From Middle English standen, from Old English standan (“to stand, occupy a place, be valid, stand good, be, exist, take place, consist, be fixed, remain undisturbed, stand still, cease to move, remain without motion, stop, maintain one’s position, not yield to pressure, reside, abide, continue, remain, not to fall, be upheld”), from Proto-Germanic *standaną (“to stand”), from Pre-Germanic *sth₂-n-t-´, an innovative extended n-infixed form of Proto-Indo-European *steh₂-.
Cognate with Scots stand (“to stand”), Saterland Frisian stounde (“to stand”), West Frisian stean (“to stand”), dialectal German standen (“to stand”), Danish stande (“to stand”), Swedish stånda (“to stand”), Norwegian standa (“to stand”), Faroese standa (“to stand”), Icelandic standa (“to stand”), Gothic 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌰𐌽 (standan), Russian стоя́ть (stojátʹ, “to stand”). Also from *steh₂-: Irish seas, Latin stare, Lithuanian stóti, Old Church Slavonic стояти (stojati), Albanian shtoj (“to increase”), Ancient Greek ἵστημι (hístēmi, “to put”), Avestan 𐬵𐬌𐬱𐬙𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (hištaiti), Sanskrit तिष्ठति (tiṣṭhati). From the related Proto-Germanic *stāną (“to stand”): West Frisian stean, Dutch staan, German stehen, Danish stå.
stand (third-person singular simple present stands, present participle standing, simple past and past participle stood)
- (heading) To position or be positioned physically.
- (intransitive) To support oneself on the feet in an erect position.
Here I stand, wondering what to do next.
1898, Winston Churchill, chapter 5, in The Celebrity:
Then came a maid with hand-bag and shawls, and after her a tall young lady. She stood for a moment holding her skirt above the grimy steps, […], and the light of the reflector fell full upon her.
- (intransitive) To rise to one’s feet; to stand up.
Stand up, walk to the refrigerator, and get your own snack.
- (intransitive) To remain motionless.
Do not leave your car standing in the road.
- 1611, King James Version of the Bible, Matthew 2:9,
- The star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was.
1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 23, in The Mirror and the Lamp:
The slightest effort made the patient cough. He would stand leaning on a stick and holding a hand to his side, and when the paroxysm had passed it left him shaking.
- Turning back, then, toward the basement staircase, she began to grope her way through blinding darkness, but had taken only a few uncertain steps when, of a sudden, she stopped short and for a little stood like a stricken thing, quite motionless save that she quaked to her very marrow in the grasp of a great and enervating fear.
- (intransitive) To be placed in an upright or vertical orientation.
1879, R[ichard] J[efferies], chapter 1, in The Amateur Poacher, London: Smith, Elder, & Co., […], OCLC 752825175:
They burned the old gun that used to stand in the dark corner up in the garret, close to the stuffed fox that always grinned so fiercely. Perhaps the reason why he seemed in such a ghastly rage was that he did not come by his death fairly. Otherwise his pelt would not have been so perfect.
- He seized the gun which always stood in a corner of his bedroom […].
- (transitive) To place in an upright or standing position.
He stood the broom in a corner and took a break.
- (intransitive) To occupy or hold a place; to be set, placed, fixed, located, or situated.
Paris stands on the Seine.
- 1774, Edward Long, The History of Jamaica. Or, General Survey of the Antient and Modern State of that Island, volume 2, book 2, chapter 7, 6:
- The chapel ſtands on the South ſide of the ſquare, near the governor’s houſe.
- 2017 October 2, "Las Vegas shooting: At least 58 dead at Mandalay Bay Hotel", in bbc.com, BBC:
Las Vegas police say the number of people injured now stands at 515.
- (intransitive) To measure when erect on the feet.
- 1855, Alfred Tennyson, Maud, XIII, 1. in Maud, and Other Poems, London: Edward Moxon, p. 44,
- His face, as I grant, in spite of spite,
- Has a broad-blown comeliness, red and white,
- And six feet two, as I think, he stands;
- (intransitive) (of tears) To be present, to have welled up (in the eyes).
