From Middle English need, nede, partly from Old English nīed, nēad, from Proto-Germanic *naudiz, *nauþiz (“need, trouble, force, distress, compulsion”), from Proto-Indo-European *neh₂u-tí- (“torment, misfortune”); and partly from Old English nēod (“desire, longing; zeal, eagerness, diligence, earnestness, earnest endeavor; pleasure, delight”), from Proto-Germanic *neudō, *neudaz (“wish, urge, desire, longing”), from Proto-Indo-European *new- (“to incline, tend, move, push, nod, wave”). Cognate with Scots nede (“need”), North Frisian nud (“hardship, danger, fear, self-defense, compulsion, control”), West Frisian need (“need”), Dutch nood (“need, want, distress, peril”), Low German Noot (“need”), German Not (“need, distress, necessity, hardship”), Danish nød (“distress, need, necessity”), Swedish nöd (“distress, need, necessity, want”), Icelandic neyð, nauð (“distress, emergency, need”), North Frisian njoe (“requirement, foredeal, benefit, convenience”), Middle Low German nüt (“desire, need, longing”), Middle High German niet (“longing, desire, eagerness, zeal”), German niedlich (“desirable, appealing, lovely, cute”). More at needly.
need (plural needs)
- (countable and uncountable) A requirement for something; something needed.
There's no need to speculate; we can easily find out for sure.
She grew irritated with his constant need for attention.
Our needs are not being met.
I've always tried to have few needs beyond food, clothing and shelter.
- William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
- I have no need to beg.
- Jeremy Taylor (1613–1677)
- Be governed by your needs, not by your fancy.
2014 June 14, “It's a gas”, in The Economist, volume 411, number 8891:
- One of the hidden glories of Victorian engineering is proper drains. […] But out of sight is out of mind. And that, together with the inherent yuckiness of the subject, means that many old sewers have been neglected and are in dire need of repair.
- Lack of means of subsistence; poverty; indigence; destitution.
- William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
- Famine is in thy cheeks; / Need and oppression starveth in thine eyes.
- Adjectives often used with “need”: urgent, dire, desperate, strong, unmet, bad, basic, critical, essential, big, terrible, modest, elementary, daily, everyday, special, educational, environmental, human, personal, financial, emotional, medical, nutritional, spiritual, public, developmental, organizational, legal, fundamental, audio-visual, psychological, corporate, societal, psychosocial, functional, additional, caloric, private, monetary, physiological, mental.
- Albanian: nevojë (sq) f
- Arabic: حَاجَة f (ḥāja), ضَرُورَة f (ḍarūra)
- Armenian: կարիք (hy) (karikʿ), անհրաժեշտություն (hy) (anhražeštutʿyun)
- Catalan: necessitat f
- Mandarin: 需求 (zh) (xūqiú)
- Czech: potřeba (cs) f
- Danish: behov (da) n
- Dutch: behoefte (nl) f
- Esperanto: bezono
- Faroese: tørvur m, tarvur m, trongd f
- Finnish: tarve (fi)
- French: besoin (fr) m, nécessité (fr) f
- Friulian: bisugne f, necessitât
- German: Notwendigkeit (de) f, Bedarf (de) m, Bedürfnis (de) n
- Ancient: χρεία f (khreía)
- Hebrew: צורך \ צֹרֶךְ (he) m (tsórekh)
- Hindi: ज़रूरत f (zarurat)
- Hungarian: szükség (hu)
- Ido: bezono (io)
- Interlingua: necessitate, besonio (ia)
- Irish: gá m
- Istriot: bazuogno m
- Italian: bisogno (it) m, necessità (it) f
- Japanese: 必要 (ja) (ひつよう, hitsuyō)
- Korean: 필요 (ko) (piryo)
- Latin: necessitudo f, necessitas f, opus (la) n
- Latvian: vajadzība f
- Lojban: nitcu (jbo)
- Macedonian: потреба f (potreba), нужда f (nužda), зорт m (zort)
- Malay: keperluan
- Ngazidja Comorian: hadja class 9/10
- Norman: bésouogn m (Guernsey)
- Occitan: besonh
- Old English: þarf
- Old French: besoing m
- Old Saxon: tharf
- Persian: نیاز (fa) (niyâz)
- Polish: potrzeba (pl) f
- Portuguese: necessidade (pt) f
