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ChineseEdit

rock; stone; 10 pecks pomegranate
simp. and trad.
(石榴)
alt. forms 石留

EtymologyEdit

Short for 安石榴 (ānshíliú); see there for more.

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (25) (37)
Final () (123) (136)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑiᴇk̚/ /lɨu/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑiɛk̚/ /liu/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑiæk̚/ /liəu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑiajk̚/ /luw/
Li
Rong
/ʑiɛk̚/ /liu/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭɛk̚/ /lĭəu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi̯ɛk̚/ /li̯ə̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shí liú
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shí
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyek ›
Old
Chinese
/*dAk/
English stone

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 11470 8886
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*djaɡ/ /*m·ru/

NounEdit

石榴

  1. pomegranate
  2. (Shouguang Mandarin) hawthorn
  3. (Cantonese) guava

SynonymsEdit

Dialectal synonyms of 石榴 (“pomegranate”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese 石榴丹若若榴楉榴安石榴
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 石榴安石榴
Taxonomic name 石榴安石榴
Mandarin Beijing 石榴
Taiwan 石榴
Harbin 石榴
Jinan 石榴
Muping 石榴
Luoyang 石榴
Jiedian 石榴
Xi'an 石榴
Xuzhou 石榴
Lanzhou 石榴
Ürümqi 石榴
Wuhan 石榴
Chengdu 石榴
Guiyang 石榴
Liuzhou 石榴
Yangzhou 石榴
Nanjing 石榴
Cantonese Guangzhou 石榴結子石榴
Hong Kong 石榴結子石榴
Shunde 石榴
Foshan 石榴
Zhongshan 石榴
Dongguan 番鬼石榴
Hong Kong (Weitou) 石榴
Taishan 花棯
Doumen 花棯
Kaiping 花棯
Gan Nanchang 石榴
Lichuan 石榴
Pingxiang 石榴
Hakka Meixian 石榴仔
Yudu 石榴石梨
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 石榴仔
Liudui (S. Sixian) 石榴仔
Hsinchu (Hailu) 石榴
Dongshi (Dabu) 石榴
Zhuolan (Raoping) 石榴仔
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 石榴
Hong Kong 石榴
Huizhou Jixi 石榴
Jin Taiyuan 石榴
Xinzhou 石榴兒
Min Bei Jian'ou 石榴
Min Dong Fuzhou 石榴
Fuqing 石榴
Min Nan Xiamen 石榴
Quanzhou 石榴
Zhangzhou 石榴
Taipei 石榴
Kaohsiung 石榴
Tainan 石榴
Taichung 石榴
Hsinchu 石榴
Lukang 石榴
Sanxia 石榴
Yilan 石榴
Kinmen 石榴
Magong 石榴
Penang 石榴
Haikou 石榴
Pinghua Nanning 石榴
Wu Shanghai 石榴
Suzhou 石榴
Hangzhou 石榴
Wenzhou 金櫻
Chongming 石榴
Danyang 石榴
Jinhua 石榴
Ningbo 石榴金猛
Xiang Changsha 石榴
Loudi 石榴
Dialectal synonyms of 番石榴 (“guava”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 番石榴
Taxonomic name 番石榴
Mandarin Beijing 番石榴
Taiwan 芭樂番石榴
Liuzhou 番石榴雞屎果
Cantonese Guangzhou 番石榴石榴雞屎果女人狗肉
Hong Kong 番石榴
Shunde 花棯
Foshan 雞屎果
Zhongshan 花稔
Dongguan 石榴花棯雞屎橘
Taishan 番石榴花棯
Doumen 番石榴
Kaiping 番石榴
Yangjiang 花棯子
Nanning 花棯雞屎果
Kuala Lumpur 雞屎果
Hakka Meixian 朳仔
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 朳仔
Liudui (S. Sixian) 那朳仔拉朳仔
Hsinchu (Hailu) 朳仔
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping) 朳仔
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 朳仔
Sabah 朳仔
Senai 朳仔
Min Dong Fuzhou 番石榴
Fuqing 番石榴
Matsu 番石榴
Min Nan Xiamen 林仔菝
Quanzhou 林仔菝
Zhangzhou 林仔菝
Taipei 林仔菝
Kaohsiung 林菝仔
Tainan 土菝仔林菝仔林菝
Taichung 菝仔
Wuqi 菝仔
Hsinchu 菝仔
Taitung 菝仔
Lukang 林仔菝
Sanxia 菝仔
Yilan 菝仔
Kinmen 林仔菝
Magong 林仔菝林菝
Penang 染霧
Pingnan 番石榴
Chaozhou 番石榴菝囝
Shantou 木囝
Haifeng 菝仔
Johor Bahru 菝囝
Pinghua Nanning 花棯番桃
Xiang Quanzhou 番石榴

