Indonesian edit

Etymology edit

From Malay ber-, from Classical Malay ber-, from Old Malay bar-, mar-, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *maR-.

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

ber- (verb base)

  1. (intransitive) -ing, used to form the continuative aspect of some verbs
    ber- + ‎pikir (to think) → ‎berpikir (thinking)
    ber- + ‎renang (to swim) → ‎berenang (swimming)
  2. (intransitive) used to form dynamic verb of some transitive verbs
    ber- + ‎ubah (to change) → ‎berubah (to change (to become something different))
  3. (intransitive, reflexive) to do something to the self.
    ber- + ‎hias (dressing) → ‎berhias (self-dressing)
  4. (intransitive) alternative form of di-.
    ber- + ‎terima (to accept) → ‎berterima (to be accepted)

ber- (noun base)

  1. to have; -ed, -d
    ber- + ‎atap (roof) → ‎beratap (roofed)
    ber- + ‎baju (clothes) → ‎berbaju (clothed)
    ber- + ‎adik (younger sibling) → ‎beradik (profess as someone younger sibling)
  2. to produce [base]
    ber- + ‎telur (egg) → ‎bertelur (to produce egg)
  3. to use [base], to wear [base], to travel by [base]
    ber- + ‎sepatu (shoes) → ‎bersepatu (to wear shoes)
  4. to work, to engage in the [base].
    ber- + ‎tani (farming) → ‎bertani (to farm)
  5. (intransitive, reciprocal) to do [base] in reciprocal situation.
    ber- + ‎tinju (boxing, hit) → ‎bertinju (to hit each other)
    ber- + ‎teman (friend) → ‎berteman (to be friends with each other)
  6. (intransitive) duration and length
    ber- + ‎jam (hour) → ‎berjam-jam (hours)
    ber- + ‎meter (metre) → ‎bermeter-meter (metres)

ber- (adjective base)

  1. (intransitive, stative) used to form stative verbs
    ber- + ‎gembira (happy) → ‎bergembira (to be in happiness (to rejoice))
    ber- + ‎sedih (sad) → ‎bersedih (to be in sadness)

ber- (numeral base)

  1. multiple
    ber- + ‎tiga (three) → ‎bertiga (triple)
  2. together in a group of [base]
    ber- + ‎tiga (three) → ‎bertiga (in group of three)
  3. (acting) in a number of groups of [base] at a time
    ber- + ‎tiga (three) → ‎bertiga-tiga (three at a time, three by three)

Alternative forms edit

  • be- used in word with initial /r/ or word with final /-ərC/ in first syllable
  • bel- only used in the word ajar and unjur

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

Malay edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *maR-.

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

ber- (verb base)

  1. (intransitive) -ing, used to form the continuative aspect of some verbs
    ber- + ‎fikir (to think) → ‎berfikir (thinking)
    ber- + ‎renang (to swim) → ‎berenang (swimming)
  2. (intransitive) used to form dynamic verb of some transitive verbs
    ber- + ‎ubah (to change) → ‎berubah (to change (to become something different))
  3. (intransitive, reflexive) to do something to the self.
    ber- + ‎hias (dressing) → ‎berhias (self-dressing)
  4. (intransitive) alternative form of di-.
    ber- + ‎terima (to accept) → ‎berterima (to be accepted)

ber- (noun base)

  1. to have; -ed, -d
    ber- + ‎atap (roof) → ‎beratap (roofed)
    ber- + ‎baju (clothes) → ‎berbaju (clothed)
    ber- + ‎adik (younger sibling) → ‎beradik (profess as someone younger sibling)
  2. to produce [base]
    ber- + ‎telur (egg) → ‎bertelur (to produce egg)
  3. to use [base], to wear [base], to travel by [base]
    ber- + ‎kasut (shoes) → ‎berkasut (to wear shoes)
  4. to work, to engage in the [base].
    ber- + ‎tani (farming) → ‎bertani (to farm)
  5. (intransitive, reciprocal) to do [base] in reciprocal situation.
    ber- + ‎lawan (fighting) → ‎berlawan (to fight each other)
    ber- + ‎kawan (friend) → ‎berkawan (to be friends with each other)

ber- (adjective base)

  1. (intransitive, stative) used to form stative verbs
    ber- + ‎gembira (happy) → ‎bergembira (to be in happiness (to rejoice))
    ber- + ‎sedih (sad) → ‎bersedih (to be in sadness)

ber- (numeral base)

  1. multiple
    ber- + ‎tiga (three) → ‎bertiga (triple)

Alternative forms edit

  • be- used in words with initial /r/ in the first syllable and kerja
  • bel- only used in the words ajar and unjur

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Indonesian: ber-

Further reading edit