- Romanian: necesitate (ro) f, cerință (ro) f, nevoie (ro)
- Romansch: basegn m
- Russian: нужда́ (ru) f (nuždá), потре́бность (ru) f (potrébnostʹ), необходи́мость (ru) f (neobxodímostʹ)
- Scottish Gaelic: feum m
- Sicilian: bisognu (scn) m
- Spanish: necesidad (es) f, necesidades (es) f pl
- Swahili: uhitaji, haja (sw)
- Swedish: behov (sv) n
- Tagalog: pangangailangan (tl)
- Telugu: అవసరము (te) (avasaramu)
- Turkish: gereksinim (tr), ihtiyaç (tr), eksik (tr), gereklilik (tr)
- Ukrainian: нужда́ f (nuždá), потре́ба (uk) f (potréba), необхі́дність f (neobxídnistʹ)
- Urdu: ضرورت f (zarurat)
- Uyghur: ئېھتىياج (ëhtiyaj), لازىملىق (lazimliq), كېرەكلىك (këreklik), زۆرۈرىيەت (zörüriyet), ھاجەت (hajet)
- Venetian: bixogno m
- Yiddish: באַדאַרף m (badarf)
lack of means of subsistence
From Middle English neden, from Old English nēodian.
need (third-person singular simple present needs, present participle needing, simple past and past participle needed)
- (transitive) To have an absolute requirement for.
Living things need water to survive.
2011 October 1, Tom Fordyce, “Rugby World Cup 2011: England 16-12 Scotland”, in BBC Sport:
- Scotland needed a victory by eight points to have a realistic chance of progressing to the knock-out stages, and for long periods of a ferocious contest looked as if they might pull it off.
- (transitive) To want strongly; to feel that one must have something.
After ten days of hiking, I needed a shower and a shave.
2013 July-August, Henry Petroski, “Geothermal Energy”, in American Scientist, volume 101, number 4:
- Energy has seldom been found where we need it when we want it. Ancient nomads, wishing to ward off the evening chill and enjoy a meal around a campfire, had to collect wood and then spend time and effort coaxing the heat of friction out from between sticks to kindle a flame. With more settled people, animals were harnessed to capstans or caged in treadmills to turn grist into meal.
- (modal verb) To be obliged or required (to do something).
You need not go if you don't want to.
- (intransitive) To be required; to be necessary.
- John Locke (1632-1705)
- When we have done it, we have done all that is in our power, and all that needs.
2013 June 28, Joris Luyendijk, “Our banks are out of control”, in The Guardian Weekly, volume 189, number 3, page 21:
- Seeing the British establishment struggle with the financial sector is like watching an alcoholic who still resists the idea that something drastic needs to happen for him to turn his life around.
- (obsolete, transitive) To be necessary (to someone).
- The verb need is construed in a few different ways:
- With a direct object, as in “I need your help.”
- With a to-infinitive, as in “I need to go.” Here, the subject of need serves implicitly as the subject of the infinitive.
- With a clause of the form “for [object] to [verb phrase]”, or simply “[object] to [verb phrase]” as in “I need for this to happen” or “I need this to happen.” In both variants, the object serves as the subject of the infinitive.
- As a modal verb, with a bare infinitive; in negative polarity contexts, such as questions (“Need I say more?”), with negative expressions such as not (“It need not happen today”; “No one need ever know”), and with similar constructions (“There need only be a few”; “it need be signed only by the president”; “I need hardly explain the error”). Need in this use does not have inflected forms, aside from the contraction needn’t.
- With a gerund-participle, as in “The car needs washing”, or (in certain dialects) with a past participle, as in “The car needs washed” (both meaning roughly “The car needs to be washed”).
- With a direct object and a predicative complement, as in “We need everyone here on time” (meaning roughly “We need everyone to be here on time”) or “I need it gone” (meaning roughly “I need it to be gone”).