- c. 1590, William Shakespeare, Henry VI, Part 3, Act V, Scene 6,
- […] many an orphan’s water-standing eye—
- 1651, Francis Bacon, A True and Historical Relation of the Poysoning of Sir Thomas Overbury, London: John Benson & John Playford, “Sir Jervas his Confession,” p. 71,
- […] now my heart beginneth to melt within me being wounded (with that the tears stood in his eyes) to see the faces of some here present, whom J most earnestly love, and now must depart from with shame […]
- 1722, Daniel Defoe, Moll Flanders, London: W. Chetwood & T. Edling, p. 222,
- […] [he] pull’d me up again, and then giving me two or three Kisses again, thank’d me for my kind yielding to him; and was so overcome with the Satisfaction and Joy of it, that I saw Tears stand in his Eyes.
- 1844, Charles Dickens, Martin Chuzzlewit, London: Chapman & Hall, Chapter 32, p. 380,
- He takes me half-price to the play, to an extent which I sometimes fear is beyond his means; and I see the tears a standing in his eyes during the whole performance […]
- (heading) To position or be positioned mentally.
- (intransitive, followed by to + infinitive) To be positioned to gain or lose.
He stands to get a good price for the house.
- (transitive, negative) To tolerate.
I can’t stand when people don’t read the instructions.
I can’t stand him.
1913, Joseph C. Lincoln, chapter 7, in Mr. Pratt's Patients:
“[…] if you call my duds a ‘livery’ again there'll be trouble. It's bad enough to go around togged out like a life saver on a drill day, but I can stand that 'cause I'm paid for it. What I won't stand is to have them togs called a livery. […].”
- (intransitive) To maintain one's ground; to be acquitted; not to fail or yield; to be safe.
- readers by whose judgment I would stand or fall
- (intransitive) To maintain an invincible or permanent attitude; to be fixed, steady, or firm; to take a position in resistance or opposition.
- Bible, Esther viii. 11
- The king granted the Jews […] to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life.
- (Can we date this quote?) Robert South
- the standing pattern of their imitation
- (intransitive, obsolete) To be in some particular state; to have essence or being; to be; to consist.
- Bible, Hebrews ix. 10
- sacrifices […] which stood only in meats and drinks
- (Can we date this quote?) John Dryden
- Accomplish what your signs foreshow; / I stand resigned, and am prepared to go.
- (Can we date this quote?) Sir Walter Scott
- Thou seest how it stands with me, and that I may not tarry.
- (heading) To position or be positioned socially.
- (intransitive, cricket) To act as an umpire.
- (transitive) To undergo; withstand; hold up.
The works of Shakespeare have stood the test of time.
- (intransitive, Britain) To seek election.
He is standing for election to the local council.
- (Can we date this quote?) Izaak Walton
- He stood to be elected one of the proctors of the university.
- (intransitive) To be valid.
What I said yesterday still stands.
- (transitive) To oppose, usually as a team, in competition.
- 1957, Matt Christopher, Basketball Sparkplug, Ch.7:
- "Kim, Jack, and I will stand you guys," Jimmie Burdette said. ¶ "We'll smear you!" laughed Ron.
- c. 1973, R. J. Childerhose, Hockey Fever in Goganne Falls, p.95:
- The game stopped while sides were sorted out. Andy did the sorting. "Okay," he said. "Jimmy is coming out. He and Gaston and Ike and me will stand you guys."
- 1978, Louis Sachar, Sideways Stories from Wayside School, Ch.21:
- "Hey, Louis," Dameon shouted. "Do you want to play kickball?" ¶ ""All right," said Louis. "Ron and I will both play." […] ¶ "Ron and I will stand everybody!" Louis announced.
- (transitive) To cover the expense of; to pay for.
to stand a treat
- (Can we find and add a quotation of Thackeray to this entry?)
- (intransitive) To have or maintain a position, order, or rank; to be in a particular relation.
Christian charity, or love, stands first in the rank of gifts.
- (intransitive) To be consistent; to agree; to accord.
- (Can we date this quote?) Philip Massinger
- Doubt me not; by heaven, I will do nothing / But what may stand with honour.
- (intransitive) To appear in court.
- (Can we find and add a quotation of Burrill to this entry?)
- (intransitive, nautical) Of a ship or its captain, to steer, sail (in a specified direction, for a specified destination etc.).
- 1630, John Smith, True Travels, in Kupperman 1988, p.40:
- To repaire his defects, hee stood for the coast of Calabria, but hearing there was six or seven Galleyes at Mesina hee departed thence for Malta […].
