea where tickets were being sold, and there wasn't anything like a platform. Wondering if I haven't come to the wrong place I once again walked up the stone stairs and a bustling street I wasn't familiar with filled my vision.
    • K-On! (K-On!)
      「でもでも、(わたし)(うん)(どう)(おん)()(ぶん)()(けい)のクラブもよくわからない…」
      “Demo demo, watashi undō onchi da shi, bunkakei no kurabu mo yoku wakaranai shi…”
      "But—but I'm terrible at sports and I don't really know anything about the cultural clubs…"
  2. sentence-ending particle, indicating mild emphasis, and alluding to an inferable but deliberately omitted conclusion
    てかなんでやっ
    Te ka nande yatta shi.
    But then, why did you do that [when you shouldn't have]?

Etymology 3

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Alternative spellings




Cognate with demonstrative pronoun (so).

Pronoun

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(shi

  1. third person personal pronoun; he, she, it
  2. reflexive pronoun; one, oneself
    • c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 18, poem 4094:
      八十伴雄乎 麻都呂倍乃 牟気乃麻尓々々 老人毛 女童児毛 我願 心太良比尓 撫賜 治賜婆
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
    • c. 935: Tosa Nikki (day 24)
      廿四日。講師、むまのはなむけしにいでませり。ありとあるかみしも、わらはまでゑひしれて、一文字をだにしらぬもの、があしは十文字にふみてぞあそぶ。
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    • c. late 10th century: Ochikubo Monogatari (Volume 1)
      あなわかわかしの晝寢や。が身のほど知らぬこそいと心憂けれ」とて、うちあざわらひ給ふ。
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Etymology 4

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Various Chinese loanwords.

For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entries.
1
[numeral] four, 4
[noun] the fourth
[affix] four
[affix] fourth
[affix] quadruple
[affix] here and there
3
[noun] poem
[noun] verse of poetry
[noun] (poetry) Chinese poetry
[noun] Short for 詩経 (Shijing, the Book of Odes).
3
[noun] death
[noun] (law, historical) one of the five punishments under the 律令 (Ritsuryō) system, the methods used are (, strangling) and (zan, decapitation)
[affix] death, to die
[affix] dead, unfunctional
[affix] life-or-death situation
[affix] dangerous, life-threatening
[affix] (baseball) out
5
[noun] teacher, Reverend
3
[noun] official, civil service
[verb] Alternative spelling of (shi, continuative of する (suru))
2
[suffix] city
4
[noun] a family, a clan
[noun] a certain person
[suffix] (honorific) Mr.; Ms.
(This term, , is the hiragana spelling of the above terms.)
For a list of all kanji read as , see Category:Japanese kanji read as し.)

Etymology 5

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Suffix

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(-shi

  1. (Classical Japanese or literary) the adnominal form of Classical and Old Japanese (ki, past tense auxiliary), equivalent to modern
    (えら)(もの)
    erabareshi mono
    the chosen one (modern language)

Etymology 6

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From Old Japanese. Not productive in modern usage.

Suffix

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(-shi

  1. (Classical Japanese) The 終止形 (shūshikei, terminal or predicative form) of the conjugable ending for 形容詞 (keiyōshi, -i adjectives).
Usage notes
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  • In Classical and Old Japanese, this is the terminal ending for both しく (shiku) adjectives (those ending in しい (-shii) in modern usage, such as 楽しい (tanoshii, fun)) and (ku) adjectives (those ending in (-i) in modern usage, such as 高い (takai, high, tall; expensive)).
  • Meanwhile, in modern Japanese, the terminal ending and adnominal ending both manifest as (i).
Examples:
Classical Terminal Classical Adnominal Modern Terminal / Adnominal
(たの) (tanoshi)

(たか) (takashi)

(たの)しき (tanoshiki)

(たか) (takaki)

(たの)しい (tanoshii)

(たか) (takai)

Conjugation

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Etymology 7

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Alternative spelling
(rare)

Verb

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(shi

  1. stem or continuative form of する (suru)

References

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