From Middle English stone, ston, stan, from Old English stān, from Proto-West Germanic *stain, from Proto-Germanic *stainaz (compare Dutch steen, German Stein, Danish and Swedish sten, Norwegian stein), from Proto-Indo-European *steyh₂- (“to stiffen”) (compare Russian стена́ (stená, “wall”), Ancient Greek στία (stía, “pebble”), στέαρ (stéar, “tallow”), Persian ستون (sotūn, “pillar”), Albanian shtëng (“hardened or pressed matter”), Sanskrit स्त्यायते (styāyate, “it hardens”)).
- (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /stəʊn/
Audio (RP) (file)
- (General American) IPA(key): /stoʊn/
Audio (US) (file)
- (General New Zealand) IPA(key): /stɐʉn/
- Rhymes: -əʊn
- (uncountable) A hard earthen substance that can form large rocks.
- c. 1606, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Macbeth”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act IV, scene i], page 143, column 2:
- Toad, that vnder cold ſtone, / Dayes and Nights ha's thirty one: / Sweltred Venom ſleeping got, / Boyle thou firſt i'th'charmed pot.
- 1858, Edward Thornton, A Gazetteer of the Territories Under the Government of the East India Company and of the Native States on the Continent of India, W. H. Allen & Co., page 22:
- It is about 2,500 yards in circuit, is built of red stone, and, according to Von Orlich, is now " a bastioned quinquangle ; the ancient walls with semicircular bastions face the two streams ; the land side is quite regular, and consists of two bastions, and a half-bastion with three ravelins," and stands higher than any ground in face of it.
- 2013 June 8, “Obama goes troll-hunting”, in The Economist, volume 407, number 8839, page 55:
- The solitary, lumbering trolls of Scandinavian mythology would sometimes be turned to stone by exposure to sunlight. Barack Obama is hoping that several measures announced on June 4th will have a similarly paralysing effect on their modern incarnation, the patent troll.
- A small piece of stone, a pebble.
- A gemstone, a jewel, especially a diamond.
- c. 1593, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedy of Richard the Third: […]”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: Printed by Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act I, scene iv], page 180, column 1:
- […] Ineſtimable Stones, vnvalewed Iewels […]
- (Britain, plural: stone) A unit of mass equal to 14 pounds. Used to measure the weights of people, animals, cheese, wool, etc. 1 stone ≈ 6.3503 kilograms
- 1843, The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, page 202:
- Seven pounds make a clove, 2 cloves a stone, 2 stone a tod, 6 1/2 tods a wey, 2 weys a sack, 12 sacks a last. [...] It is to be observed here that a sack is 13 tods, and a tod 28 pounds, so that the sack is 364 pounds.
- 1882, James Edwin Thorold Rogers, A History of Agriculture and Prices in England, volume 4, page 209:
- Generally, however, the stone or petra, almost always of 14 lbs., is used, the tod of 28 lbs., and the sack of thirteen stones.
- (botany) The central part of some fruits, particularly drupes; consisting of the seed and a hard endocarp layer.
- a peach stone
- (medicine) A hard, stone-like deposit.
- kidney stone
- (board games) A playing piece made of any hard material, used in various board games such as backgammon, and go.
- A dull light grey or beige, like that of some stones.
- (curling) A 42-pound, precisely shaped piece of granite with a handle attached, which is bowled down the ice.
- A monument to the dead; a gravestone or tombstone.
- (Can we find and add a quotation of Gray to this entry?)
- (obsolete) A mirror, or its glass.
- c. 1603–1606, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of King Lear”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act V, scene iii], page 309, column 1:
- She's dead as earth: Lend me a Looking-glaſſe; / If that her breath will miſt or ſtaine the ſtone, / Why then ſhe liues.
- (obsolete) A testicle of an animal.
- c. 1591–1595, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Romeo and Ivliet”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: […] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act I, scene iii], page 56, column 1:
- […] and yet I warrant it had vpon it brow, a bumpe as big as a young Cockrels ſtone?
- 1750, W[illiam] Ellis, The Country Housewife's Family Companion […] , London: James Hodges; B. Collins, OCLC 837728611, page 157:
- To make Capons […] [S]ome for this Purpoſe make it their Buſineſs after Harveſt-time to go to Markets for buying up Chickens, and between Michaelmas and All-hollantide caponize the Cocks, when they have got large enough to have Stones of ſuch a Bigneſs that they may be pulled out; for if they are too little, it can't be done.
- (dated, printing) A stand or table with a smooth, flat top of stone, commonly marble, on which to arrange the pages of a book, newspaper, etc. before printing; also called imposing stone.
All countable senses use the plural stones except the British unit of mass, which uses the invariant plural stone.
- (substance): rock
- (small piece of stone): pebble
- (of fruit): pit, pip
- (hard stone-like deposit): calculus
- (curling piece): rock
- The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.
- (transitive) To pelt with stones, especially to kill by pelting with stones.
- She got stoned to death after they found her.
- (transitive) To wall with stones.
