See also:
U+77F3, 石
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-77F3

[U+77F2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+77F4]
U+2F6F, ⽯
KANGXI RADICAL STONE

[U+2F6E]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F70]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 112, +0, 5 strokes, cangjie input 一口 (MR), four-corner 10600, composition )

  1. Kangxi radical #112, .

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 827, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24024
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1239, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2416, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+77F3

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Pictogram (象形) : a stone beneath a cliff (). The cliff was subsequently distorted into .

Alternatively, a cave set into the side of a cliff or mountain.

Etymology 1 edit

Unknown. Probably related to Proto-Vietic *l-taːʔ (stone) (whence Vietnamese đá and Khmer ដា (daa, rock; stone)) (Schuessler, 2007), to which Chinese would have added the familiar final -k.

Pronunciation edit


Note: sek6-2 - "gem, jewel, jade".
Note:
  • siŏh - vernacular;
  • sĭk - literary.
Note:
  • chio̍h - vernacular (incl. surname);
  • siā/sia̍h - vernacular (limited, e.g. 石榴, 石硯, 石石 (siā-chio̍h));
  • se̍k/si̍t/se̍t/sia̍k - literary.
    • (Teochew)
      • Peng'im: ziêh8 / zioh8 / sig8 / sêg8 / siêh8 / sioh8
      • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: tsie̍h / tsio̍h / si̍k / se̍k / sie̍h / sio̍h
      • Sinological IPA (key): /t͡sieʔ⁴/, /t͡sioʔ⁴/, /sik̚⁴/, /sek̚⁴/, /sieʔ⁴/, /sioʔ⁴/
Note:
  • ziêh8 - vernacular (incl. surname) (Chaozhou);
  • zioh8 - vernacular (incl. surname) (Shantou, Jieyang, Chaoyang);
  • sig8 - literary (Chaozhou);
  • sêg8 - literary (Jieyang);
  • siêh8 - only in 石榴 (Chaozhou);
  • sioh8 - only in 石榴 (Shantou, Jieyang, Chaoyang).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Xi'an /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Xining /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
Nanjing /ʂʐ̩ʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʂəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /səʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /ʂʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /səʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /zaʔ¹/
Suzhou /zɑʔ³/
Hangzhou /zɑʔ²/
Wenzhou /zei²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ɕi²²/
Tunxi /ɕi¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Xiangtan /ʂɒ⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /sɑʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /sak̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ʃɑk̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɛk̚²/
Nanning /sɛk̚²²/
Hong Kong /sɛk̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /sik̚⁵/
/t͡sioʔ⁵/
/sia²²/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /suoʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /t͡siɔ⁴⁴/
/si⁴⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /t͡sioʔ⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /sek̚⁵/
/t͡sio³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (25)
Final () (123)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter dzyek
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑiᴇk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑiɛk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑiæk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑiajk̚/
Li
Rong
/ʑiɛk̚/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭɛk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi̯ɛk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shí
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
sik6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shí
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyek ›
Old
Chinese
/*dAk/
English stone

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11470
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*djaɡ/

Definitions edit

  1. stone; rock (Classifier: c;  c)
  2. (Cantonese) gem; jewel; jade
  3. a surname
      ―  Shí Yáng  ―  Shih Yang (a pirate leader who terrorized the China Seas during the early 19th century)
Synonyms edit

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (せき) (seki)
  • Korean: 석(石) (seok)
  • Vietnamese: thạch ()

(Others)

  • Tocharian B: cāk

Etymology 2 edit

Contains pronunciations from (dàn) (Qiu, 1988, p. 220).

Pronunciation edit


Definitions edit

  1. a unit of dry measure for grain (equal to 100 liters)

Compounds edit

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
いし
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

⟨isi⟩/iɕi/

From Old Japanese.[1] First cited in the Man'yōshū of 759. In turn, the Old Japanese is reconstructed as from Proto-Japonic *esoy.

Likely cognate with (iso, pebble; gravel; rocky beach).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(いし) (ishi

  1. a stone
    • 1999 March 27, “ストーン・アルマジラー [Stone Armadiller]”, in Vol.2, Konami:
      (からだ)(いし)のように(かた)()(おお)われており、(まも)りがかたい。
      Karada ga ishi no yō ni katai ke de ōwareteori, mamori ga katai.
      With a body covered in a coat as hard as stones, its defence is solid.
  2. (slang, electronics) a transistor
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
こく
Grade: 1
kan’yōon

From Middle Chinese (MC huwk).

The spelling came about through customary use in Japan of this character for the unit of measure.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(こく) (koku

  1. a traditional Japanese unit of volume:
    1. for grains of rice; one koku is equal to approximately 180 litres
    2. (by extension, historical) for land of famous daimyo or samurai; one koku is also approximately 180 litres
    3. for 和船 (wasen); one koku is equal to 10 cubic shaku or approximately 0.278 cubic metres
  2. a unit of quantity for (sake, salmon) and (masu, trout); one koku is equal to 40 salmon or 60 trout
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
せき
Grade: 1
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC dzyek).

Pronunciation edit

Counter edit

(せき) (-seki

  1. counter for gemstones used as bearings in watches and other devices
  2. (slang, electronics) counter for transistors, especially discrete ones
    (ろく)(せき)ラジオ
    rokuseki rajio
    six-transistor radio

Noun edit

(せき) (seki

  1. Same as こく (koku) above

Affix edit

(せき) (seki

  1. stone
  2. needle made of stone
  3. go stone
  4. something solid but worthless
  5. Short for 石見 (Iwami-no-kuni): Iwami Province

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC dzyek).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 쎡〮 (Yale: ssyék)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 돌〯 (Yale: twǒl) 셕〮 (Yale: syék)

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (dol seok))

  1. Hanja form? of (stone).

Compounds edit

Kunigami edit

Kanji edit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Etymology edit

Cognate with Japanese (ishi).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(しー) (shī

  1. stone

Miyako edit

Kanji edit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Etymology edit

Cognate with Japanese (ishi).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(いす) (isu

  1. stone

Okinawan edit

Kanji edit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Etymology edit

Cognate with Japanese (ishi).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(いし) (ishi

  1. stone

Old Japanese edit

Etymology edit

Cognate with (iso1, pebble; gravel; rocky beach).

Noun edit

(isi) (kana いし)

  1. a stone
    • c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 5, poem 869:
      , text here
      多良志比賣可尾能美許等能奈都良須等美多多志世利斯伊志遠多礼美吉
      tarasi pi1me1 kami2 no2 mi1ko2to2 no2 na turasu to2 mi1-tatasi serisi isi wo tare miki1
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      [Note: Another version replaces na turasu to2 with 阿由都流等 (ayu turu to2, catching sweetfishes)

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Japanese: (ishi)

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: thạch[1][2][3], đán[3]
: Nôm readings: thạch[1][2], sạch[1]

  1. chữ Hán form of thạch (stone).

References edit

Yaeyama edit

Kanji edit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Etymology edit

Cognate with Japanese (ishi).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(いしぃ) (isï

  1. stone

Yonaguni edit

Kanji edit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Etymology edit

Cognate with Japanese (ishi).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(いち) (ichi

  1. stone

References edit

  • いち【石】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.