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LatvianEdit

 akmens on Latvian Wikipedia
 
Akmens

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *akmō, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂éḱ-mō, *h₂éḱ-h₂-men (whence also asmens, originally a parallel form to akmens, created by a different development of *ḱ, perhaps due to Proto-Indo-European dialectal differences), from the stem *aḱ-, *h₂éḱ- (sharp, pointy, angular; stone) with an extra element -men. Cognates include Lithuanian akmuõ, genitive akmeñs, Sudovian akmi, Hittite aku (sharp stone), Sanskrit अश्मन् (aśman, stone, rock, sky), Avestan asman (asman, stone, sky), Ancient Greek ἄκμων (ákmōn, anvil), ἀκμή (akmḗ, spike, edge, blade); with reduction (zero grade) of the stem (*h₂éḱ-h₂-men > Proto-Slavic *kamen ~ *kamy “stone”), also Belarusian, Russian камень (kamenʹ), Ukrainian камінь (kámin'), Bulgarian камен (kámen), Czech kámen, Polish kamień.[1]

According to more recent analyses, the corresponding form may have been *akmō all the way up to Eastern Baltic unity, thus identical to the Proto-Balto-Slavic form.

PronunciationEdit

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NounEdit

akmens m (2nd declension, irregular nominative, genitive)

  1. stone, rock (non-metallic solid mineral; a piece of such mineral)
    ass, šķautņaina akmenssharp, angular stone
    akmens šķembascrushed stone
    akmens slabs, plāksnestone pillar, plate
    akmens klons, sienas, bruģisstone floor, walls, pavement
    mest akmenito throw a stone
    lauzt akmeņusto break stones, rocks
    smags ka akmensheavy as a rock
    ciets ka akmenshard as a rock
    krīt ka akmensto fall like a rock
    akmens laikmetsthe stone age (in prehistory)
  2. (in the genitive, used as adjective) hard; indifferent, unfeeling, unrelenting, unshakable
    akmens sirdsheart of stone
    gleznotājs ar nekustīgu akmens seju bija atlaidies atzveltnes krēslāthe painter with the immobile, stone face had let himself down on the armchair
  3. precious stone, also an imitation of a precious stone
    rets akmensrare (gem)stone
    īsti akmeņireal, genuine (gem)stone
    gredzens ar akmeniring with a (precious) stone
    pulkstenis ar piecpadsmit akmeņiema clock with fifteen gems
  4. (medicine, anatomy) stone, calculus (a hard, usually saline, formation in the body)
    žults akmeņigall stones
    zobu akmens, zobakmenstartar (lit. teeth stone)
    nieru akmeņi veidojas nieru bļodiņāskidney stones are formed in the renal pelvis
  5. residue left in certain objects
    katla akmensboiler stone (= mineral deposits on boiler walls resulting from boiling water)

DeclensionEdit

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “akmens”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7