- 1974, Mathias Peter Harpin, Prophets in the wilderness: a history of Coventry, Rhode Island:
- […] and since it was a rule of the French troops not to be a burden on the people along their route it could be that the advance guard dug and stoned the well for the troop's own special use.
- (transitive) To remove a stone from (fruit etc.).
- (intransitive) To form a stone during growth, with reference to fruit etc.
- (transitive, slang) To intoxicate, especially with narcotics. (Usually in passive)
- (intransitive, Singapore, slang) To do nothing, to stare blankly into space and not pay attention when relaxing or when bored.
- 2003, Roger, Joy, Vera and Amanda Loh, Facts about Singapore: Differences between Ohio and Singapore:
- I was stoning the whole of today.
- 2011 November 2, Shermaine Ong, (Please provide the book title or journal name):
- Resume writing class lesson 2, stoning.
- 2015 April 8, Becky Osawa, Trekking with Becky: Stoning at the Marina Barrage, Singapore:
- The Marina Barrage is a reservoir, but everyone goes there because the spacious greenery at the top is the perfect place for stoning, which is Singlish for hanging out and chilling.
- (transitive) To lap with an abrasive stone to remove surface irregularities.
- (pelt with stones): lapidate
- (do nothing, just relaxing): chill, chillax, chill out, hang out, rilek
- (do nothing, stare into space): daydream, veg out
stone (not comparable)
- Constructed of stone.
- stone walls
- Synonym: stonen
- Having the appearance of stone.
- stone pot
- Of a dull light grey or beige, like that of some stones.
- (African-American Vernacular) Used as an intensifier.
- She is one stone fox.
- 1994, Born Bad: Stories:
- Yeah, he's a stone fuck–up. But he's stand–up, too, don't forget that.
- 1999, Mercedes Lackey, Larry Dixon, The Chrome Borne:
- If travel was this difficult, it was going to make escaping a stone bitch.
- 2001, Andrew H. Vachss, Pain Management:
- “And I got the best metal man in the business going for me, too.” “This job's going to be a stone motherfucker,” Flacco said
- 2004, K'Wan Foye, Street dreams, page 175:
- The man who had broken up their little party was a stone gangsta.
- 2007, David Housewright, Dead Boyfriends, page 178:
- Back then most men would have described you as being a stone babe.
- 2007, J. D. Robb, Born In Death:
- Her widower father married my stone bitch of a mother when I was about fourteen.
- 2008, A. James, St. Martin's Academy: The Gifted Rule, page 64:
- “Well, Bradley Wreede told Moiré George who told Julia Nickols who told Katie Kimber who told that big stone dude who told...."
- 2009, John Lutz, Night Victims, page 307:
- He might be a stone killer who simply doesn't care if his victim's alive or dead at the time of disfigurement.
- (LGBT) Willing to give sexual pleasure but not to receive it.
- stone butch; stone femme
- Antonym: pillow princess
stone (not comparable)
- As a stone (used with following adjective).
- My father is stone deaf. This soup is stone cold.
- (slang) Absolutely, completely (used with following adjectives).
- I went stone crazy after she left.
- I said the medication made my vision temporarily blurry, it did not make me stone blind.
- Bath stone
- Big Stone County
- Black Stone
- Blarney Stone
- cast the first stone
- china stone
- cinnamon stone
- curling stone
- drystone, dry-stone
- foundation stone
- Four Shire Stone
- guard stone
- hard as stone
- hunger stone
- kidney stone
- kill two birds with one stone
- leave no stone unturned
- paving stone
- Philosopher's Stone, Philosophers' Stone
- pizza stone
- precious stone
- pudding stone
- rolling stone
- Rosetta Stone
- sink like a stone
- Smithfield stone
- standing stone
- stepping stone
- Stone Age
- stone bass
- stone boat
- stone butch
- stone circle
- stone-cold, stone cold
- Stone County
- stone crab
- stone curlew
- stone-dead, stone dead
- stone-deaf, stone deaf
- stone femme
- stone frigate
- stone fruit
- stoneground, stone-ground
- stone hands
- stone lily
- stone marten
- stone mint
- stone parsley
- stone pine
- stone pit
- stone shoot
- stone's throw
- stone the crows
- stone wall
- stone xylophone
- throw stones
- turn to stone
stone (plural stones)
- stoned (high on drugs)
- A stone, boulder, or pebble:
- c. 1395, John Wycliffe, John Purvey [et al.], transl., Bible (Wycliffite Bible (later version), MS Lich 10.), published c. 1410, Apocalips 6:16, page 119v, column 1; republished as Wycliffe's translation of the New Testament, Lichfield: Bill Endres, 2010:
- .· ⁊ þei ſeien to hillis and to ſtoonys falle ȝe on us ⁊ hide ȝe vs fro þe face of hi[m] þat ſittiþ on the troone.· ⁊ fro þe wraþþe of þe lomb ·
- And they said to hills and rocks: "Fall on us and hide us from the face of the one that sits on the throne and from the wrath of the lamb […] "
- A solid mass resembling stone, especially:
- Stone as a material (especially in construction)
- A stone structure or monument, especially a tomb or tombstone.
- A stone (unit of mass)