- (intransitive) To remain without ruin or injury.
- (Can we date this quote?) John Dryden
- My mind on its own centre stands unmoved.
- (Can we date this quote?) Lord Byron
- The ruin'd wall / Stands when its wind-worn battlements are gone.
- (card games) To stop asking for more cards; to keep one's hand as it has been dealt so far.
- In older works, standen is found as a past participle of this verb; it is now archaic.
- (tolerate): This is almost always found in a negative form such as can’t stand, or No-one can stand… In this sense it is a catenative verb that takes the gerund -ing or infinitive to.... See Appendix:English catenative verbs.
to support oneself on the feet in an erect position
- Afrikaans: staan (af)
- Albanian: rri (sq)
- American Sign Language: V@Palm-FingerDown-OpenB@CenterTrunkhigh-PalmUp
- Arabic: وَقَفَ (waqafa)
- Egyptian Arabic: وقف (weʾef)
- Syriac: ܩܘܡ (qom)
- Armenian: կանգնել (hy) (kangnel)
- Aromanian: stau
- Assamese: থিয় হোৱা (thi hüa)
- Azerbaijani: dayanmaq (az), durmaq (az)
- Bashkir: тороу (torou)
- Basque: zutik egon
- Belarusian: стая́ць impf (stajácʹ), пастая́ць pf (pastajácʹ)
- Bengali: দাঁড়ানো (dãṛano)
- Bulgarian: стоя́ (bg) impf (stojá)
- Burmese: ရပ် (my) (rap)
- Catalan: estar dret
- Cantonese: 企 (kei2)
- Mandarin: 站 (zh) (zhàn), 站立 (zh) (zhànlì), 立 (zh) (lì)
- Min Dong: 企 (kie)
- Crimean Tatar: turmaq
- Czech: stát (cs) impf
- Dalmatian: stur
- Danish: stå (da)
- Dutch: staan (nl)
- Esperanto: stari (eo)
- Estonian: seisma (et)
- Ewe: tsitrɛ n
- Finnish: seisoa (fi), seistä (fi)
- French: être debout (fr), se tenir debout
- Friulian: stâ, stâ in pîs
- Galician: permanecer (gl), ficar, estar (gl), estar de pé (gl), estar en pé (gl)
- Ge'ez: ቆመ (ḳomä)
- Georgian: დგომა (dgoma)
- German: stehen (de)
- Alemannic German: staa
- Greek: στέκομαι (el) (stékomai)
- Haitian Creole: kanpe
- Hebrew: עַמד (he) (amad)
- Hindi: खड़ा होना (khaṛā honā)
- Hungarian: áll (hu)
- Icelandic: standa (is)
- Ido: stacar (io)
- Indonesian: berdiri (id)
- Irish: seas
- Istro-Romanian: stå
- Italian: stare in piedi, alzarsi (it)
- Japanese: 立つ (ja) (たつ, tatsu)
- Kannada: ನಿಲ್ಲು (kn) (nillu)
- Karelian: seisuo
- Kazakh: тұру (kk) (turw)
- Khmer: ឈរ (km) (chɔɔ)
- Komi-Permyak: сулавны (sulavny)
- Korean: 서다 (ko) (seoda)
- Sorani: وهستان (ku) (wastAn), ههڵسان (ku) (halsAn)
- Kyrgyz: туруу (ky) (turuu)
- Lao: ຍືນ (nyư̄n)
- Latgalian: stuoveit
to be positioned to gain or lose
to undergo; withstand; hold up
- Afrikaans: verdra
- Armenian: դիմանալ (hy) (dimanal)
- Catalan: suportar (ca)
- Czech: vystát
- Danish: udholde, udstå, klare (da)
- Dutch: verdragen (nl), uitstaan (nl)
- Esperanto: elteni
- Finnish: sietää (fi), kestää (fi)
- German: ausstehen (de), aushalten (de), ertragen (de)
- Hungarian: kiáll (hu)
- Irish: fulaing
- Italian: tollerare (it), sopportare (it), soffrire (it)
- Japanese: 我慢する (ja) (gaman suru), 大目にみる (ōme ni miru)
- Latin: perpetior
- Macedonian: поднесува (podnesuva), трпи (trpi), издржува (izdržuva)
- Malay: tahan (ms)
- Norman: sténer
- Norwegian: motstå, tåle (no)
- Portuguese: tolerar (pt), aguentar (pt), suportar (pt)
- Russian: выноси́ть (ru) impf (vynosítʹ), вы́нести (ru) pf (výnesti), выде́рживать (ru) impf (vydérživatʹ), вы́держать (ru) (výderžatʹ)
- Scottish Gaelic: fuiling
- Serbo-Croatian: trpeti (sh)
- Lower Sorbian: wucuś
- Spanish: soportar (es), tolerar (es), pasar (es)
- Swahili: msimamo (sw)
- Swedish: stå ut med, tolerera (sv)
- Ukrainian: витри́мувати impf (vytrýmuvaty), ви́тримати pf (výtrymaty)
to be placed in an upright or vertical orientation
