See also: and
U+5BAE, 宮
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5BAE

[U+5BAD]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5BAF]

Translingual

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Han character

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(Kangxi radical 40, +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 十口竹口 (JRHR), four-corner 30606, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 285, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7156
  • Dae Jaweon: page 564, character 16
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): not present, would follow volume 2, page 936, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5BAE

Chinese

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trad.
simp.

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : + : many rooms under a roof — a mansion.

Etymology

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STEDT compares it with Proto-Sino-Tibetan *k-jim ~ k-jum (house); see there for hypothesized cognates.

This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Any explanation for the deviation from the "expected Mandarin reflex" form of jiōng and the actual observed pronunciation of gōng? Why did this fail to affricate? Was this re-imported into Mandarin from Cantonese, or was the Mandarin otherwise influenced by another non-affricating Chinese language?”

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • keng - vernacular;
  • kiong - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kuŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /kuŋ²¹/
Jinan /kuŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /kəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /kuŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /kuŋ²¹/
Xining /kuə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /kũn³¹/
Ürümqi /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /koŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /koŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /koŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /koŋ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /koŋ³¹/
Hefei /kəŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /kuəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /kuŋ¹³/
Hohhot /kũŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /koŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /koŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /koŋ³³/
Wenzhou /koŋ³³/
/t͡ɕoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /kuʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /kan¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /koŋ³³/
Xiangtan /kən³³/
Gan Nanchang /kuŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kiuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kioŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /koŋ⁵³/
Nanning /kuŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kuŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /kiɔŋ⁵⁵/
/kiŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /kyŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /kœyŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /keŋ³³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /koŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (2)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter kjuwng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɨuŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kiuŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiuŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kuwŋ/
Li
Rong
/kiuŋ/
Wang
Li
/kĭuŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯uŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiōng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gung1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gōng
Middle
Chinese
‹ kjuwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*k(r)uŋ/
English dwelling; palace; note of scale

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4147
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kuŋ/

Definitions

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  1. (archaic) house; mansion; dwelling
  2. (architecture) palace
  3. (architecture, religion) temple; shrine
  4. (anatomy, in compounds) Short for 子宮子宫 (zǐgōng, “womb; uterus”).
      ―  gōngjǐng  ―  cervix
  5. (music) the first note of the Chinese pentatonic scale
  6. (historical law) castration as a punishment
  7. (obsolete) to surround; to encircle
  8. a surname

Usage notes

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In reference to temples, (gōng) is used for traditional deities considered to rank highly in the celestial bureaucracy, such as Mazu who was honored by the Qing dynasty as the "Queen of Heaven" after their successful invasion of Taiwan. In earlier history, it also referred to ancestral shrines.

Coordinate terms

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Hypernyms

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  • (historical punishment): 五刑 (wǔxíng)

Synonyms

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  • (house):

See also

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Compounds

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. a shrine; a palace

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
みや
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

/mi1ya/ → /miya/

From Old Japanese. A compound of or (mi, spiritual honorific) +‎ (ya, house).[1][2][3][4]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(みや) (miya

  1. (Shinto) the place where a god resides: a shrine
    • 1603–1604, Nippo Jisho, page 413:
      [6]
      Miya. ミヤ (宮) 神 (Camis)の社.
  2. (Buddhism) a temple holding a Buddhist statue
  3. the place where a ruler resides: a palace
    • 1603–1604, Nippo Jisho, page 413:
      [6]
      Miya. ミヤ (宮) 国王の子. また, 国王の宮殿
  4. a member of the imperial family
    • 1603–1604, Nippo Jisho, page 413:
      [6]
      Miya. ミヤ (宮) 国王の子. また, 国王の宮殿

Proper noun

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(みや) (Miya

  1. a surname
  2. an old name for a region in the Atsuta area of Nagoya, Aichi prefecture, where the Atsuta Shrine is located

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
きゅう
Grade: 3
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC kjuwng, “dwelling; palace; note on a scale”). Compare modern Min Nan reading kiong.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(きゅう) (kyūきゆう (kyuu)?

  1. a palace
  2. (traditional music of China and Japan) the keynote or tonic of a musical scale, such as do in the do re mi scale notation of solfège
  3. Short for 宮刑: literally “palace punishment”, this consisted of castration for men and sequestration in the palace for women
  4. (astronomy, astrology) a zodiac sign or house, defined as one-twelfth of the circle of the ecliptic
    (おう)(どう)(じゅう)()(きゅう)(ほう)(へい)(きゅう)
    ōdō jūni kyū, hōhei kyū
    the twelve signs of the zodiac, the house of Aquarius

References

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  1. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  4. ^ Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Doi, Tadao (1603–1604) Hōyaku Nippo Jisho (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 1980, →ISBN.

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC kjuwng). Recorded as Middle Korean 그ᇰ (kung) (Yale: kung) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (jip gung))
(eumhun 대궐 (daegwol gung))

  1. Hanja form? of (house).
  2. Hanja form? of (palace).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: cung

  1. palace