Derived termsEdit


JapaneseEdit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
 
石榴 (zakuro, jakuro, sekiryū): young pomegranate trees.
 
石榴 (zakuro, jakuro, sekiryū): an opened pomegranate fruit.

Alternative formsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
じゃく > ざく
Grade: 1
る > ろ
Hyōgaiji
Irregular

From Middle Chinese 石榴 (d͡ʑiᴇk̚ lɨu, literally stone + pomegranate). Compare modern Wu reading zaq lieu, Hakka sa̍k-liù.

The reading is irregular. This may represent a shift in pronunciation from an older borrowing: compare the expected goon reading jakuru. Alternatively, this reading may reflect an ancient sound borrowing, indicating the Zagros Mountains of modern-day Iran, where the pomegranate was originally cultivated.[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

石榴 (hiragana ざくろ, katakana ザクロ, rōmaji zakuro)

  1. pomegranate
Usage notesEdit

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as ザクロ.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
じゃく
Grade: 1
る > ろ
Hyōgaiji
Irregular

From Middle Chinese 石榴 (d͡ʑiᴇk̚ lɨu, literally stone + pomegranate). Uses the regular goon reading of jaku for the first character, and the irregular ro reading for the second character instead of the expected goon reading of ru.

PronunciationEdit

  • (Irregular reading)
    • IPA(key): [d͡ʑa̠kɯ̟ᵝɾo̞]

NounEdit

石榴 (hiragana じゃくろ, rōmaji jakuro)

  1. (しゃくろ', obsolete) pomegranate
Usage notesEdit

This reading appears to be obsolete.

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
せき
Grade: 1
りゅう
Hyōgaiji
on’yomi

/sekiriu//sekirjuː/

From Middle Chinese 石榴 (d͡ʑiᴇk̚ lɨu, literally stone + pomegranate). Uses the regular kanon reading of both characters.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

石榴 (hiragana せきりゅう, rōmaji sekiryū, historical hiragana せきりう)

  1. (uncommon) pomegranate
Usage notesEdit

The zakuro reading above is the most common reading for this term.

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 清水桂一 (Keiichi Shimizu), editor (1980) たべもの語源辞典 (Tabemono Gogen Jiten, “Etymological Dictionary of Foods”)[1] (in Japanese), 東京堂出版 (Tōkyō-dō Shuppan, “Tokyo Hall Publishing”), ISBN 4-490-10128-7
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

NounEdit

石榴 (seongnyu) (hangeul 석류)

  1. Hanja form? of 석류, “pomegranate”.

OkinawanEdit

EtymologyEdit

Attested in the 沖縄語典 (Okinawa Goten, “Okinawan Dictionary”) as ざぐら.[1] Appears to be cognate with mainland Japanese 石榴 (zakuro); see that entry for further details.

NounEdit

石榴 (hiragana ざくら, romaji zakura)

  1. pomegranate

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1896: 沖縄語典 (Okinawa Goten, “Okinawan Dictionary”). In Japanese. http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/992016/43
  • 沖縄語辞典 (Okinawago Jiten, “Okinawan Dictionary”)[2], 1963

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this word

NounEdit

石榴

  1. Hán tự form of thạch lựu, “pomegranate