to place in an upright or standing position
- Armenian: կանգնեցնել (hy) (kangnecʿnel)
- Czech: postavit (cs)
- Danish: stille (da), sætte (da)
- Dutch: stellen (nl), neerzetten (nl), overeind (nl) zetten (nl)
- Esperanto: starigi
- Finnish: asettaa pystyyn
- German: stellen (de), abstellen (de), hinstellen (de), aufstellen (de)
- Hungarian: állít (hu), felállít (hu)
- Italian: mettere in piedi, mettere ritto, appoggiare (it), collocare (it)
- Japanese: 立てる (ja) (tateru)
- Sorani: به راوهستان (ku) (ba rAwastAn), به پێوه (ku) (ba paewa)
- Macedonian: застанува (zastanuva), поставува (postavuva)
to steer in a specified directionor destination
to oppose, usually as a team, in competition
- The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.
Translations to be checked
stand (plural stands)
- The act of standing.
- I took my stand upon an eminence […] to look into their several ladings.
- A defensive position or effort.
The Commander says we will make our stand here.
- A resolute, unwavering position; firm opinion; action for a purpose in the face of opposition.
They took a firm stand against copyright infringement.
- A period of performance in a given location or venue.
They have a four-game stand at home against the Yankees. They spent the summer touring giving 4 one-night stands a week.
- A device to hold something upright or aloft.
He set the music upon the stand and began to play. an umbrella stand; a hat-stand
1913, Mrs. [Marie] Belloc Lowndes, chapter II, in The Lodger, London: Methuen, OCLC 7780546; republished in Novels of Mystery: The Lodger; The Story of Ivy; What Really Happened, New York, N.Y.: Longmans, Green and Co., 55 Fifth Avenue, , OCLC 2666860, page 0091:
- There was a neat hat-and-umbrella stand, and the stranger's weary feet fell soft on a good, serviceable dark-red drugget, which matched in colour the flock-paper on the walls.
- The platform on which a witness testifies in court; the witness stand or witness box.
She took the stand and quietly answered questions.
- A particular grove or other group of trees or shrubs.
This stand of pines is older than the one next to it.
- (forestry) A contiguous group of trees sufficiently uniform in age-class distribution, composition, and structure, and growing on a site of sufficiently uniform quality, to be a distinguishable unit.
- A standstill, a motionless state, as of someone confused, or a hunting dog who has found game.
- 1625, Francis Bacon, “Of Truth”, Essays
- One of the later school of the Grecians, examineth the matter, and is at a stand, to think what should be in it, that men should love lies; where neither they make for pleasure, as with poets, nor for advantage, as with the merchant; but for the lie’s sake.
- 1819, Lord Byron, Don Juan, I.168:
- Antonia's patience now was at a stand— / "Come, come, 't is no time now for fooling there," / She whispered […]
- A small building, booth, or stage, as in a bandstand or hamburger stand.
- A designated spot where someone or something may stand or wait.
- (US, dated) The situation of a shop, store, hotel, etc.
a good, bad, or convenient stand for business
- (sports) Grandstand. (often in the plural)
2011 November 11, Rory Houston, “Estonia 0-4 Republic of Ireland”, in RTE Sport:
The end of the opening period was relatively quite [sic] as Vassiljev's desperate shot from well outside the penalty area flew into the stand housing the Irish supporters and then Ward's ctoss [sic] was gathered by goalkeeper Pareiko.
- (cricket) A partnership.
- (military, plural often stand) A single set, as of arms.
