Contents

LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From the same stem as Latvian ciets(hard, solid), from which it was a variant yo-stem: Proto-Indo-European *key-(to set in motion, to move) with a variant -tyo-s of an (adjectivizing) suffix -to-s > Proto-Baltic *keityas > *kietyas > ciešs. It is also possible that the adverbial form cieti of ciets first gave rise to a variant *cieši via palatalization, from which came the adjective ciešs. In some dialects, ciešs still means the same as ciets, but in the standard literary language they are semantically distinct.[1]

PronunciationEdit

(file)

AdjectiveEdit

ciešs (def. ciešais, comp. ciešāks, sup. visciešākais; adv. cieši)

  1. dense, tight (with component parts that are linked or very close to each other)
    ciešs audums‎ ― tight fabric, cloth
    cieša ziedkopa‎ ― tight, dense inflorescence
    ciešs krāvums, tinums‎ ― tight stacking, winding
  2. tight, close (with people standing close to each other)
    sastāties ciešā lokā‎ ― to stand in a tight, close circle
    cieša kolonna‎ ― tight, close column
  3. (figuratively) close, united
    ciešā saimē izcīnīsim cīņu‎ ― as (lit. in) a close family we will win the fight
  4. (of clothes, ties, etc.) tight, close (strongly bound, tied)
    ciešs līmējums, mezgls‎ ― tight bond, knot
    cieša apkaklīte‎ ― tight collar
  5. (of movements) tight, strong, determined
    ciešs rokas spiediens‎ ― tight handshake
    cieši sakost zobus‎ ― to clech one's teeth tight
  6. (of relations) tight, close, strong
    cieša sadarbība‎ ― close cooperation
    ciešas saites ar kolektīvu‎ ― close ties with the team
    uzturēt ciešus sakarus ar draudzīgām zemēm‎ ― to maintain close contact, relations with friendly countries
  7. (of thoughts, ideas, promises) tight, strong, rigid, unalterable
    cieša parliecība, ticība, noruna‎ ― strong belief, faith, agreement
    ciešs solījums‎ ― solemn promise
  8. (of sleep) tight, deep
    viņš gan naktī neesot nekā dzirdējis, gulējis ciešu miegu‎ ― he had heard nothing during the night, (he) slept a tight sleep
  9. (of looks) tight, hard, attentive, concentrated
    Frickalna pelēkajām acīm arvien bija ciešs skatiens, it kā viņš pētītu to, ko sarunu biedrs nepasaka‎ ― Frickalns' gray eyes had a tight, concentrated look, as if he were studying what his conversation partner did not say
  10. (adverbial form; of people, objects) tightly close, very near (syn. ciets)
    pienākt cieši klāt‎ ― to come very close
    sēdēt cieši kopā‎ ― to sit close together

DeclensionEdit

SynonymsEdit

  • (of "with parts very close to each other"): blīvs
  • (of "sleep"; "close by"; "strong (movement)"; "concentrated (look)"): ciets

AntonymsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “ciets”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7