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LatvianEdit

 akmens on Latvian Wikipedia
 
Akmens

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *akmō, from *h₂éḱ-mō, *h₂éḱ-h₂-men (whence also asmens, originally a parallel form to akmens, created by a different development of *ḱ, perhaps due to Proto-Indo-European dialectal differences), from the stem *aḱ-, *h₂éḱ-(sharp, pointy, angular; stone) with an extra element -men. Cognates include Lithuanian akmuõ, genitive akmeñs, Sudovian akmi, Hittite aku(sharp stone), Sanskrit अश्मन्(aśman, stone, rock, sky), Avestan asman(asman, stone, sky), Ancient Greek ἄκμων(ákmōn, anvil), ἀκμή(akmḗ, spike, edge, blade); with reduction (zero grade) of the stem (*h₂éḱ-h₂-men > Proto-Slavic *kamen ~ *kamy “stone”), also Belarusian, Russian камень(kámen'), Ukrainian камінь(kámin'), Bulgarian камен(kámen), Czech kámen, Polish kamień.[1]

According to more recent analyses, the corresponding form may have been *akmō all the way up to Eastern Baltic unity, thus identical to the Proto-Balto-Slavic form.

PronunciationEdit

(file)

NounEdit

akmens m (2nd declension, irregular nominative, genitive)

  1. stone, rock (non-metallic solid mineral; a piece of such mineral)
    ass, šķautņaina akmens‎ ― sharp, angular stone
    akmens šķembas‎ ― crushed stone
    akmens slabs, plāksne‎ ― stone pillar, plate
    akmens klons, sienas, bruģis‎ ― stone floor, walls, pavement
    mest akmeni‎ ― to throw a stone
    lauzt akmeņus‎ ― to break stones, rocks
    smags ka akmens‎ ― heavy as a rock
    ciets ka akmens‎ ― hard as a rock
    krīt ka akmens‎ ― to fall like a rock
    akmens laikmets‎ ― the stone age (in prehistory)
  2. (in the genitive, used as adjective) hard; indifferent, unfeeling, unrelenting, unshakable
    akmens sirds‎ ― heart of stone
    gleznotājs ar nekustīgu akmens seju bija atlaidies atzveltnes krēslā‎ ― the painter with the immobile, stone face had let himself down on the armchair
  3. precious stone, also an imitation of a precious stone
    rets akmens‎ ― rare (gem)stone
    īsti akmeņi‎ ― real, genuine (gem)stone
    gredzens ar akmeni‎ ― ring with a (precious) stone
    pulkstenis ar piecpadsmit akmeņiem‎ ― a clock with fifteen gems
  4. (medicine, anatomy) stone, calculus (a hard, usually saline, formation in the body)
    žults akmeņi‎ ― gall stones
    zobu akmens, zobakmens‎ ― tartar (lit. teeth stone)
    nieru akmeņi veidojas nieru bļodiņās‎ ― kidney stones are formed in the renal pelvis
  5. residue left in certain objects
    katla akmens‎ ― boiler stone (= mineral deposits on boiler walls resulting from boiling water)

DeclensionEdit

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “akmens”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7