Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
共-bw.png

Han characterEdit

(radical 12 +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 廿金 (TC), four-corner 44801, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 127, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1458
  • Dae Jaweon: page 283, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 243, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5171

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
共-oracle.svg 共-bronze.svg 共-silk.svg 共-bigseal.svg 共-seal.svg




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kuŋ⁵¹/
Harbin /kuŋ⁵³/
Tianjin /kuŋ⁵³/
Jinan /kuŋ²¹/
Qingdao /kəŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /kuŋ³¹²/
Xi'an /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Xining /kuə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /kuŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /kũn¹³/
Ürümqi /kuŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /koŋ³⁵/
Chengdu /koŋ¹³/
Guiyang /koŋ²¹³/
Kunming /koŋ¹/
Nanjing /koŋ⁴⁴/
Hefei /kəŋ⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /kuəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /kuŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /kũŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /goŋ²³/
Suzhou /goŋ³¹/
Hangzhou /goŋ¹³/
Wenzhou /d͡ʑyɔ²²/
Hui Shexian /kʰuʌ̃²²/
Tunxi /kan⁴²/
Xiang Changsha /koŋ⁵⁵/
/koŋ¹¹/
Xiangtan /gən²¹/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiuŋ²¹/ ~雙筷子
/kʰuŋ²¹/
Hakka Meixian /kʰiuŋ⁵³/
Taoyuan /kʰioŋ⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /koŋ²²/
Nanning /kuŋ²²/
Hong Kong /kuŋ²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kiɔŋ²²/
/iŋ²²/
/kaŋ²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /køyŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kɔŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kaŋ³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /koŋ³³/
/kaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (28) (30)
Final () (7) (7)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɨoŋ/ /ɡɨoŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kioŋ/ /ɡioŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kioŋ/ /ɡioŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kuawŋ/ /guawŋH/
Li
Rong
/kioŋ/ /ɡioŋH/
Wang
Li
/kĭwoŋ/ /ɡĭwoŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯woŋ/ /gi̯woŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiōng jiòng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gòng
Middle
Chinese
‹ gjowngH ›
Old
Chinese
/*N-k(r)oŋʔ-s/
English together, all

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 4170 4182
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kloŋ/ /*ɡloŋs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. common
  2. together
  3. to share
  4. and

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. together
  2. both
  3. all
  4. with
  5. co-

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana とも, romaji tomo)

  1. both, all

PrefixEdit

‎(hiragana きょう, romaji kyō-)

  1. co-

SuffixEdit

‎(hiragana とも, romaji -tomo)

  1. altogether
  2. -included
    送料共 (そうりょうとも)
    sōryō-tomo
    including shipping fees, including postage

SynonymsEdit

SuffixEdit

‎(hiragana ども, romaji -domo)

  1. indicates plural

SynonymsEdit

Usage notesEdit

Affixing 共 to oneself indicates humbleness. Affixing 共 to other people is disrespectful compared to 達 (たち, -tachi).

Related termsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(gong) (hangeul )

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(cộng, cung, cụng, cùng, gọng, cọng, cũng)

CompoundsEdit

  • 越南共和 Việt Nam cộng hòa
  • 共產 cộng sản
  • 越共 Việt Cộng
  • 中共 Trung Cộng
  • This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

ReadingsEdit

  • Nôm: cọng, cộng, cùng, cũng, cụng, gọng

ReferencesEdit

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm , NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
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