See also: trống, trỏng, and trọng

Norwegian Nynorsk Edit

Pronunciation Edit

Etymology 1 Edit

From Old Norse þrǫng.

Noun Edit

trong m (definite singular trongen, uncountable)

  1. need
    Me har trong for fleire folk.
    We have a need for more people.
Synonyms Edit

Etymology 2 Edit

From Old Norse þrǫngr.

Adjective Edit

trong (neuter trongt, definite singular and plural tronge, comparative trongare, indefinite superlative trongast, definite superlative trongaste)

  1. tight, narrow
    Dei gjekk gjennom tronge fjellpass.
    They walked through narrow mountain passes.

Etymology 3 Edit

Verb Edit


  1. past of trenga

References Edit

Vietnamese Edit

Pronunciation Edit

Etymology 1 Edit

From Middle Vietnamese tlao᷄, from Proto-Vietic *k-lɔːŋ (clear; limpid).

Adjective Edit

trong (, , , 𤁘, 𤄯)

  1. (of liquid) clear and thus presumably clean
    Antonym: đục
    Nước trong mà ! Uống chắc không sao đâu !
    The water looks pretty clean! Probably wouldn't hurt to drink a bit!
  2. (of a material) translucent or transparent
    Synonym: trong suốt
Derived terms Edit
Derived terms

Etymology 2 Edit

From Middle Vietnamese tlao᷄, from Proto-Vietic *k-lɔːŋ (inside), from Proto-Mon-Khmer *kluuŋ ~ *[k]luəŋ (middle; insides). Cognates include Muong tlong, Chut [Rục] klɔːŋ¹, Pacoh callúng, Semnam kluoːŋ, Bulo Stieng kluŋ, and Khmer ក្នុង (knong). See also lòng. Proto-Tai *klaːŋᴬ (whence Thai กลาง (glaang)) and Proto-Mienic *ɢljaŋᴬ (whence Iu Mien jaangh) might just be look-alikes.

Attested in Phật thuyết đại báo phụ mẫu ân trọng kinh (佛說大報父母恩重經) as (MC kuwng) (modern SV: công) and (MC gjowngH) (modern SV: cộng).

Unrelated to Chinese (OC *truŋ) (B-S), which is read trung in modern Vietnamese and spelled tru᷄ in the Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum.

Preposition Edit

trong (, , , 𡧲, 𥪝, 𥪞, 𪚚)

  1. in; inside; within (an interior or enclosed space)
    trong nhà/phòngin(side) the house/room
    trong tim/lòng/bụngin one's heart (literally, “inside the heart/entrails/stomach”)
  2. within (an amount of time)
    Synonym: trong vòng
    trong (vòng) 4 tiếngwithin four hours
  3. in/among (a group)
    Synonym: trong số
    trong đám đôngin/among the crowd
  4. in (a place in southern Vietnam)
    trong namsomeplace in southern Vietnam; "the south"
Antonyms Edit
Graphical notes Edit
  • In certain modern romanization of Nôm texts where this morpheme was written with (MC kuwng), (MC gjowngH), and (MC kjuwng), it is sometimes transcribed as ⟨cong⟩ or ⟨cung⟩. This is due to the misinterpretation of the nature of the graphemes: the phonological (and likely also phonetic) value of the morpheme that these graphemes represented at the time when they were first used was probably *klɔŋA1 (or something similar) and was the ancestor of modern trong, with the medial liquid maintained until at least the end of the Middle Vietnamese period. For a similar case, compare modern trả, giả (to pay back, to return) < *ɓlaːC1, used to be spelled with (MC paeX) in numerous Nôm texts. The *cong and *cung romanizations are thus nothing more than ghosts, and ought to be transcripted instead as ⟨trong⟩ (if scriptor only tries to write the modern reflex) or reconstructed *klɔŋA1 (for historical value).
See also Edit