- 1927, Herbert Asbury, The Gangs of New York: An Informal History of the Underworld, Paragon House (1990), →ISBN, p.170:
- The police and troops captured eleven thousand stand of arms, including muskets and pistols, together with several thousand bludgeons and other weapons.
- (obsolete) Rank; post; station; standing.
- (Can we date this quote?) Samuel Daniel
- Father, since your fortune did attain / So high a stand, I mean not to descend.
- (dated) A state of perplexity or embarrassment.
to be at a stand what to do
- A young tree, usually reserved when other trees are cut; also, a tree growing or standing upon its own root, in distinction from one produced from a scion set in a stock, either of the same or another kind of tree.
- (obsolete) A weight of from two hundred and fifty to three hundred pounds, used in weighing pitch.
- A location or position where one may stand.
- c. 1604 Measure for Measure by Wm Shakespeare
- Come, I have found you out a stand most fit, / Where you may have such vantage on the duke, / He shall not pass you.
Part or all of this entry has been imported from the 1913 edition of Webster’s Dictionary, which is now free of copyright and hence in the public domain. The imported definitions may be significantly out of date, and any more recent senses may be completely missing.
(See the entry for stand in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.)
defensive position or effort
resolute, unwavering position
period of performance in a given location or venue
device to hold something upright or aloft
- Macedonian: сталак m (stalak), статив m (stativ), потпора f (potpora)
- Maori: porotēteke
- Bokmål: stativ n
- Nynorsk: stativ n
- Portuguese: apoio (pt), amparo (pt), encosto (pt)
- Russian: пьедеста́л (ru) m (pʹjedestál) (of a statue), подста́вка (ru) f (podstávka), этаже́рка (ru) f (etažérka), консо́ль (ru) f (konsólʹ), подпо́ра (ru) f (podpóra), сто́йка (ru) f (stójka), штати́в (ru) m (štatív), стелла́ж (ru) (stelláž), стенд (ru) m (stɛnd)
- Slovak: stojan m
- Spanish: atril (es) m (music stand)
- Swahili: msimamo (sw)
- Swedish: ställ (sv), stativ (sv)
- Ukrainian: підста́вка f (pidstávka), трибу́на f (trybúna), сті́йка f (stíjka), штати́в m (štatýv), сто́лик m (stólyk), стенд m (stend)
platform on which a witness testifies in court
particular grove or other group of trees
contiguous group of trees that may be considered a distinguishable unit
standstill, motionless state
small building or booth
- Macedonian: штанд m (štand), тезга f (tezga)
- Malay: please add this translation if you can
- Bokmål: stand (no) m
- Nynorsk: stand (nn) m
- Portuguese: estande (pt), barraca (pt), barraquinha
- Romanian: please add this translation if you can
- Russian: ларёк (ru) m (larjók), кио́ск (ru) m (kiósk), пала́тка (ru) f (palátka), стенд (ru) m (stend)
- Serbo-Croatian: please add this translation if you can
- Spanish: puesto (es) m
- Swahili: misimamo (sw)
- Swedish: stånd (sv) n, bås (sv) n, monter (sv) c
- Telugu: please add this translation if you can
- Thai: please add this translation if you can
- Tibetan: བཀད་ས (bkad sa) (for food), བགྲོ་བའི་ཁག་པ (bgro ba'i khag pa) (for music), གླུ་དབྱངས་ཀྱི་ཁང (glu dbyangs kyi khang) (for singing, music)
- Ukrainian: ларьо́к m (larʹók), кіо́ск (uk) m (kiósk), наме́т (uk) m (namét)
- Vietnamese: please add this translation if you can
designated spot where someone or something may stand or wait
situation of a shop, store, hotel, etc.
military: single set, as of arms
rank; post; station; standing
state of perplexity or embarrassment
young tree, reserved when other trees are cut
weight of from two hundred and fifty to three hundred pounds
From the old verb stande (replaced by stå)
stand m (definite singular standen, indefinite plural standar, definite plural standane)
- condition, order, state
- height, level, reading
From English stand
stand m (definite singular standen, indefinite plural standar, definite plural standane)
- a stand (e.g. at an exhibition)
From German Stand
stand m (definite singular standen, indefinite plural stender, definite plural stendene)
stand n (definite singular standet, indefinite plural stand, definite plural standa)
- (historical) an estate (a social class)