- In certain dialects, and colloquially in certain others, with an unmarked reflexive pronoun, as in “I need me a car.”
- A sentence such as “I need you to sit down” or “you need to sit down” is more polite than the bare command “sit down”, but less polite than “please sit down”. It is considered somewhat condescending and infantilizing, hence dubbed by some “the kindergarten imperative”, but is quite common in American usage.
to have an absolute requirement for
- Albanian: nevojit
- Arabic: اِحْتَاجَ (iḥtāja), imperfect: يَحْتَاجُ (yaḥtāju)
- Armenian: կարիք ունենալ (karikʿ unenal)
- Belarusian: патрабава́ць impf (patrabavácʹ)
- Bulgarian: трябва (bg) impf (trjabva)
- Burmese: လို (my) (lui), လိုအပ် (my) (luiap)
- Catalan: necessitar (ca), requerir (ca)
- Mandarin: 需要 (zh) (xūyào)
- Czech: potřebovat (cs)
- Danish: behøve (da)
- Dutch: vereisen (nl), nodig hebben, behoeven (nl), benodigen (nl)
- Esperanto: bezoni
- Estonian: vajama, pidama
- Faroese: tørva, tørvast
- Finnish: tarvita (fi), vaatia (fi)
- French: avoir besoin de (fr)
- Galician: necesitar, requirir, precisar (gl)
- Georgian: საჭიროება (sač̣iroeba)
- German: benötigen (de), brauchen (de)
- Alemannic German: bruuche
- Greek: χρειάζομαι (el) (chreiázomai)
- Ancient: χρῄζω (khrḗizō), δέω (déō)
- Hindi: मुहताज होना (muhtāj hōnā), (pattern: dative + verb + चाहीए (cāhiē))
- Icelandic: þurfa (is)
- Ido: bezonar (io)
- Interlingua: besoniar
- Irish: teastaigh ó (literally ‘to be needed by’), is gá do
- Italian: aver bisogno di
- Japanese: 必要とする (ja) (ひつようする, hitsuyōto-surú), ...が必要 (ja) (...がひつよう, ...ga hitsuyō), 要る (ja) (いる, iru) (intransitive)
- Khmer: ត្រូវការ (trəvkaa)
- Korean: 필요하다 (ko) (piryohada), 요하다 (yohada)
- Lao: ຕ້ອງການ (tǭng kān)
- Latin: egeo, requiro (la), desidero
- Latvian: vajadzēt
- Lithuanian: reikėti (lt) (intransitive)
- Lojban: nitcu (jbo)
- Macedonian: треба (treba)
- Maltese: għand bżonn
- Maori: hapa
- Mongolian: дутагдах (mn) (dutagdah)
- Navajo: tʼáá ákónéehee átʼé
- Norwegian: trenge (no)
- Old English: þurfan
- Old Saxon: thurvan, thurƀan
- Persian: احتیاج داشتن (ehtiyâj dâštan), نیاز داشتن (fa) (niyâz dâštan)
- Polish: potrzebować (pl)
- Portuguese: necessitar (pt), precisar (pt)
- Romanian: (with verbs) trebui (ro), (with nouns) (please verify) a avea nevoie de
- Romansch: avair basegn da
- Russian: нужда́ться (ru) (nuždátʹsja), быть ну́жным (bytʹ núžnym) (intransitive), тре́боваться (ru) (trébovatʹsja)
- Serbo-Croatian: trebati (sh), требати impf
- Slovak: potrebovať
- Slovene: potrebovati, rabiti (sl)
- Spanish: necesitar (es)
- Swahili: -hitaji (sw)
- Swedish: behöva (sv)
- Thai: ต้องการ (th) (dtông-gaan)
- Turkish: gereksinmek (tr), gereksinim duymak, gereksinimi olmak, ihtiyaç duymak (tr), ihtiyacı olmak, lazım olmak, gerekmek (tr)
- Ukrainian: потребува́ти impf (potrebuváty)
- Vietnamese: cần (vi)
- Yiddish: דאַרפֿן (darfn)
to be required or necessary
- The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.
Translations to be checked